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Robert Ariel, Natalie A Lembeck, Scott Moffat, Christopher Hertzog
The current study evaluated sex differences in (1) self-perceptions of everyday and academic spatial ability, and (2) metacognitive monitoring accuracy for measures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation. Undergraduate students completed the Paper Folding Test, Spatial Relations Test, and the Revised Purdue Spatial Visualization Test while making confidence judgments (CJs) for each trial. They also made global estimates of performance and rated their ability to perform several everyday and academic spatial scenarios...
September 2018: Intelligence
Michael S C Thomas
From the genetic side, giftedness in cognitive development is the result of contribution of many common genetic variants of small effect size, so called polygenicity (Spain et al., 2016). From the environmental side, educationalists have argued for the importance of the environment for sustaining early potential in children, showing that bright poor children are held back in their subsequent development (Feinstein, 2003a). Such correlational data need to be complemented by mechanistic models showing how gifted development results from the respective genetic and environmental influences...
July 2018: Intelligence
Geoff Der, Ian J Deary
Introduction: The association of premorbid cognitive ability with all-cause mortality is now well established. However, since all-cause mortality is relatively uninformative about aetiology, evidence has been sought, and is beginning to accumulate, for associations with specific causes of mortality. Likewise, the underlying causal pathways may be illuminated by considering associations with different measures of cognitive ability. For example, critics of IQ type measures point to possible cultural or social biases and there is, consequently, a need for more culturally neutral measures such as reaction times...
July 2018: Intelligence
Christina Wraw, Geoff Der, Catharine R Gale, Ian J Deary
Objective: We investigated the association between intelligence in youth and a range of health-related behaviours in middle age. Method: Participants were the 5347 men and women who responded to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-79) 2012 survey. IQ was recorded with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) when participants were aged 15 to 23 years of age. Self-reports on exercise (moderate activity, vigorous activity, and strength training), dietary, smoking, drinking, and oral health behaviours were recorded when participants were in middle age (mean age = 51...
July 2018: Intelligence
Shandell Pahlen, Nayla R Hamdi, Anna K Dahl Aslan, Briana N Horwitz, Matthew S Panizzon, Inge Petersen, Catalina Zavala, Kaare Christensen, Deborah Finkel, Carol E Franz, Margaret Gatz, Wendy Johnson, William S Kremen, Robert F Krueger, Jenae M Neiderhiser, Chandra A Reynolds, Nancy L Pedersen, Matt McGue
Age moderation of genetic and environmental contributions to Digits Forward, Digits Backward, Block Design, Symbol Digit, Vocabulary, and Synonyms was investigated in a sample of 14,534 twins aged 26 to 98 years. The Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) consortium contributed the sample, which represents nine studies from three countries (USA, Denmark, and Sweden). Average test performance was lower in successively older age groups for all tests. Significant age moderation of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental variance components was observed, but the pattern varied by test...
May 2018: Intelligence
Jessica B Girault, Benjamin W Langworthy, Barbara D Goldman, Rebecca L Stephens, Emil Cornea, J Steven Reznick, Jason Fine, John H Gilmore
Intelligence is an important individual difference factor related to mental health, academic achievement, and life success, yet there is a lack of research into its early cognitive predictors. This study investigated the predictive value of infant developmental assessment scores for school-age intelligence in a large, heterogeneous sample of single- and twin-born subjects (N = 521). We found that Early Learning Composite (ELC) scores from the Mullen Scales of Early Learning have similar predictive power to that of other infant tests...
May 2018: Intelligence
Sarah L Lukowski, Miriam Rosenberg-Lee, Lee A Thompson, Sara A Hart, Erik G Willcutt, Richard K Olson, Stephen A Petrill, Bruce F Pennington
Approximate number sense (ANS), the ability to rapidly and accurately compare quantities presented non-symbolically, has been proposed as a precursor to mathematics skills. Earlier work reported low heritability of approximate number sense, which was interpreted as evidence that approximate number sense acts as a fitness trait. However, viewing ANS as a fitness trait is discordant with findings suggesting that individual differences in approximate number sense acuity correlate with mathematical performance, a trait with moderate genetic effects...
November 2017: Intelligence
Geoff Der, Ian J Deary
BACKGROUND: Reaction time (RT) has played a prominent part in research on mental ability for over a century. Throughout this time a number of questions have been repeatedly posed: what is the relationship of RT to general mental ability, and is this the same for simple and choice RT? Does the relationship change with age? How important is RT variability compared with mean values? Here we examine these questions in three population representative cohorts. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, a longitudinal population based study designed to investigate socially structured health inequalities...
September 2017: Intelligence
Iva Čukić, Caroline E Brett, Catherine M Calvin, G David Batty, Ian J Deary
OBJECTIVE: To extend previous literature that suggests higher IQ in youth is associated with living longer. Previous studies have been unable to assess reliably whether the effect differs across sexes and ages of death, and whether the effect is graded across different levels of IQ. METHODS: We test IQ-survival associations in 94% of the near-entire population born in Scotland in 1936 who took an IQ test at age 11 (n = 70,805) and were traced in a 68-year follow-up...
July 2017: Intelligence
Adele M Taylor, Stuart J Ritchie, Ian J Deary
Maintaining good cognitive function is important for successful aging, and it has been suggested recently that having and optimistic outlook may also be valuable. However few have studied the relationship between cognitive ability and dispositional optimism and pessimism in older age. It is unclear whether associations found previously between cognitive ability and pessimism in older age, are evident across the life course, and are consistent at different points in older age. In the present study we examined associations between dispositional optimism and pessimism measured in the eighth and ninth decade of life and childhood and older age cognitive ability, and lifetime change in cognitive ability...
