journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38966933/a-postmortem-case-report-involving-fentanyl-desalkylgidazepam-and-bromazolam
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Marco Ballotari, Michael T Truver, Leena R Dhoble, Amy M Kinsey, Jennifer L Hoyer, Chris W Chronister, Bruce A Goldberger
The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and the number of new chemically diverse substances in the global illicit drug market have significantly increased over the last few years. Designer benzodiazepines are some of the most misused NPS worldwide, contributing to both nonfatal and fatal drug overdose cases. The use of desalkylgidazepam and bromazolam has recently emerged, and their prevalence has been internationally reported. In this study, we quantified desalkylgidazepam and bromazolam using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the postmortem specimens of a subject found deceased due to suspected drug overdose...
July 5, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38966926/fentanyl-related-deaths-in-ontario-canada-toxicological-findings-and-circumstances-of-death-in-4395-cases-2020-2022
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alexandra Adamo, Karlie Marshall, Karen L Woodall
Over the last 20 years there has been a significant increase in fentanyl related deaths in Ontario, Canada. This report examines toxicological findings in a series of death investigations in which fentanyl was quantitated to identify the prevalence, trends and demographic data associated with fentanyl in Ontario, Canada, and to highlight the changes in these trends since fentanyl began appearing in casework in Ontario in the early 2000s. A retrospective study of all cases in which fentanyl was quantitated in blood, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, was conducted for the time period between January 1, 2020, and December 31, 2022...
July 5, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38937875/comment-on-comprehensive-toxicological-screening-of-common-drugs-of-abuse-new-psychoactive-substances-and-cannabinoids-in-blood-using-supported-liquid-extraction-and-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-lc-qtof-ms
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38937871/brain-homogenate-stability-for-stimulant-drugs
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Grayce Behnke, Teresa R Gray, Crystal Arndt
Brain can a useful specimen for toxicology testing as it is a protected and isolated organ with lower metabolic activity than other tissues, but there is currently no published data supporting the stability of stimulant drugs in prepared brain homogenates. Brain homogenates were evaluated to determine the stability of the following stimulant drugs: amphetamine, benzoylecgonine, bupropion, cocaethylene, cocaine, ephedrine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methamphetamine, and phentermine...
June 27, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38937868/consumption-of-seasoning-containing-poppy-seeds-can-cause-codeine-positive-urine-drug-test-results-for-pain-management-monitoring
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Larry A Broussard, Jeanne Carr, Jeffrey Hurst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38877840/correction-to-cross-reactivity-of-24-cannabinoids-and-metabolites-in-blood-using-the-immunalysis-cannabinoids-direct-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38905017/electromembrane-extraction-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-prescription-drugs-from-micropulverized-hair
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Maria Schüller, Marianne Skov-Skov Bergh, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad
Hair analysis can provide chronological insights into past drug use for months to years after drug administration. In comparison to analyses from other biological matrices, such as blood and urine, sample pretreatment is often tedious and not environmental friendly. In this study, we present a more environmental friendly approach to hair analysis using micropulverized hair and electromembrane extraction for the efficient extraction of 15 drugs of abuse, prescription drugs, and metabolites from hair. The optimized extraction method, involving micropulverization, demonstrated comparable yields to the standard approach of cutting and overnight incubation...
June 11, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38896045/detection-of-the-benzodiazepine-bromazolam-by-liquid-chromatography-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-in-postmortem-toxicology-casework-and-prevalence-in-indiana-2023
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kevin G Shanks, Stuart A K Kurtz, George S Behonick
For the past 60 years, benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and alprazolam have been used as pharmaceutical medications for the treatment of myriad conditions including anxiety, seizures, and insomnia. In more recent years, novel benzodiazepine derivatives have emerged as illicit substances in powders and counterfeit tablets on the illicit drug market. In 2016, bromazolam, a brominated derivative of alprazolam, emerged on the illicit drug market in Europe, but the substance was not reported in the USA until 2019-2020...
