Read by QxMD icon Read

Early Human Development

Ma Zhanbing, Dang Jie, Bai Chunyue, Lu Hong, Peng Liang, Huo Zhenghao
OBJECTIVES: 2D:4D is an anthropometric indicator that may reflect the level of intrauterine sexual hormone exposure before birth. The aromatase gene (CYP19A1) mainly encodes cytochrome P450 aromatase, a key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens in vivo and affects the development of 2D:4D. Studying the association between six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP19A1 and digit ratios in the normal population of China will provide some basis for the biological basis of digit ratio development and promote the practical application of digit ratios...
April 12, 2019: Early Human Development
Wolfram Burkhardt, Danilo Schneider, Gabriele Hahn, Dimitrios Konstantelos, Hans Gerd Maas, Mario Rüdiger
BACKGROUND: Neurological development is determined by brain growth. Methods to measure total brain volume (TBV) in clinical settings are limited. MR-imaging represents the gold-standard. AIMS: The present study tests the hypotheses that in infants without any brain pathology, TBV - as determined by MRI - can be accurately estimated by cranial volume (CrV), measured by 3D-laser scanning. In case of good correlation of CrV with TBV it was further tested, whether CrV can be also estimated by (I) head circumference (HC) or (II) by other technology than laser scanning...
April 12, 2019: Early Human Development
Gillian M Martin
This paper introduces the key methodological challenges related to working with children within an ethnographic research design. After briefly identifying in-depth contextually rich data as the key aim of any ethnographic research, some of the particular challenges related to working with children are explored. These are described along two key axes: ethical issues related to power dynamics loaded in favour of the adult researcher, and practical, logistical barriers to generating data that are a true reflection of the young child's ideas and beliefs...
April 10, 2019: Early Human Development
Miriam Geraldi Gauci
This paper describes the use of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) in qualitative research and its adaptability to medical research. Whilst presenting the main tenets of the approach, it also highlights its' strengths in helping medical professionals gain rich information about their service users' needs, symptoms and experiences, via research. It discusses the application of IPA on various levels such as by contextualising quantitative data or gaining insight into patients' understanding of clinical guidelines...
April 8, 2019: Early Human Development
Denise Neumann, Sarah E Herbert, Elizabeth R Peterson, Lisa Underwood, Susan M B Morton, Karen E Waldie
BACKGROUND: Poor maternal health, disadvantageous exposures during pregnancy and unfavourable perinatal events are associated with adverse trajectories in offspring cognitive development. AIM: To examine longitudinal associations between antenatal maternal, perinatal and maternal health characteristics and children's early cognitive development across executive control, motor ability and receptive language domains. STUDY DESIGN, SUBJECTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Analyses comprised interview and observational data from 4587 children and their mothers enrolled in the longitudinal Growing Up in New Zealand cohort study...
April 8, 2019: Early Human Development
Sanne L C Veldman, Rute Santos, Rachel A Jones, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, Anthony D Okely
BACKGROUND: The early years of life are critical for motor and cognitive development. A better understanding is needed on the associations between the control and development of motor and cognitive tasks. AIM: This study aimed to examine the association between gross motor skills and cognitive development in toddlers. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: This study included 335 toddlers (aged 19.80 ± 4...
April 6, 2019: Early Human Development
Misao Fukuda, Kiyomi Fukuda, Shawn Mason, Takashi Shimizu, Claus Yding Andersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2019: Early Human Development
Lorleen Farrugia
The nature of qualitative research is fundamentally different from quantitative research. In depth understanding and exploration of specific phenomena or their significance usually involve a data collection process with a select few participants with whom the researcher interacts over an extended period of time. The participants are not anonymous to the researcher and they also reveal personal information. Research participants' rights need to be protected, even more so in this type of qualitative work. This chapter discusses how ethical decision-making needs to be ongoing during the research process by applying the principles of respect for persons, beneficence and justice...
April 5, 2019: Early Human Development
Beatrice Farrugia
This paper provides an introduction to set-theoretic methods with respect to their application to research in the qualitative paradigm, as part of a series of papers on qualitative research being featured in Early Human Development. It discusses the philosophical assumptions underlying set-theoretic methods and the properties that make them well-suited for use in the analysis of qualitative data. It also takes a closer look at qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), a cross-case analysis method that has arguably been most widely applied among the set-theoretic methods and has also been gaining ground in the health field...
April 4, 2019: Early Human Development
Marta Sant
Qualitative methodologies are commonly used in the social sciences. This paper discusses how this type of research can enhance evidence-based practice in health care settings. Examples taken from qualitative studies are included in order to demonstrate how such research can be applied to medical settings. Additionally, this paper describes some of the unique characteristics inherent in qualitative research.
