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Cognitive Therapy and Research

Adam G Horwitz, Philip Held, Brian J Klassen, Niranjan S Karnik, Mark H Pollack, Alyson K Zalta
With approximately 20 veteran suicide deaths per day, suicidal ideation (SI) among veterans is an important concern. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with SI among veterans, yet mechanisms of this relationship remain unclear. Negative posttraumatic cognitions contribute to the development and maintenance of PTSD, yet no studies have prospectively examined the relationship between posttraumatic cognitions and SI. Veterans ( N = 177; 66% Male) participating in a 3-week intensive outpatient program for PTSD completed assessments of PTSD severity, depressive symptoms, SI, and posttraumatic cognitions...
October 2018: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Steven M Brunwasser, Derek R Freres, Jane E Gillham
This study tested the plausibility of a theoretical model of change for the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), a cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program for adolescents. Middle school students ( N = 697) were randomized to PRP, an assessment-only control condition (CON), or a placebo-control condition (PLA). Explanatory style and depressive symptoms were evaluated over 24 months of follow-up. Relative to both CON and PLA, there were significant indirect effects of PRP on 12-month levels of depressive symptoms through improvements in explanatory style in two of three participating schools...
August 2018: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Brian J Albanese, Richard J Macatee, Joseph W Boffa, Craig J Bryan, Michael J Zvolensky, Norman B Schmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Adrian Aguilera, Zorangeli Ramos, Diana Sistiva, Ye Wang, Margarita Alegria
Homework completion in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is an integral ingredient in treatment that often goes unreported. Furthermore, many studies of homework completion focus on patient adherence without considering the therapists' role in reviewing and reinforcing this behavior. No studies to date have assessed the relationship between homework variables and outcomes among Latinos receiving CBT for depression. Since this population has often been difficult to engage in CBT, this study aims to assess whether homework completion and therapist review of homework are related to improved outcomes in a CBT intervention (telephone or in person) for Latinos with depression...
June 2018: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Shannon Sauer-Zavala, James F Boswell, Kate H Bentley, Johanna Thompson-Hollands, Todd J Farchione, David H Barlow
Patients' outcome expectancies and the working alliance are two psychotherapy process variables that researchers have found to be associated with treatment outcome, irrespective of treatment approach and problem area. Despite this, little is known about the mechanisms accounting for this association, and whether contextual factors (e.g., psychotherapy type) impact the strength of these relationships. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether patient-rated working alliance quality mediates the relationship between outcome expectancies and pre- to post-treatment change in anxiety symptoms using data from a recent randomized clinical trial comparing a transdiagnostic treatment (the Unified Protocol [UP]; Barlow et al...
April 2018: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Ariana C Hoet, Chris J Burgin, Kari M Eddington, Paul J Silvia
Previous studies have shown that the use of therapy skills in between sessions is an important mechanism of symptom improvement. The current study expands this line of research by using a diary approach to examine the use of therapy skills in daily life. A sample of 39 depressed adults (85% female, mean age 38) were signaled twice per week throughout the course of either cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or self-system therapy (SST). Results showed that, on days when participants reported greater use of therapy skills, they reported better mood and functioning in almost all domains...
April 2018: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Vera Vine, Brett Marroquín
Depression is associated with subjective difficulties identifying one's emotions, known as low emotional clarity, but the mediators and moderators of this relationship are not well understood. We hypothesized that the role of emotional clarity in emotion regulation and, in turn, depression depends on individual differences in negative affect intensity. In Study 1, conducted in an unselected sample ( N =119), low emotional clarity more strongly predicted depression symptoms among individuals higher in affect intensity...
February 2018: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Laren R Conklin, Daniel R Strunk, Andrew A Cooper
Homework assignments are an integral part of cognitive therapy (CT) for depression, though facilitating homework engagement in patients with depression can be a challenge. We sought to examine three classes of therapist behaviors as predictors of homework engagement in early sessions of CT: therapist behaviors related to the review of homework, the assignment of homework, and efforts to help patients overcome obstacles to completing homework. In a sample of 66 depressed outpatients participating in CT, therapist behaviors involved in assigning homework predicted both CT-specific homework engagement and more general homework engagement...
February 2018: Cognitive Therapy and Research
B Gjelsvik, N Kappelmann, T von Soest, V Hinze, R Baer, K Hawton, C Crane
Although suicidal ideation is one of the most consistent symptoms across recurrent episodes of depression, the mechanisms underpinning its maintenance are poorly understood. In order to develop effective treatments for suicidally depressed patients, understanding what maintains suicidal distress is critical. We hypothesised that Thought-Action Fusion (TAF), i.e., to assume that having a thought has real world consequences, originally described in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, might be a bias in recurrently suicidally depressed people...
2018: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Klaske A Glashouwer, Elise C Bennik, Peter J de Jong, Adriaan Spruyt
Body dissatisfaction refers to a negative appreciation of one's own body stemming from a discrepancy between how one perceives his/her body ( actual body image ) and how he/she wants it to be ( ideal body image ). To circumvent the limitations of self-report measures of body image, measures were developed that allow for a distinction between actual and ideal body image at the implicit level. The first goal of the present study was to investigate whether self-reported body dissatisfaction is related to implicit measures of actual and ideal body image as captured by the Relational Responding Task (RRT)...