June 11, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38850225/difficulties-associated-with-the-interpretation-of-post-mortem-toxicology
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lilli Stephenson, Corinna Van Den Heuvel, Timothy Scott, Roger W Byard
While post-mortem (PM) toxicology results provide valuable information towards ascertaining both the cause and manner of death in coronial cases, there are also significant difficulties associated with the interpretation of PM drug levels. Such difficulties are influenced by several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors including PM redistribution, diffusion, site-to-site variability in drug levels, different drug properties and metabolism, bacterial activity, genetic polymorphisms, tolerance, resuscitation efforts, underlying conditions and the toxicity profile of cases (i...
June 8, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38847205/correction-to-development-of-a-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-method-for-the-evaluation-of-maternal-fetal-exposure-to-cocaine-employing-human-umbilical-cord-tissue
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38836591/testing-for-protonitazene-in-human-hair-using-lc-ms-ms
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Pascal Kintz, Alice Ameline, Laurie Gheddar, Simona Pichini, Cédric Mazoyer, Katy Teston, Frédéric Aknouche, Christophe Maruejouls
Protonitazene is a synthetic benzoimidazole opioid of the nitazenes class, developed in the 1950s as an effective analgesic, but never released on the market due to severe side effects and possible dependence. Despite its increasing use as a new psychoactive substance starting in 2019, its detection in human hair of intoxicated and deceased consumers has never been reported. We present the development and validation of a specific procedure to identify protonitazene in hair by LC-MS-MS. Drugs were incubated overnight at 40°C in 1 mL borate buffer, pH 9...
June 5, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38836589/lc-ms-ms-quantification-of-%C3%AE-8-thc-%C3%AE-9-thc-thcv-isomers-and-their-main-metabolites-in-human-plasma
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Cristina Sempio, M S Jorge Campos-Palomino, Jelena Klawitter, M A Amy Harrison, Erica N Peters, Laura MacNair, Mehdi Haghdoost, Marcel Bonn-Miller, Shanna Babalonis, Marilyn A Huestis, Uwe Christians, Jost Klawitter
BACKGROUND: In recent years, potential therapeutic applications of several different cannabinoids, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), its isomer Δ8-THC and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ9-THCV), have been investigated. Nevertheless, to establish dose-effect relationship and to gain knowledge of their pharmacokinetics and metabolism, sensitive and specific analytical assays are needed to measure these compounds in patients. For this reason, we developed and validated an online extraction high-performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC/LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of 13 cannabinoids and metabolites including the Δ8 and Δ9 isomers of THC, THCV and those of their major metabolites in human plasma...
June 5, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38836586/lethal-carbon-monoxide-generated-from-small-internal-combustion-engines
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Brian E Hyson, Brittany M Friedman, Brianna Spear, Sandra C Bishop-Freeman
Fuel-burning small engines have the potential to emit dangerous and potentially lethal concentrations of carbon monoxide when used in poorly ventilated environments. The North Carolina Office of the Chief Medical Examiner investigated seven cases from 2013 - 2020 involving lethal carbon monoxide from small internal combustion engines. Evaluation of percent carboxyhemoglobin saturation was determined in these case studies as ratios of carboxyhemoglobin to reduced hemoglobin, using HP 8453 and Agilent 8454 UV-Visible Spectrophotometers (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA)...
June 5, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38814665/beyond-the-buzz-the-fatal-consequences-of-caffeine-overconsumption
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Justin O Brower, Jennifer L Swatek
Caffeine is a naturally occurring stimulant present in dozens of plant species including Coffea arabica and Camellia sinensis, from which we obtain coffee and tea, respectively. It is one of the world's most widely consumed psychoactive substances frequently used to increase alertness, elevate mood, and ward off fatigue. In traditional preparations, caffeine is generally well-tolerated by the consumer. However, complications can arise with the addition of caffeine to products like energy drinks, medications, and supplements...
