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Developmental and Comparative Immunology

Liting Wu, Enxu Zhou, Along Gao, Linghe Kong, Siwei Wu, Xia Bian, Yuan Li, Bingxi Li, Shengli Fu, Zheng Guo, Jianmin Ye
B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1), a transcription factor containing zinc finger, is required and sufficient to trigger terminal differentiation of B cells in mammals. The Blimp-1 (OnBlimp-1) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was identified and characterized its expression pattern during B cell activation and maturation. The cDNA of OnBlimp-1 open reading frame is 2547 bp encoding a protein of 848 amino acids and the predicted molecular weight is 93.36 kDa. OnBlimp-1 contains a SET domain and five ZnF_C2H2 domains, which shares high homology with that of other species...
May 9, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Da Ao, Pengpeng Xia, Sen Jiang, Nanhua Chen, François Meurens, Jianzhong Zhu
TLRs are the first discovered family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). They recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate protective immune response. TLR8 as the main endolysosomal TLR, has recently regained attention especially for its structure and function. We previously found TLR8 exhibits species-specific activation by TLR7 specific agonist, Imiquimod (R837). Thus, we next initiated the identification of porcine TLR8 (pTLR8) specific downstream differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by parallel transcriptome analysis of porcine TLR8 and human TLR8 (hTLR8) signaling stable NF-κB reporter cells activated by TLR8 agonist Resiquimod (R848)...
May 8, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Eva Martins, Raul Bettencourt
The deep-sea hydrothermal vents are known as harsh environments, abundant in animal diversity surrounded by fluids with specific physiological and chemical composition. Bathymodiolus azoricus mussels are endemic species dwelling at hydrothermal vent sites and at distinct depth ranges. Mussels from Menez Gwen (MG), Lucky Strike (LS), Rainbow (Rb) were collected at 800 m, 1730 m and 2310 m depths respectively, along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Five different tissues including gill, digestive gland, mantle, adductor muscle and foot from MG, LS and Rb mussels were selected for gene expression analyses by qPCR...
May 8, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Matetovici Irina, De Vooght Linda, Van Den Abbeele Jan
Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are medically and veterinary important vectors of African trypanosomes, protozoan parasites that cause devastating diseases in humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. These flies feed exclusively on vertebrate blood and harbor a limited diversity of obligate and facultative bacterial commensals. They have a well-developed innate immune system that plays a key role in protecting the fly against invading pathogens and in modulating the fly's ability to transmit African trypanosomes...
May 7, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Wang Luping, Jiang Lihua, Liu Gang, Wu Changwen, Liu Bingjian, Liu Liqin, Lv Zhenming, Gong Li, Song Xinjin
TAK1-binding proteins (TABs) are important immune protein involved in various intracellular signalling pathways. Here, TAB1-3 (lcTAB1-3) were characterized from Larimichthys crocea. The predicted 1524 bp coding sequence of lcTAB1 encoded a 507-residue protein, while lcTAB2 (2271 bp) and lcTAB3 (1836 bp) encoded 756 and 611 residue proteins, respectively. Their sequence shared conserved domain structures and functional sites with their orthologs from other species. The expression of lcTAB1-3 were detected in all tested tissues, which were upregulated in spleen, liver and kidney following Vibrio parahemolyticus infection...
April 30, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Guicai Gao, Ruihong Lin, Mengyuan Tao, Jude Juventus Aweya, Defu Yao, Hongyu Ma, Shengkang Li, Yueling Zhang, Fan Wang
White spot syndrome, which is caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), is a highly contagious disease of penaeid shrimp. However, there is currently incomplete understanding of the infection mechanism and pathogenesis of WSSV. In this study, a novel gene of a previously uncharacterized WSSV response protein (LvWRP) in Litopenaeus vannamei was identified and characterized. The LvWRP gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 879 bp encoding a putative protein of 292 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that LvWRP shared 24...