April 3, 2019: Early Human Development
Kajsa Brimdyr, Karin Cadwell, Ann-Marie Widström, Kristin Svensson, Rayle Phillips
BACKGROUND: Skin-to-skin contact after birth between mother and baby has immediate and long-term advantages. Widström's 9 Stages of Newborn Behavior offer an opportunity to evaluate a baby in the natural, expected and optimal habitat. Intrapartum drugs, including fentanyl administered via epidural and synthetic oxytocin (synOT), have been studied in relation to neonatal outcomes with conflicting results. AIMS: Determine the effects of common intrapartum medications on the instinctive behavior of healthy newborns during the first hour after birth through a prospective cohort study...
April 3, 2019: Early Human Development
Alexandra A Sawyer, Norman K Pollock, Bernard Gutin, Neal L Weintraub, Brian K Stansfield
BACKGROUND: Perinatal growth has important implications for cardiac development. Low birth weight is associated with cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality, and animal studies have shown that fetal growth restriction is associated with cardiac remodeling in the perinatal period leading to a permanent loss of cardiomyocyte endowment and compensatory hypertrophy. AIMS: To determine associations of birthweight (BW) and multiple proportionality indexes (body mass index (BMI); weight/length2 and Ponderal index (PI); weight/length3 ) at birth on one hand, with left ventricular (LV) structure and function during adolescence...
April 3, 2019: Early Human Development
Mary Anne Lauri, Josef Lauri
Images can be helpful for eliciting data in the form of responses from participants. Sometimes photographs can help participants speak about issues, events, thoughts and emotions which they find difficult to talk about. This paper discusses how photos can be used and how the data collected through their use in a discussion can be analysed using Correspondence Analysis (CA). Although CA is considered a quantitative tool for analysing data, this paper describes how it can be used with qualitative data.
April 1, 2019: Early Human Development
Beatrice Farrugia
This paper outlines key concepts and considerations pertaining to sampling in qualitative research as part of a series of articles on qualitative research methods aimed at a medical and health sciences audience with a predominantly quantitative background. Planning of the sampling approach, including within-case sampling, multiple-case sampling, sample size considerations and qualitative sampling strategies are addressed. Concepts specific to the qualitative paradigm, including the iterative approach and saturation are discussed and a framework for evaluating the rigour of qualitative sampling strategies is presented...
April 1, 2019: Early Human Development
Mary Anne Lauri
Qualitative data is important to understand certain phenomena. While quantitative data is important to understand the prevalence of attitudes and behaviour in psychosocial medical research, qualitative data can help understand and explain the reasons behind attitudes behaviour. One of the methods of collecting qualitative data is the focus group discussion. During a focus group researchers facilitate a discussion to elicit views and lay theories about the research topic. Researchers use group facilitation skills in order to make participants feel at ease and disclose their thoughts, feelings and perceptions about a particular issue with the least bias possible...
March 30, 2019: Early Human Development
Michael Briguglio
Discourse analysis enables the identification of what social actors say and do but also of what they represent in terms of values and motivation Such an analysis can also unearth ideological representations which legitimize the reproduction of social structures, irrespective of whether such representations reflect some objective reality or not. In their turn, such structures are contingent and incomplete, and are subject to changes. Discourse analysis examines their political and historical construction and functioning...
March 29, 2019: Early Human Development
Christyann L C Batista, Vandilson P Rodrigues, Valdinar S Ribeiro, Maria D S B Nascimento
BACKGROUND: The current literature does not provide accurate information about the association between use of artificial nipples and sucking patterns in infants. AIMS: We aimed to investigate whether pacifier use and/or bottle-feeding were associated with nutritive sucking (NS) and non-nutritive sucking (NNS) patterns. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: 429 full-term infants/mothers. OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were collected through a questionnaire and observations of NS during breastfeeding and NNS (finger sucking)...
March 28, 2019: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Quantitative and qualitative analyses and research are conventionally regarded as fundamentally different techniques. However, their objectives and applications overlap, and the decision of which of the two methods to apply depends not only on the nature and volume of data that is to be collected, but also the actual type of data and the resources at hand. Indeed, the outright combination of the two methods is becoming increasingly common. This collection will cover some aspects of qualitative analyses techniques...
March 27, 2019: Early Human Development
Annika Kiuru, Terhi Ahola, Liisa Klenberg, Viena Tommiska, Aulikki Lano, Päivi Kleemola, Anu Haavisto, Vineta Fellman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2019: Early Human Development
Rachel A K Kennedy, Michael J Turner
BACKGROUND: Maternal nutrition may influence intrauterine fetal development. To date, the relationship between contemporary European dietary guidelines and fetal growth has not been examined. AIMS: To develop a novel Periconceptual Nutrition Score (PENS) to assess maternal dietary quality in early pregnancy and examine its relationship with fetal growth. STUDY DESIGN: Women were recruited conveniently at their first clinic visit and completed a supervised four day retrospective diet history...
March 22, 2019: Early Human Development
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"