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Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Page 2

Marc Luginbühl, Stefan Gaugler, Wolfgang Weinmann
PURPOSE: Direct alcohol markers are widely applied during abstinence monitoring, driving aptitude assessments and workplace drug testing. The most promising direct alcohol marker was found to be phosphatidylethanol (PEth). Compared to other markers it shows a long window of detection due to accumulation in blood. To facilitate and accelerate the determination of PEth in DBS, we developed a fully automated analysis approach. METHODS: The validated and novel online-SPE-LC-MS/MS method with automated sample preparation using a CAMAG DBS-MS 500 system reduces manual sample preparation to an absolute minimum, only requiring calibration and quality control DBS...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Sebastian Halter, Lukas Mogler, Volker Auwärter
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonizts (SCRAs), also known as synthetic cannabinoids, are mostly consumed in the form of herbal mixtures available in online shops. These herbal mixtures are produced by soaking dried, crushed plant material in a solution of SCRAs or by spraying the solution on the plant material. Inhomogeneity in the distribution of the active ingredient can occur during the production process and pose a serious health risk for consumers of these drugs. In the present study 20 herbal mixtures containing Cumyl-PEGACLONE, one of the most prevalent SCRAs in Germany in 2017, were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) after an initial screening by gas chromatography mass spectrometry...
May 2, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Melanie A Rehder Silinski, Teruyo Uenoyama, Stephen D Cooper, Reshan A Fernando, Veronica G Robinson, Suramya Waidyanatha
Sulfolane is an industrial solvent commonly used for extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons in the oil refining process, as well in the purification of natural gas. Its wide use and high solubility in water has led to contamination of groundwater. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an analytical method to quantitate sulfolane in rodent plasma in support of the National Toxicology Program toxicology and toxicokinetic studies of sulfolane. The method uses extraction of plasma with ethyl acetate and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron ionization...
May 2, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Thomas P van der Meer, Martijn van Faassen, Hanne Frederiksen, André P van Beek, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Ido P Kema, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk
People are constantly exposed to a wide variety of chemicals. Some of these compounds, such as parabens, bisphenols and phthalates, are known to have endocrine disrupting potencies. Over the years, these endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been a rising cause for concern. In this study, we describe setup and validation of two methods to measure EDCs in human urine, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The phenol method determines methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, n-butyl- and benzylparaben and bisphenol A, F and S...
May 2, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Aude Eibel, Alice Ameline, Jean-Sébastien Raul, Pascal Kintz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
G Neil Stowe, Ryan B Paulsen, Virginia A Hill, Michael I Schaffer
Opioids, both naturally occurring and semisynthetic, are effective pain management medications, but also possess the potential for abuse. Analyses of over 37,000 head and body hair samples containing codeine, morphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone or oxymorphone provide a view of use habits of workplace-testing subjects that cannot be obtained from fluid matrices results. Testing was performed using FDA cleared immunoassays using either 2 ng morphine or oxycodone per 10 mg hair as calibrators. Non-negative screening samples were washed with an extended aqueous wash procedure followed by LC-MS-MS confirmation at a cutoff concentration of 2 ng opioid per 10 mg hair...
April 22, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Yiqi Ruben Luo, Cassandra Yun, Kara L Lynch
As the legalization of medical and recreational marijuana use expands, measurement of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in human breath has become an area of interest. The presence and concentration of cannabinoids in breath have been shown to correlate with recent marijuana use and may be correlated with impairment. Given the low concentration of THC in human breath, sensitive analytical methods are required to further evaluate its utility and window of detection. This paper describes a novel derivatization method based on an azo coupling reaction that significantly increases the ionization efficiency of cannabinoids for LC-MS/MS analysis...
April 5, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Alan Wayne Jones
This article is intended as a brief review or primer about cocaethylene (CE), a pharmacologically active substance formed in the body when a person co-ingests ethanol and cocaine. Reference books widely used in forensic toxicology contain scant information about CE, even though this cocaine metabolite is commonly encountered in routine casework. CE and cocaine are equi-effective at blocking the reuptake of dopamine at receptor sites, thus reinforcing the stimulant effects of the neurotransmitter. In some animal species, the LD50 of CE was lower than for cocaine...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Christine L H Snozek, Rebecca L Corey, Matthew R Buras, Kamisha L Johnson-Davis
Drug screening during pre-transplant evaluations can have major implications for patient care, particularly because drug abuse has been associated with poor transplant outcomes. Although urine drug screening is usually preferred, serum testing is available for situations such as anuria due to end stage renal disease. However, there are few studies evaluating serum drug screening in specific populations such as patients undergoing kidney transplant evaluation. All serum drug screens ordered between January 2015 and November 2017 on patients being evaluated for renal transplant were compared against a large population of serum drug screens ordered from other institutions...
March 31, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Clementine Scholz, Boris B Quednow, Marcus Herdener, Thomas Kraemer, Markus R Baumgartner
Given that external contamination must be considered in hair analysis, there is still a demand for reliable tools to differentiate between incorporation of drugs into the hair as a result of drug consumption and of the hair shaft by external contamination. With the aim of establishing alternative discrimination parameters, some of the hydroxy metabolites of cocaine i.e., para- and meta-hydroxycocaine and para- and meta-hydroxybenzoylecgonine were measured together with cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, and norcocaine in five seized street cocaine samples and in hair samples from different cohorts: cohort 1 (in vivo external contamination study, n = 28), cohort 2 (individuals with self-reported cocaine use, n = 92), and cohort 3 (individuals with suspected cocaine use or contamination, n = 198)...
