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Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

Peter Sarich, Karen Canfell, Emily Banks, Ellie Paige, Sam Egger, Grace Joshy, Rosemary Korda, Marianne Weber
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that people who develop serious health conditions are likely to cease drinking alcohol (sometimes known as 'sick-quitters'). We quantified the likelihood of quitting drinking in relation to the onset of a variety of health conditions. METHODS: Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ceasing alcohol consumption after diagnosis of 28 health conditions and four general indicators of health were derived from logistic regression among 97,852 drinkers aged ≥45 years between baseline (2006-2009) and median 5...
February 13, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Michael Windle, Rebecca C Windle
BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study used data from 483 young adult marital dyads to evaluate conflict-with-partner and support-from-partner as moderators of alcohol use on two outcomes: alcohol problems and marital satisfaction. A path analytic modeling approach was used to test stress-exacerbating and stress-buffering hypotheses, and to accommodate the interdependent nature of the dyadic data. METHOD: This cross-sectional sample was selected from an adolescent-to-young adult longitudinal study in which spouses were recruited into the study during a later young adult assessment when the sample was, on average, 32...
February 12, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
David A Welsh, Tekeda Ferguson, Katherine P Theall, Liz Simon, Angela Amedee, Robert W Siggins, Steve Nelson, Meghan Brashear, Donald Mercante, Patricia E Molina
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent in persons living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, potential interaction with medication pharmacodynamics, and greater risk for disease progression. Preclinical studies show that chronic binge alcohol administration accelerates disease progression and aggravates pathogenesis in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model despite viral suppression by antiretroviral therapy...
February 12, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Kimberly A Mallett, Rob Turrisi, Racheal Reavy, Michael Russell, Michael J Cleveland, Brittney Hultgren, Mary E Larimer, Irene M Geisner, Michelle Hospital
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that parents have a significant influence on emerging adult college students' drinking during the first year of college. Limited research has been conducted to address the question of whether parenting later in college continues to matter in a similar manner. The current study utilized a prospective design to identify associations between parental permissiveness toward alcohol use and monitoring behaviors and student drinking outcomes during the first and fourth years of college...
February 12, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Thomas M Piasecki
The current article critically reviews three methodological options for assessing drinking episodes in the natural environment. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) typically involves using mobile devices to collect self-report data from participants in daily life. This technique is now widely used in alcohol research, but investigators have implemented diverse assessment strategies. This article focuses on 'high resolution' EMA protocols that oversample experiences and behaviors within individual drinking episodes...
February 12, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sergio G Cananzi, William G Mayhan
BACKGROUND: Maternal consumption of alcohol produces abnormalities in the developing fetus and can contribute to an increased incidence of many cardiovascular-related diseases. The first goal of this study was to determine whether in utero exposure to alcohol influences reactivity of cerebral arterioles in adult (12-15-weeks old) rats. The second goal of this study was to examine whether in utero exposure to alcohol increased the susceptibility of the brain to damage following an ischemic event in adult rats...
February 12, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Michael W Miller
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and ethanol powerfully inhibit the proliferation, DNA repair, and survival of neural stem cells (NSCs). The present study tests the hypothesis that the ethanol-induced DNA damage response is mediated through p53 pathways and influenced by growth factor signals. METHODS: Cultures of non-immortalized NSCs, NS-5 cells, were transfected with p53 siRNA, exposed to either the mitogenic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 or anti-mitogenic TGFβ1, and to ethanol...
February 12, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Maiko Suzuki, Kazuyoshi Kon, Kenichi Ikejima, Kumiko Arai, Akira Uchiyama, Tomonori Aoyama, Shunhei Yamashina, Takashi Ueno, Sumio Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of metabolic syndrome and chronic alcohol consumption is increasing worldwide. The present study investigated the effect of the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA)-which has been shown to alleviate dietary steatohepatitis caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-on chronic-plus-binge ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver injury in a mouse model of obesity. METHODS: Male KK-Ay mice (8 weeks old) were fed a Lieber-DeCarli diet (5% EtOH) for 10 days...