April 30, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Irene Salinas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 29, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Amulya Yaparla, Hannah Docter-Loeb, Mattie L S Melnyk, Aashish Batheja, Leon Grayfer
Pathogens such as the Frog Virus 3 (FV3) ranavirus are contributing to the worldwide amphibian declines. While amphibian macrophages (Mϕs) are central to the immune defenses against these viruses, the pathogen recognition capacities of disparate amphibian Mϕ subsets remain unexplored. In turn, Mϕ differentiation and functionality are interdependent on the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), which is ligated by colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and the unrelated interleukin-34 (IL-34) cytokines...
April 25, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Huan Li, Ning Kong, Jiejie Sun, Weilin Wang, Meijia Li, Changhao Gong, Miren Dong, Min Wang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Most of the bivalve C1q domain containing proteins (C1qDCs) are either only composed of the globular head domain, or contain an N-terminal coiled-coil domain, presumed to cover a role in oligomerization. On the other hand, collagen regions, widespread in vertebrate C1qDCs, are very uncommon in bivalves. In the present study, a C1qDC with a collagen-like domain (designated CgC1qDC-6) was identified from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and its possible involvement in immune responses was also characterized...
April 24, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Feifei Xu, Dan He, Ruihong Ning, Bo Zeng, Cody W Thompson, Ying Li, Dawei Wang, Yan Li
The chemokine ligand XCL1 plays critical roles in immune responses with diverse physiological and pathological implications through interactions with a cognate G protein-coupled receptor XCR1. To shed insight into their versatile nature, we analyzed genetic variations of XCL1 and XCR1 in murine rodents, including commonly-used model organisms Mus musculus (house mouse) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat). Our results showed that adaptive selection has contributed to the genetic diversification of these proteins in murine lineage...
April 23, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Nicolás Salcedo-Porras, Carl Lowenberger
Kissing bugs have long served as models to study many aspects of insect physiology. They also serve as vectors for the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that causes Chagas disease in humans. The overall success of insects is due, in part, to their ability to recognize parasites and pathogens as non-self and to eliminate them using their innate immune system. This immune system comprises physical barriers, cellular responses (phagocytosis, nodulation and encapsulation), and humoral factors (antimicrobial peptides and the prophenoloxidase cascade)...
April 20, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Lisa D Brown
The immune response of arthropod vectors plays a key role in the spread and transmission of vector-borne diseases. Although fleas transmit several human pathogens (e.g., Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia felis, R. typhi, and Yersinia pestis), few studies have examined how these vectors respond to infection. In hematophagous arthropods, imbibed pathogens must survive the hostile environment of blood meal digestion, which includes proteolytic digestive enzymes, protease inhibitors and expression of genes associated with protection of epithelial linings...
April 16, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Farman Ullah Dawar, Sarath Babu V, Hongyan Kou, Zhendong Qin, Quanyuan Wan, Lijuan Zhao, Muhammad Nasir Khan Khattack, Jun Li, Jie Mei, Li Lin
Recombination-activating gene 2 (rag 2) allies with recombination-activating gene 1 (rag 1) and regulates the V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes. Being a key player in the adaptive immune response of vertebrates, functional characterization of rag 2 from yellow catfish is beneficial for understanding the biological response towards the pathogens. In this report, we have cloned and characterized the rag 2 gene of yellow catfish, and a particular pattern of expression was analysed in the major tissues of yellow catfish...
April 16, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhao Lv, Lingling Wang, Zhihao Jia, Jiejie Sun, Weilin Wang, Zhaoqun Liu, Limei Qiu, Mengqiang Wang, Linsheng Song
Phagocytosis constitutes a conserved cellular process for multicellular animals to ingest or engulf other cells or particles, which is facilitated by the use of opsonins to bind foreign particles and interact with cell surface receptors. The invertebrate secreted C1q domain-containing proteins (C1qDCs) have been reported to exhibit opsonic activity, while the detailed mechanisms of opsonization still remain unclear. In the present study, a C1qDC (designated as CgC1qDC-5) with opsonic activity was identified from the hemolymph of oyster Crassostrea gigas...