March 30, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Jessica Winborn, Sarah Kerrigan
Desomorphine, the principal opioid in Krokodil, has an analgesic potency approximately ten-times that of morphine. Similar to other opioids, during phase II metabolism it undergoes conjugation with glucuronic acid to form desomorphine-glucuronide. Although hydrolysis of conjugated species is sometimes required prior to analysis, desomorphine-glucuronide has not been fully investigated. In this study, six hydrolysis procedures were optimized and evaluated. Deconjugation efficiencies using chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated and stability in aqueous solution was assessed...
March 30, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Béatrice Garneau, Brigitte Desharnais, Audrey Beauchamp-Doré, Catherine Lavallée, Pascal Mireault, André Lajeunesse
In the last two decades, a large increase in opioid overdose death rates has been recorded in North America. This phenomenon, related to the misuse of prescription opioids, has been dubbed an "opioids crisis". Recent years have seen the entrance of novel synthetic opioids (NSO) on the market, compounding the fatal intoxications issue. This brings several challenges for forensic toxicology laboratories: an increased number of cases, a large number of novel structurally similar compounds to include in screening analytical methods, the low concentration of drugs in biological fluids, and the challenging interpretation in the absence of sufficient literature...
March 30, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Kevin M Legg, Laura M Labay, Sally S Aiken, Barry K Logan
The analysis of biological specimens collected at autopsy for the presence of exogenous insulin(s) is of special interest in select death investigations as they may be suspected in the cause of a death. Technical challenges include the limited stability of insulin, and the forensic requirement of differentiating endogenous insulin from pharmaceutical analogs. A novel method was developed for the detection and quantification of human insulin, Glulisine, Lispro, Aspart, Glargine and Detemir in vitreous fluid...
March 30, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Grayce Behnke, Nicholas B Tiscione, John Rakus, Lauren Richards-Waugh
This study demonstrates the validation of a semi-quantitative method for the rapid screening of whole blood and urine specimens using clonazepam as the target molecule for the Neogen® Benzodiazepine kit. Decision points were validated at 10.0 ng/mL for whole blood and 25.0 ng/mL for urine. The validation design was based on the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) Standard Practices for Method Validation and included the evaluation of sensitivity, precision, specificity, carryover, hook effect, drift, ruggedness/robustness and a case sample evaluation...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Tsandni Jamal, Carole Hennequin, Rabah Gahoual, Annie Leyris, Jean-Louis Beaudeux, Frédéric J Baud, Pascal Houzé
A 38-year-old man was admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) after supposed ingestion of 504 sustained-release tablets of Theralithe™ corresponding ~200 g of lithium carbonate. At the admission, ~19.5 h after ingestion, the patient was conscious with trembling limbs, intense thirst, profuse sweats and vomiting and lithium serum concentration was 14.2 mmol/L. Toxicological screenings performed in urine and serum, were negative. Patient was treated with continuous extrarenal epuration by continue veno-venous hemodiafiltration starting (CCVHDF) 24 h post-admission and was carried on until 64 h...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Frédéric Aknouche, Alice Ameline, Camille Richeval, Anne-Julie Schapira, Audrey Coulon, Christophe Maruejouls, Jean-Michel Gaulier, Pascal Kintz
The authors aim to report a case of surreptitious administration of a synthetic cannabinoid (SC) and the subsequent toxicological investigations to be able to document accurately the case for submission at a hearing. A dealer gave surreptitiously a substance to two juvenile migrants who experienced shakings and faintness. The laboratory received a blood sample from each of the two victims, who, according to the investigators, were probably exposed to SGT-151, a SC, also known as CUMYL-PEGACLONE. Blood and urine specimens from the dealer, who claimed being a user of SGT-151 were received at the same time...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Charles Veltri, Oliver Grundmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Roberta Melis, Jama Mohamed, Youna Ha, Elaine Lyon, Gwendolyn McMillin
Genetic characterization of CYP2D6 post-mortem may help explain drug involvement in cause of death. Here we describe methods for DNA extraction, CYP2D6 genotyping and copy number variation (CNV) testing using dried blood archived at autopsy with FTA® cards. Bloodstained cards (n=75) were obtained from the Utah Office of the Medical Examiner. DNA was extracted from 3mm punches; DNA yield was 9-100 ng/μL; the 260/280 ratio was 1.2-2.0. CYP2D6 alleles detected using the iPLEX® genotyping assay and MassARRAY (Agena Bioscience) include (n=) *2A (20), *3 (2), *4 (26), *5(3), *6 (2), *10 (1), *29 (1), *35 (9) and*41 (10)...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Massimo Gottardi, Roberta Pacifici, Maria Rosaria Varì, Anastasio Tini, Anna Rita Volpe, Raffaele Giorgetti, Simona Pichini
Nail analysis can be performed as a substitute or complement to hair analysis for the retrospective determination of psychotropic drugs consumption in forensic contexts. The application of nail analysis in a "chemsex" context is reported herein. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify the most common drugs of abuse, synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones and GHB in fingernails and toenails of individuals presumptively using these drugs in music and sex settings...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Pietro Papa, Antonella Valli, Marcello Di Tuccio, Giampietro Frison, Flavio Zancanaro, Eleonora Buscaglia, Carlo Alessandro Locatelli
4-Fluoromethylphenidate (4F-MPH) is an halogenated derivative of methylphenidate (MPH), a re-uptake inhibitor for dopamine and norepinephrine used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. In the last few years, several compounds structurally related to MPH have been marked as new psychoactive substances (NPS) with stimulating and euphoric effects similar to the parent drug, but with more dopaminergic activity. This report represents the first case of an analytically confirmed non-fatal intoxication by 4F-MPH...
March 4, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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