Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Page 2

Marta Pastor Belda, José Antonio González-Franco, Ricardo Rubio, Natalia Campillo, Manuel Hernández-Córdoba, Carmen Torres, María Dolores Pérez-Cárceles, Pilar Viñas
This work focuses on the development, validation and application of an analytical method for the determination of twenty organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human tissues using salting out liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for sample preparation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to analyse the obtained extracts. Measurement of the concentration levels of these toxics in tissues can be used to assess the risk of the population to exposure. The linearity of the proposed method was verified in the 10-1000 ng/g range...
April 29, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
T Rosado, E Gallardo, D N Vieira, M Barroso
A microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) procedure for rapid concentration of methadone and its primary metabolite (EDDP) in hair samples was developed. The miniaturized approach coupled to gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) was successfully validated. Hair samples (50 mg) were incubated with 1 mL of 1 M sodium hydroxide for 45 minutes at 50 °C, time after which the extract was neutralized by adding 100 μL of 20% formic acid. Subsequently, MEPS was applied using a M1 sorbent (4 mg; 80% C8 and 20% SCX), first conditioned with three 250 μL cycles of methanol and three 250 μL cycles of 2% formic acid...
April 28, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
David Sýkora, Jindřich Jindřich, Vladimír Král, Milan Jakubek, Ameneh Tatar, Zdeněk Kejík, Pavel Martásek, Sergey Zakharov
Methanol, an aliphatic alcohol widely used in the industry, causes acute and chronic intoxications associated with severe long-term health damage, including permanent visual impairment, brain damage, mainly necrosis of the basal ganglia, and high mortality due to cancer. However, the role of formaldehyde, an intermediate metabolite of methanol oxidation, in methanol toxicity remains unclear. Thus, we studied the reactivity of several amino acids and peptides in the presence of formaldehyde by identifying products by direct infusion electrospray high resolution mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry...
April 28, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Wing-Chi Cheng, Kwok-Leung Dao
The study reports the detection of a newly emerged drug, deschloro-N-ethyl-ketamine (2-oxo-PCE), an analog of ketamine, through forensic drug and toxicological examinations of exhibits from drug seizure cases and blood samples taken from drivers of driving under the influence of drug (DUID) cases respectively in Hong Kong. The submission of 2-oxo-PCE in both types of cases was firstly encountered in October 2017. A total of 31 drug seizure cases (52 items) and 4 DUID cases were found positive with 2-oxo-PCE till October 2018...
April 28, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Courtney Castellino, Danielle Van Cleve, Rubi Cabrera
Illicit fentanyl occurrence in Los Angeles, California has increased along with the emergence of several fentanyl analogues (fentalogs). The following two case studies address the original identification of cyclopropyl fentanyl in cases investigated by the Los Angeles County Department of Medical Examiner-Coroner in the summer of 2017. In the first case study, cyclopropyl fentanyl was the only drug detected in the decedent's system and was also identified in medical evidence collected at the death scene. Medical evidence is classified as any medical device, prescription(s), drug(s) and/or paraphernalia collected by the Los Angeles Medical Examiner-Coroner...
April 28, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Marc Luginbühl, Reuben S E Young, Frederike Stöth, Wolfgang Weinmann, Stephen J Blanksby, Stefan Gaugler
Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in human blood samples is a marker for alcohol usage. Typically, PEth is detected by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with negative ion tandem mass spectrometry, investigating the fatty acyl anions released from the precursor ion upon collision-induced dissociation (CID). It has been established that in other classes of asymmetric glycerophospholipids the unimolecular fragmentation upon CID is biased depending on the relative position (known as sn-position) of each fatty acyl chain on the glycerol backbone...
April 4, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Kayoko Minakata, Koutaro Hasegawa, Itaru Yamagishi, Hideki Nozawa, Masako Suzuki, Takuya Kitamoto, Osamu Suzuki, Kanako Watanabe
In this study, solid tissues such as the lung, liver, kidney and urine were highlighted to profile the AB-PINACA in vivo metabolites in a fatal abuse case, although such metabolite analysis is usually made with urine specimens. We compared the relative peak intensities of in vivo metabolites of AB-PINACA in lung, liver, kidney and urine specimens collected at the autopsy of its abuser with its in vitro metabolites in human hepatocytes. The metabolites of AB-PINACA in tissues were extracted after homogenization...
