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Early Human Development

Beena G Sood, Josef Cortez, Madhuri Kolli, Amit Sharma, Virginia Delaney-Black, Xinguang Chen
BACKGROUND: Treating respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with intratracheal surfactant requires endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, (MV) with their attendant risks. Use of non-invasive respiratory support in the delivery room averts the need for MV but delays surfactant administration. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that aerosolized surfactant is feasible and safe in infants 240/7 -366/7 weeks gestational age (GA) with RDS, receiving non-invasive respiratory support...
May 20, 2019: Early Human Development
S Nobile, P Marchionni, C Noviello, V P Carnielli
BACKGROUND: The association between cardiorespiratory events (CRE) and gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) among neonates is still controversial. AIMS: To test such an association in preterm and term infants. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SUBJECTS: Forty-seven infants with suspected GER and recurrent CRE admitted at a neonatal intensive care unit, who underwent simultaneous and synchronized 24-hour recording of heart rate (HR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pH-impedance monitoring (MII-pH)...
May 18, 2019: Early Human Development
Andra I Malikiwi, Yi-Man Lee, Miranda Davies-Tuck, Flora Y Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2019: Early Human Development
Annika Kiuru, Terhi Ahola, Liisa Klenberg, Viena Tommiska, Aulikki Lano, Päivi Kleemola, Anu Haavisto, Vineta Fellman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2019: Early Human Development
Sławomir Kozieł, Zofia Ignasiak, Elżbieta Żądzińska
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor associated with intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal complications. AIM: To assess the relationship between prenatal exposure to smoking on hand grip strength in children 7-10 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was used to assess the relationship between grip strength and smoking status of parents, controlling for social status, birth outcome and body size...
May 6, 2019: Early Human Development
Renata Freitas Martins Zorzenon, Larissa Kimiê Takaara, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares
AIM: The aim of the study was to assess general spontaneous motor development in the neonatal phase in groups of neonatal high-risk preterm infants who were differentiated by post-conceptional (PCo) age until term age. METHOD: The sample included 54 preterm infants (<32 weeks of gestational age) with low birthweight and neurological injuries of both sexes. The General Movements Assessment (GMA) was used to evaluate motor development from 30 to 40 weeks of PCo age, using the General Movements Optimality Score (GMOS)...
May 4, 2019: Early Human Development
Roberta Pineda, Mary Raney, Joan Smith
INTRODUCTION: There is evidence to support the use of positive sensory exposures (music, touch, skin-to-skin) with preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), but strategies to improve their consistent use are lacking. The Supporting and Enhancing NICU Sensory Experiences (SENSE) program was developed to promote consistent, age-appropriate, responsive, and evidence-based positive sensory exposures for the preterm infant every day of NICU hospitalization. METHODS: A systematic and rigorous process of development of the SENSE program included an integrative review of evidence on sensory exposures in the NICU, stakeholder feedback, expert opinion, and focus groups...
May 1, 2019: Early Human Development
Suelen Rosa de Oliveira, Ana Carolina C P Machado, Jonas Jardim de Paula, Sérgio Luiz Novi, Rickson C Mesquita, Débora Marques de Miranda, Maria Cândida F Bouzada
BACKGROUND: Motor impairments are frequently associated with preterm birth and interfere in acquisition of essential skills to global development. Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), the study of neural correlates of motor development in early stages of life are feasible in an ecological assessment. AIMS: To evaluate changes in cortical activity in response to a sensorimotor stimulation in preterm and full-term infants at 6 and 12 months of age. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal study was conducted with 22 infants (12 preterm and 10 full-term)...
April 29, 2019: Early Human Development
J T Manning, P E Bundred, A Kasielska-Trojan, T Smith-Straney, L Mason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2019: Early Human Development
Carolien A van Houdt, Aleid G van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Jaap Oosterlaan, Anton H van Kaam, Cornelieke S H Aarnoudse-Moens
BACKGROUND: Compared to their term-born peers, children born very preterm are at risk for poorer cognitive, academic and behavioral outcomes, however this finding may have been confounded by lower parental education level in the very preterm children. Studies that compare very preterm and term-born children with comparable (high) parental education level are needed to assess the true effect of very preterm birth on outcomes. AIMS: To compare cognitive, academic and behavioral functioning in very preterm and term-born children of highly educated parents...