April 14, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Shaojie Han, Rong Li, Jing Lin, Xiaolan Hou, Hongyu Weng, Huihui Zhang, Yanhua Wang, Ning Li, Tongjie Chai, Liangmeng Wei
Galectin-1, as a typical animal galactose-binding protein, it is found on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Cloning the full-length coding sequence of galectin-1 from the spleens of Cherry Valley ducks revealed that the coding sequence of duck galectin-1 (duGal-1) comprises 405 bp, encoding 134 amino acids. Homologic analysis revealed its amino acid sequence is most identical to that of Anas platyrhynchos (98.8%) followed by Gallus gallus. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that duGal-1 mRNA is broadly expressed in healthy Cherry Valley duck tissues, primarily in the heart and trachea but minimally in the lung and skin...
April 12, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jia-Wei Xie, Chang-Hong Cheng, Hong-Ling Ma, Juan Feng, You-Lu Su, Yi-Qin Deng, Zhi-Xun Guo
Lysozyme is an important immune protein involved in the first line of defense for crustaceans. In the present study, a c-type lysozyme gene (SpLyzC) was cloned and characterized from the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain. The full-length cDNA was 849 bp with an open reading frame of 669 bp, and encoded a polypeptide of 223 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 23.7 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.90. SpLyzC shared conserved active sites with c-type lysozymes from other species, detected in all tested tissues and had higher expression levels in hepatopancreas and gill tissues...
April 12, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jing Hou, Zhen Gan, Shan Nan Chen, Pin Nie
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in host antibacterial responses, and their functions have been characterized in most invertebrate and vertebrate animals. However, little information is available regarding the function of frog PGRPs. In this study, a short-type PGRP (termed Xl-PGRP-S) gene was identified in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. The predicted protein of Xl-PGRP-S contains several structural features known in PGRPs, including a typical PGRP domain and two closely spaced conserved cysteines...
April 10, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Celine Chen, Trinity L Perry, Carol G Chitko-McKown, Allen D Smith, Lumei Cheung, Ethiopia Beshah, Joseph F Urban, Harry D Dawson
We previously demonstrated that the most bioactive vitamin A metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), increased T helper 2-associated responses induced in pigs by infection with the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum We also showed that ATRA potentiated the mRNA expression of several IL-4 induced chemokines (chemokine (CC motif) ligand 11 [(CCL11), CCL17, CCL22 and CCL26] associated with alternative activation (M2a) in porcine macrophages in vitro. Herein, several mechanisms whereby ATRA affects IL-4 signaling are profiled using large-scale real time PCR and RNA-Seq analysis...
April 8, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Huizhen Guo, Qiang Sun, Bingbing Wang, Yumei Wang, Enyu Xie, Qingyou Xia, Liang Jiang
Viral diseases of silkworm are mainly caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) and B. mori bidensovirus (BmBDV). The virus alters host cellular pathways to facilitate its proliferation. It is still unclear whether the three silkworm viruses regulate a certain host pathway. Spry is a negative regulator upstream of ERK. In this study, we found that BmSpry was decreased and p-ERK was increased in silkworm after infection with each virus. A transgenic RNAi vector of BmSpry was constructed and used for embryo microinjection to generate the transgenic line Spry-I...
April 6, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
F J Martínez-Navarro, T Martínez-Menchón, V Mulero, J Galindo-Villegas
Psoriasis is a human chronic, immune disease with severe cutaneous and systemic manifestations. Its prevalence, among the world population, highly varies with ethnicity and geography, but not sex from remarkable low levels in Asia to 2.3% in Spain, or an impressive 11.5% in Norway. The pathogenesis of psoriasis derives from complex genetic and environmental interactions, which creates aberrant crosstalk between keratinocytes and variated immune cell, resulting in open amplified inflammatory and pro-proliferative circuits...
April 3, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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