March 30, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
E M Tanvir, Karen M Whitfield, Jack C Ng, P Nicholas Shaw
Essential and non-essential element concentrations in human blood provide important information on the nutritional status of individuals, and can assist in the screening or diagnosis of certain disorders and their association with other causative factors. A simple and sensitive method, suitable for use with small sample volumes, for quantification of multiple trace element concentrations in whole blood and plasma has been developed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method validation was performed using standard reference materials of whole blood and serum using varying sample treatments with nitric acid, water and hydrogen peroxide...
March 30, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Maria Cüpper, Petur Weihe Dalsgaard, Kristian Linnet
The unpredictable pharmacological and toxicological effects associated with the recreational use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) represent a threat to the public health. Analysts are constantly facing a challenge to identify these designer drugs. In this article, five seized samples were submitted for analysis using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). To tentatively identify the NPS in the samples, the potential usage of an online mass spectral database (HighResNPS...
March 30, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Lolita Tsanaclis, Kim Bagley, Sian Bevan, John Wicks
The advantages of analysis of drugs in hair samples are recognised for the long window of detection, alongside easy sampling and long stability after sample collection. Alcohol markers, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair are widely used for monitoring alcohol consumption for clinical and forensic purposes. Although stability of drugs and EtG in hair samples are documented to a certain extent, stability of FAEEs in hair samples after collection has not been reported. This study covered hair samples that had been tested for FAEEs on the day of arrival at the laboratory and retested between 4 days to 80 months later...
March 18, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Ángela López-Rabuñal, Elena Lendoiro, Eva González-Colmenero, Ana Concheiro-Guisán, Marta Concheiro-Guisán, Patricia Peñas-Silva, Manuel Macias-Cortiña, Manuel López-Rivadulla, Angelines Cruz, Ana de-Castro-Ríos
INTRODUCTION: Smoking during pregnancy can have serious obstetric and fetal complications. Therefore, it is essential to identify in utero exposure to tobacco, being meconium the matrix of choice for this purpose. METHODS: Meconium (n = 565) was analyzed for nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine by LC-MS-MS. Then, tobacco meconium results were compared with smoking habits during pregnancy and neonatal outcomes measures (birth weight, length, head circumference, gestational age and Apgar scores)...
March 18, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Helen Poulsen, Mary-Jane McCarthy, Jessica Baker, Avnish Verma, Hannah J Moir, Tara Brodie, Baljit Thatti, Gavin Trotter, Brian Rooney
This report details the toxicology profile of victims of drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) in New Zealand from 2015-2018. This study represents all of the toxicology results for DFSA cases in New Zealand during this time period, of which there were 161 cases. Blood and urine samples were screened for legal and illicit drugs in addition to testing for alcohol and correlating alcohol concentration with sampling delay. Our results indicate that increased delay in sampling time resulted in a corresponding decrease in alcohol concentration...
March 11, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Kamińska Katarzyna, Świt Paweł, Malek Kamilla
NBOMes are N-benzylmethoxy derivatives of the 2C family compounds with N-2-methoxy-benzyl moiety substituted by the methoxy group at the 2- and 5- position and the halogen group at the 4- position of the phenyl ring. These substances are a new class of potent serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogens with potential harmful effects. The substitution with halogen of the already psychoactive phenethylamine produces a derivative (2C-I) with increased hallucinogenic effects. This class of hallucinogens have chemical structures very similar to natural hallucinogenic alkaloid mescaline and are sold mainly via internet as a 'legal' alternative to other hallucinogenic drug- lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)...
March 3, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Laurie Gheddar, Jean-Sébastien Raul, Pascal Kintz
An athlete challenged the result from an in-competition doping test which returned with an adverse analytical finding for stanozolol, claiming it was due to supplement contamination. Her lawyer asked the laboratory to analyze several hair specimens simultaneously collected from 5 different anatomical regions, head, arm, leg, pubic and armpit, to document the pattern of drug exposure. A specific UPLC-MS/MS method was developed. After decontamination with dichloromethane, stanozolol was extracted from hair in presence of stanozolol-D3 used as internal standard, under alkaline conditions, with diethyl ether...