February 12, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Priscilla Martinez, William C Kerr, Meenakshi S Subbaraman, Sarah C M Roberts
BACKGROUND: Recent increases in alcohol-related morbidity and mortality have not occurred alongside notable increases in per capita alcohol consumption (PCC). This discrepancy may be partially due to U.S. PCC estimates not including annual estimates of the percentage of alcohol by volume (%ABV) of beer, wine, and spirits, but rather relying on time-invariant %ABV values. METHODS: Building on a prior study covering 1950 to 2002, estimates of the annual mean %ABV of beer, wine, and spirits sold in the United States were calculated using the %ABV of major brands and sales of each beverage type for each state and nationally for the period 2003 to 2016...
February 11, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sean Esteban McCabe, Tonda L Hughes, Brady T West, Phil Veliz, Carol J Boyd
BACKGROUND: Sexual minorities are more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to develop alcohol use disorder (AUD), and understanding the underlying reasons for this heightened risk is a public health priority. This study examined relationships between sexual orientation discrimination and DSM-5 AUD severity. METHODS: The 2012 to 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III conducted in-person interviews with a nationally representative sample of U...
February 11, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Natalie E Chichetto, Michael W Plankey, Alison G Abraham, David S Sheps, Nicole Ennis, Xinguang Chen, Kathleen M Weber, Steven Shoptaw, Robert C Kaplan, Wendy S Post, Robert L Cook
BACKGROUND: The relationship between alcohol consumption and atherosclerosis has not been sufficiently examined among people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: We analyzed data from PLWH in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS; n=1164) and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS; n=387) with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Repeated measures of intima-media thickness of the right common carotid artery (CCA-IMT) were assessed using B-mode ultrasound from 2004-2013...
February 8, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Vatsalya Vatsalya, Bethany L Stangl, Vijay A Ramchandani
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of acute intravenous (IV) alcohol infusion on skin blood flow (SBF) response, measured at fingertip and earlobe, and subjective responses associated with SBF in social drinkers. METHODS: Twenty-four social drinkers underwent a computer-assisted alcohol self-infusion study. SBF was measured continuously using laser Doppler flow meter, with the probe placed on the fingertip or earlobe. Perfusion recordings were collected at baseline, and at 0-minute (0 to 5 minutes), 10-minute (10 to 15 minutes), and 20-minute (20 to 25 minutes) time points during the priming phase of IV alcohol self-administration paradigm at low breath alcohol levels of approximately 30 mg%...
February 8, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Brijesh G Taksande, Supriya D Khade, Manish M Aglawe, Shreyans Gujar, Chandrabhan T Chopde, Nandkishor R Kotagale
BACKGROUND: Locomotor sensitization to repeated ethanol administration is proposed to play a role in early and recurring steps of addiction. The present study was designed to examine the effect of agmatine on ethanol induced locomotor sensitization in mice. METHOD: Mice received daily single intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (2.5 g/kg, 20 v/v) for 7 consecutive days. Following a 3 day ethanol free phase, the mice were challenged with ethanol on day 11 with a single injection of ethanol...
February 8, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Margaret P Martinetti, Rebecca L Caughron, Hanna L Berman, Judith André, Michel B C Sokolowski, Shaun Wiley, Mickaël Naassila
BACKGROUND: Behavioral economic approaches have revealed several characteristics of alcohol demand (e.g., intensity, elasticity, and essential value) in university students; however, these approaches have not yet examined alcohol demand among students outside of the United States. The current study examined alcohol demand among student samples in the United States and France using a hypothetical alcohol purchase task (APT) and a novel APT Choice task, in which nonalcoholic beverages were concurrently available at a fixed low price...
February 7, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
M H Plawecki, A M Durrani, J Boes, L Wetherill, A Kosobud, S O'Connor, V A Ramchandani
OBJECTIVE: To test whether an individual's subjective responses to alcohol are similar when the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) trajectory resulting from oral administration is matched by intravenous administration. BACKGROUND: Individuals perceive the effects of alcohol differently, and the variation is commonly used in research assessing the risk for developing an alcohol use disorder. Such research is supported by both oral and intravenous alcohol administration techniques, and any differences attributable to the route employed should be understood...