May 2017: Intelligence
Stuart J Ritchie, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Simon R Cox, Janie Corley, Dominika Dykiert, Paul Redmond, Alison Pattie, Adele M Taylor, Ruth Sibbett, John M Starr, Ian J Deary
It is critical to discover why some people's cognitive abilities age better than others'. We applied multivariate growth curve models to data from a narrow-age cohort measured on a multi-domain IQ measure at age 11 years and a comprehensive battery of thirteen measures of visuospatial, memory, crystallized, and processing speed abilities at ages 70, 73, and 76 years ( n  = 1091 at age 70). We found that 48% of the variance in change in performance on the thirteen cognitive measures was shared across all measures, an additional 26% was specific to the four ability domains, and 26% was test-specific...
November 2016: Intelligence
Elise Whitley, Ian J Deary, Stuart J Ritchie, G David Batty, Meena Kumari, Michaela Benzeval
BACKGROUND: Populations worldwide are aging. Cognitive decline is an important precursor of dementia, illness and death and, even within the normal range, is associated with poorer performance on everyday tasks. However, the impact of age on cognitive function does not always receive the attention it deserves. METHODS: We have explored cross-sectional associations of age with five cognitive tests (word recall, verbal fluency, subtraction, number sequence, and numerical problem solving) in a large representative sample of over 40,000 men and women aged 16 to 100 living in the UK...
November 2016: Intelligence
Christina Wraw, Ian J Deary, Geoff Der, Catharine R Gale
BACKGROUND: Few cognitive epidemiology studies on mental health have focused on the links between pre-morbid intelligence and self-reports of common mental disorders, such as depression, sleep difficulties, and mental health status. The current study examines these associations in 50-year-old adults. METHODS: The study uses data from the 5793 participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY-79) who responded to questions on mental health at age 50 and had IQ measured with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) when they were aged between 15 and 23 years in 1980...
September 2016: Intelligence
Ian J Deary, Stuart J Ritchie
Processing speed is an important human cognitive capability that might underlie differences in other cognitive skills and their aging. We aimed to test aging-related processing speed differences using a novel cross-sectional design that adjusted for cognitive ability tested in youth. We examined aging differences on three different ways of assessing processing speed: psychometric, experimental, and psychophysical. We compared large narrow-age cohorts of 70- and 83-year-old people who were matched for cognitive ability in childhood...
March 2016: Intelligence
W D Hill, G Davies, D C Liewald, A Payton, C J McNeil, L J Whalley, M Horan, W Ollier, J M Starr, N Pendleton, N K Hansel, G W Montgomery, S E Medland, N G Martin, M J Wright, T C Bates, I J Deary
Two themes are emerging regarding the molecular genetic aetiology of intelligence. The first is that intelligence is influenced by many variants and those that are tagged by common single nucleotide polymorphisms account for around 30% of the phenotypic variation. The second, in line with other polygenic traits such as height and schizophrenia, is that these variants are not randomly distributed across the genome but cluster in genes that work together. Less clear is whether the very low range of cognitive ability (intellectual disability) is simply one end of the normal distribution describing individual differences in cognitive ability across a population...
January 2016: Intelligence
Christina Wraw, Ian J Deary, Catharine R Gale, Geoff Der
BACKGROUND: The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort. METHODS: Participants were the 5793 participants in the NLSY-79 who responded to questions about health outcomes at age 50. Sixteen health outcomes were examined: two were summary measures (physical health and functional limitation), 9 were diagnosed illness conditions, 4 were self-reported conditions, and one was a measure of general health status...
November 2015: Intelligence
Timothy A Salthouse
There has recently been a great deal of interest in cognitive interventions, particularly when applied in older adults with the goal of slowing or reversing age-related cognitive decline. Although seldom directly investigated, one of the fundamental questions concerning interventions is whether the intervention alters the rate of cognitive change, or affects the level of certain cognitive measures with no effect on the trajectory of change. This question was investigated with a very simple intervention consisting of the performance of three versions (treatment) or one version (control) of the relevant cognitive tests at an initial occasion...
November 2015: Intelligence
Stuart J Ritchie, Tom Booth, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Janie Corley, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Alan J Gow, Natalie A Royle, Alison Pattie, Sherif Karama, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
People with larger brains tend to score higher on tests of general intelligence (g). It is unclear, however, how much variance in intelligence other brain measurements would account for if included together with brain volume in a multivariable model. We examined a large sample of individuals in their seventies (n = 672) who were administered a comprehensive cognitive test battery. Using structural equation modelling, we related six common magnetic resonance imaging-derived brain variables that represent normal and abnormal features-brain volume, cortical thickness, white matter structure, white matter hyperintensity load, iron deposits, and microbleeds-to g and to fluid intelligence...
July 2015: Intelligence
Ian J Deary, Caroline E Brett
In studies of cognitive ageing it is useful and important to know how stable are the individual differences in cognitive ability from childhood to older age, and also to be able to estimate (retrodict) prior cognitive ability differences from those in older age. Here we contribute to these aims with new data from a follow-up study of the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (original N = 1208). The sample had cognitive, educational, social, and occupational data collected almost annually from age 11 to 27 years...
May 2015: Intelligence
Michael A Woodley Of Menie, Heitor B F Fernandes, William D Hopkins
Expanding on a recent study that identified a heritable general intelligence factor ( g ) among individual chimpanzees from a battery of cognitive tasks, we hypothesized that the cognitive abilities that are more g -loaded would be more heritable and would present more additive genetic variance, in addition to showing more phenotypic variability. This pattern was confirmed, and is comparable to that found in humans, indicating fundamental homology. Finally, tool use presented the highest heritability, the largest amount of additive genetic variance and of phenotypic variance, consistent with previous findings indicating that it is associated with high interspecies variance and evolutionary rates in comparative primate studies...
May 2015: Intelligence
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