April 26, 2019: Early Human Development
Razieh Bidhendi Yarandi, Mohammad Hossein Panahi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2019: Early Human Development
Yan Li, Dan-Hua Meng, Qiu-Fen Wei, Xin-Nian Pan, Wu-Hua Liang, Hai-Yan Huang, Hong Zhen, Shu-Ying Zhang, Yi Wei, Chao-Bo Wu, Yan-Cheng Wei, Jun-Xin Zhou, Guo-Xiu Lu
OBJECTIVE: To assess treatment outcomes and associated factors of extremely preterm infants (EPIs) in GuangXi, China. METHODS: This was a retrospective study consisting of 131 eligible cases with gestational age (GA) between 22 and 28 weeks, and infants were followed until 18-24 months. Data including clinical characteristics, perinatal factors and after-birth conditions were collected from the neonatal intensive care unit in 10 hospitals in Guangxi from January 1st 2010 until May 31st 2016...
April 13, 2019: Early Human Development
Gil Gutvirtz, Tamar Wainstock, Roee Masad, Daniella Landau, Eyal Sheiner
BACKGROUND: Nuchal cord is a common finding in pregnancy. It is unclear whether a nuchal cord at birth causes birth asphyxia and raises the risk for developing cerebral palsy of the offspring. AIM: To evaluate the incidence of cerebral palsy in children born with and without nuchal cord. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cohort analysis including all singleton deliveries over >20 years at a single tertiary medical center was conducted...
April 13, 2019: Early Human Development
Ma Zhanbing, Dang Jie, Bai Chunyue, Lu Hong, Peng Liang, Huo Zhenghao
OBJECTIVES: 2D:4D is an anthropometric indicator that may reflect the level of intrauterine sexual hormone exposure before birth. The aromatase gene (CYP19A1) mainly encodes cytochrome P450 aromatase, a key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens in vivo and affects the development of 2D:4D. Studying the association between six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP19A1 and digit ratios in the normal population of China will provide some basis for the biological basis of digit ratio development and promote the practical application of digit ratios...
April 12, 2019: Early Human Development
Gillian M Martin
This paper introduces the key methodological challenges related to working with children within an ethnographic research design. After briefly identifying in-depth contextually rich data as the key aim of any ethnographic research, some of the particular challenges related to working with children are explored. These are described along two key axes: ethical issues related to power dynamics loaded in favour of the adult researcher, and practical, logistical barriers to generating data that are a true reflection of the young child's ideas and beliefs...
April 10, 2019: Early Human Development
Miriam Geraldi Gauci
This paper describes the use of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) in qualitative research and its adaptability to medical research. Whilst presenting the main tenets of the approach, it also highlights its' strengths in helping medical professionals gain rich information about their service users' needs, symptoms and experiences, via research. It discusses the application of IPA on various levels such as by contextualising quantitative data or gaining insight into patients' understanding of clinical guidelines...
April 8, 2019: Early Human Development
Denise Neumann, Sarah E Herbert, Elizabeth R Peterson, Lisa Underwood, Susan M B Morton, Karen E Waldie
BACKGROUND: Poor maternal health, disadvantageous exposures during pregnancy and unfavourable perinatal events are associated with adverse trajectories in offspring cognitive development. AIM: To examine longitudinal associations between antenatal maternal, perinatal and maternal health characteristics and children's early cognitive development across executive control, motor ability and receptive language domains. STUDY DESIGN, SUBJECTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Analyses comprised interview and observational data from 4587 children and their mothers enrolled in the longitudinal Growing Up in New Zealand cohort study...
April 8, 2019: Early Human Development
Sanne L C Veldman, Rute Santos, Rachel A Jones, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, Anthony D Okely
BACKGROUND: The early years of life are critical for motor and cognitive development. A better understanding is needed on the associations between the control and development of motor and cognitive tasks. AIM: This study aimed to examine the association between gross motor skills and cognitive development in toddlers. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: This study included 335 toddlers (aged 19.80 ± 4...
April 6, 2019: Early Human Development
Misao Fukuda, Kiyomi Fukuda, Shawn Mason, Takashi Shimizu, Claus Yding Andersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2019: Early Human Development
Lorleen Farrugia
The nature of qualitative research is fundamentally different from quantitative research. In depth understanding and exploration of specific phenomena or their significance usually involve a data collection process with a select few participants with whom the researcher interacts over an extended period of time. The participants are not anonymous to the researcher and they also reveal personal information. Research participants' rights need to be protected, even more so in this type of qualitative work. This chapter discusses how ethical decision-making needs to be ongoing during the research process by applying the principles of respect for persons, beneficence and justice...
April 5, 2019: Early Human Development
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