February 5, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Terril L Verplaetse, Elizabeth Ralevski, Walter Roberts, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Sherry A McKee, Ismene L Petrakis
BACKGROUND: The noradrenergic system has been implicated in AUD and PTSD, with adrenergic agents reducing drinking in individuals with AUD and improving sleep disturbances in individuals with PTSD. In a recent clinical trial (Petrakis et al., 2016), prazosin, an α1-adrenergic antagonist, was not superior to placebo in reducing PTSD symptoms, sleep problems, or alcohol consumption in a comorbid population; however, patients in both treatment conditions improved in all symptom domains over the course of treatment...
January 30, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jasmine Turna, Sabrina K Syan, Benicio N Frey, Brian Rush, Jean Costello, Mark Weiss, James MacKillop
There is substantial interest in the therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in plants of the genus Cannabis. The goal of the current systematic review was to characterize the existing literature on this topic and to evaluate the credibility of CBD as a candidate pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Using a comprehensive search strategy, 303 unique potential articles were identified and 12 ultimately met criteria for inclusion (8 using rodent models, 3 using healthy adult volunteers, and 1 using cell culture)...
January 30, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Arielle R Deutsch
BACKGROUND: Pre-conceptual prevention programs geared towards reducing alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) typically emphasize behavioral change of alcohol use and birth control exclusively, but rarely consider other important AEP predictors that may affect behavioral change. Intimate partner violence (IPV) substantially relates to AEP and to AEP predictors, however, few studies have tested if IPV is a unique indicator of prospective AEP risk, as both a main effect and a contextual influence on alcohol use or birth control...
January 30, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Irina A Kirpich, Craig J McClain
Recent high visibility publications raised the overall awareness of the importance of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and alcohol-associated liver disease as major health problems in the United States and worldwide. While this is not earth-shattering news to the alcohol-research community, it markedly enhances the level of public awareness of these important issues. An article in the Lancet involving a very large number of centers and authors generated estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-contributable deaths and disability in life years for 195 locations between 1990-2016 (Collaborators, 2018)...
January 29, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Rolf Teschke
Fifty years ago, in 1968, the pioneering scientists Charles S. Lieber and Leonore M. DeCarli discovered the capacity for liver microsomes to oxidize ethanol and named it the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), which revolutionized clinical and experimental alcohol research. The last 50 years of MEOS are now reviewed and highlighted. Since its discovery and as outlined in a plethora of studies, significant insight was gained regarding the fascinating nature of MEOS : (1) MEOS is distinct from alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase, representing a multi-enzyme complex with cytochrome P450 (CYP) and its preferred isoenzyme CYP 2E1, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and phospholipids; (2) it plays a significant role in alcohol metabolism at high alcohol concentrations and after induction due to prolonged alcohol use; (3) hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals promote microsomal ethanol oxidation, assisted by phospholipid peroxides; (4) new aspects focus on microsomal oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with intermediates like hydroxyethyl radical, ethoxy radical, acetyl radical, singlet radical, hydroxyl radical, alkoxyl radical, and peroxyl radical; (5) triggered by CYP 2E1, ROS are involved in the initiation and perpetuation of alcoholic liver injury, consequently shifting the previous nutrition-based concept to a clear molecular-based disease; (6) intestinal CYP 2E1 induction and ROS are involved in endotoxemia, leaky gut, and intestinal microbiome modifications, together with hepatic CYP 2E1 and liver injury; (7) circulating blood CYP 2E1 exosomes may be of diagnostic value; (8) circadian rhythms provide high MEOS activities associated with significant alcohol metabolism and potential toxicity risks as a largely neglected topic; and (9) a variety of genetic animal models are useful and have been applied elucidating mechanistic aspects of MEOS...
January 22, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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