March 3, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Fabio Vaiano, Federica Umani Ronchi
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), usually reported as rape drug in drug-facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA), is an endogenous substance in human body and is also found in many beverages. This may lead to data misinterpretation in forensic cases. Herein, we aimed to collect evidence about natural GHB presence in 13 energy drinks (ED). After a liquid-liquid extraction with acidic ethyl-acetate, samples were derivatized with BSTFA 1% TMCS. Analyses were carried out by a GC-MS system in SIM mode (GHB, 233, 234, 143 and147 m/z; GHB-d6, 239, 240, 120 and 206 m/z)...
March 3, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Yufang Zheng, Erik Sparve, Stefan Sparring, Mats Bergström
The use of oral fluid tests to detect drugs is of growing interest in various areas, including treatment centres, roadside and workplace testing. In this study, we investigated drug detection in oral fluid samples collected using a commercially available device, Oral Eze. Drug detection in oral fluid was compared to paired urine samples, which were simultaneously collected. We also evaluated the collection device by comparing A and B oral fluid samples. Finally, we studied the stability of various drugs in samples stored for at least one year...
March 3, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Sanghee Sarah Shin, Damon Borg, Richard Stripp
Antidepressant drugs are one of the most widely used medicines for treating major depressive disorders for long time periods. Oral fluid (OF) testing offers an easy and non-invasive sample collection. Detection of antidepressants in OF is important in clinical and forensic settings, such as therapeutic drug monitoring and roadside testing for driving under influence. We developed and validated a comprehensive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for 18 antidepressants (amitriptyline, bupropion, citalopram, clomipramine, cyclobenzaprine, desipramine, desvenlafaxine, doxepin, duloxetine, fluoxetine, imipramine, mirtazapine, nortriptyline, paroxetine, sertraline, trazodone, trimipramine, venlafaxine) in oral fluid collected by Quantisal® oral collection devices...
February 29, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Sascha K Manier, Sophia Niedermeier, Jan Schäper, Markus R Meyer
The distribution of so-called new psychoactive substances (NPS) as substitute for common drug of abuse was steadily increasing in the last years, but knowledge about their toxicodynamic and toxicokinetic properties is lacking. However, a comprehensive knowledge of their toxicokinetics, particularly their metabolism, is crucial for developing reliable screening procedures and to verify their intake, e.g., in case of intoxications. The aim of this study was therefore to tentatively identify the metabolites of the methylphenidate-derived NPS isopropylphenidate (isopropyl 2-phenyl-2-(2-piperidyl) acetate, IPH), 4-fluoromethylphenidate (methyl 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(piperidin-2-yl) acetate, 4-FMPH) and 3,4-dichloromethylphenidate (methyl 2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(piperidin-2-yl) acetate, 3,4-CTMP) using different in vivo and in vitro techniques and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS)...
March 7, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
G Thelander, F C Kugelberg, A W Jones
In connection with medicolegal autopsies peripheral blood (e.g. from a femoral vein) is the specimen of choice for toxicological analysis, although alternative specimens are also sometimes submitted, such as bile, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), vitreous humor (VH), bladder urine, pleural effusions and/or lung fluid. Ethanol concentrations were determined in duplicate in femoral blood and in various alternative biological specimens by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). The analysis was done on two different fused silica capillary columns furnishing different retention times for ethanol and both n-propanol and t-butanol were used as internal standards...
February 27, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Lea Wagmann, Sascha K Manier, Thomas P Bambauer, Christina Felske, Niels Eckstein, Veit Flockerzi, Markus R Meyer
An increasing number of benzodiazepine-type compounds are appearing on the new psychoactive substances market. 8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]benzodiazepine (flualprazolam) represents a potent "designer benzodiazepine" that has been associated with sedation, loss of consciousness, memory loss, and disinhibition. The aims of the present study were to tentatively identify flualprazolam metabolites using in vitro incubations with pooled human liver S9 fraction or HepaRG cells by means of liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry...
February 27, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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