2018: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Stephen C Lisk, Victoria Pile, Simone P W Haller, Veena Kumari, Jennifer Y F Lau
Research studies applying cognitive bias modification of attention (CBM-A) and interpretations (CBM-I) training to reduce adolescent anxiety by targeting associated cognitive biases have found mixed results. This study presents a new multi-session, combined bias CBM package, which uses a mix of training techniques and stimuli to enhance user-engagement. We present preliminary data on its viability, acceptability and effectiveness on reducing symptoms and biases using an A-B case series design. 19 adolescents with elevated social anxiety reported on their social anxiety, real-life social behaviours, general anxiety, depression, and cognitive biases at pre/post time-points during a 2-week baseline phase and a 2-week intervention phase...
2018: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Martin Möbius, Gina R A Ferrari, Robin van den Bergh, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
To address shortcomings of purely reaction-time based attention bias modification (ABM) paradigms, a novel eye-tracking based ABM training (ET-ABM) was developed. This training targets the late disengagement from negative stimuli and the lack of attention for positive information, which are characteristics of depression. In the present study, 75 dysphoric students (BDI ≥ 9) were randomly assigned to either this positive training (PT), or a sham-training (ST) that did not train any valence-specific gaze pattern (positive and negative pictures had to be disengaged from and attended to equally often)...
2018: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Brian J Albanese, Richard J Macatee, Norman B Schmidt, Bruce Leeson, Tracy A Clemans, Jim Mintz, M David Rudd, Craig J Bryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Kristen E Riley, Jasper S Lee, Steven A Safren
Depression in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is highly prevalent and related to worse adherence to antiretroviral therapy, but is amenable to change via CBT. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) specifically addresses negative automatic thoughts (ATs) as one component of the treatment. There is little research on the temporal nature of the relation between ATs and depression. HIV-positive adults with depression (N=240) were randomized to CBT-AD, information/supportive psychotherapy for adherence and depression (ISP-AD), or one session of adherence counseling alone (ETAU)...
October 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Simona C Kaplan, Amanda S Morrison, Philippe R Goldin, Thomas M Olino, Richard G Heimberg, James J Gross
Cognitive distortions are thought to be central to the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders and are a widely acknowledged treatment target in cognitive-behavioral interventions. However, little research has focused on the measurement of cognitive distortions. The Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest; de Oliveira, 2015), a brief, 15-item questionnaire, assesses the frequency and intensity of cognitive distortions. The CD-Quest has been shown to have sound psychometric properties in American, Australian, and Brazilian undergraduate samples and one Turkish-speaking outpatient clinical sample...
August 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
June Gruber, Anna Van Meter, Kirsten E Gilbert, Eric A Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos Youngstrom, Norah C Feeny, Robert L Findling
Research on positive emotion disturbance has gained increasing attention, yet it is not clear which specific positive emotions are affected by mood symptoms, particularly during the critical period of adolescence. This is especially pertinent for identifying potential endophenotypic markers associated with mood disorder onset and course. The present study examined self-reported discrete positive and negative emotions in association with clinician-rated manic and depressive mood symptoms in a clinically and demographically diverse group of 401 outpatient adolescents between 11-18 years of age...
June 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Kari M Eddington, Chris J Burgin, Paul J Silvia, Niloofar Fallah, Catherine Majestic, Thomas R Kwapil
Experience sampling methodology (ESM) was used in a randomized controlled trial of short-term therapy to examine changes in daily affect and reactivity to daily event appraisals among depressed patients. Fifty-five depressed adults (mean age 37 years, 80% female) were randomly assigned to one of two therapy conditions. Using an interactive voice response system, participants rated activities and emotional functioning eight times per day for seven days. Thirty-one participants completed treatment and repeated ESM post-treatment...
April 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
David H Klemanski, Joshua Curtiss, Katie A McLaughlin, Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
Social anxiety and depression are common mental health problems among adolescents and are frequently comorbid. Primary aims of this study were to (1) elucidate the nature of individual differences in specific emotion regulation deficits among adolescents with symptoms of social anxiety and depression, and (2) determine whether repetitive negative thinking (RNT) functions as a transdiagnostic factor. A diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1065) completed measures assessing emotion regulation and symptoms of social anxiety and depression...
April 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Kenneth A Kobak, Kate Wolitzky-Taylor, Michelle G Craske, Raphael D Rose
This study investigated a technology-enhanced training protocol to facilitate dissemination of therapist training on cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. Seventy community clinicians received an online tutorial followed by live remote observation of clinical skills via videoconference. Impact of training on patient outcomes was also assessed. Training resulted in a significant increase in both trainee knowledge of CBT concepts and techniques and therapist competence in applying these skills...
April 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Kirsten Gilbert, Katherine Luking, David Pagliaccio, Joan Luby, Deanna Barch
Blunted positive affect is characteristic of depression. Altered positive affect regulation may contribute to this blunting, and two regulation strategies, dampening positive affect and positive rumination, have been implicated in depression. However, the conditions under which these strategies impart risk/protective effects prior to onset of depression are unknown. The current study examined 81 healthy children (age 7-10) at low and high risk for depression on the basis of maternal history of depression and tested how dampening and positive rumination interacted with the experience of recent positive life events to predict depressive symptoms...
February 2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
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