May 30, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38832557/a-computationally-supported-designer-benzodiazepine-strategy-for-public-toxicology-laboratories
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Heather L Ciallella, Danai T Taruvinga, Kimberly Yacoub, Szabolcs Sofalvi, Samantha M Delor, Claire K Kaspar, Christie L Mitchell-Mata, Shelby Travaglianti, Eric S Lavins, Luigino G Apollonio
Public laboratories must balance innovative and existing methods to keep up with designer drug trends. This article presents a strategy for handling designer benzodiazepines (DBZDs) in casework from screening to interpretation. The cross-reactivity of 22 DBZDs and metabolites was tested against the Immunalysis™ Benzodiazepine Direct Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay kit. The kit had high intra-analyte precision (coefficients of variation < 15%). Inter-analyte performance varied, triggering confirmation testing at concentrations ranging from 35 to 460 μg/L...
May 29, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38808379/ethyl-acetate-in-e-liquids-implications-for-breath-testing
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alaina K Holt, Abby M Veeser, Justin L Poklis, Michelle R Peace
Electronic cigarette liquids (e-liquids) can contain a variety of chemicals to impart flavors, smells, and pharmacological effects. Surveillance studies have identified hundreds of chemicals used in e-liquids which have known health and safety implications. Ethyl acetate has been identified as a common constituent of e-liquids. Ethyl acetate is rapidly hydrolyzed to ethanol in vivo. Animal studies have demonstrated that inhaling >2000 mg/L ethyl acetate can lead to accumulation of ethanol in the blood at concentrations greater than 1000 mg/L, or 0...
May 29, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38804901/evaluation-of-the-ark-diagnostics-immunoassay-for-qualitative-detection-of-xylazine-in-urine
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
B Kyle Patrick, J Mattiello Christopher, Albert Hua, M Toohey Joanne, R Korn Warren, Alana Saldana-Reed, F Stickle Douglas
Xylazine exposure is common in some US cities, but a commercial assay for routine laboratory testing for xylazine is not currently available. We evaluated a pre-release version of the ARK Diagnostics immunoassay for qualitative detection of xylazine/4-hydroxyxylazine in urine. Studies were conducted using either the semi-quantitative assay application (A. Roche Cobas 503 analyzer), or the qualitative assay application (B. Beckman Coulter AU480 analyzer). Study specimens consisted of deidentified patient urine samples submitted for routine drugs-of-abuse testing...
May 28, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38794952/n-ethylhexedrone-a-very-long-and-bad-trip-a-case-series
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sandrine Lefeuvre, Camille Richeval, Jeremy Lelong, Nicolas Venisse, Luc Humbert, Bertrand Brunet
N-ethylhexedrone (NEH) is a new cathinone derivative with, currently, low toxicocokinetic, and toxicocodynamic knowledge. We present 3 documented clinical cases of NEH intoxication with plasma, and urine concentrations. A thorough search for metabolites was performed. The 3 patients were admitted to the emergency department, and 2 out of the 3 were hospitalized for an extended period. While recovering from the drug effects, 12 to 24 hours after nasal intake of New Psychoactive Substance (NPS), the patients described the following disorders: anxiety, feelings of persecution, asthenia, anhedonia, abulia, psychomotor slowing, and loss of consciousness...
May 24, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38780234/lc-ms-ms-method-for-mitragynine-and-7-hydroxymitragynine-in-hair-and-its-application-in-authentic-hair-samples-of-suspected-kratom-abusers
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jongsook Rhee, Ilchung Shin, Jihyun Kim, Juseun Lee, Byungsuk Cho, Junghyun Kim, Meejung Park, Eunmi Kim
Kratom is a natural psychoactive product known primarily in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Malaysia etc. It is also known as krathom, kakuam, ithang, thom (Thailand), biak-biak, ketum (Malaysia) and mambog (Philippines), and is sometimes used as an opium substitute. It is stimulant at doses of 1-5g, analgesic at doses of 5-15g, and euphoric and sedative at doses above 15g. Mitragynine is the most abundant indole compound in kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) and is metabolized in humans to 7-hydroxymitragynine, the more active metabolite...
May 23, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38771225/over-the-counter-medications-encountered-in-the-postmortem-pediatric-population-from-2010-2020
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jennifer L Swatek, Stephanie M Marco, Kari M Midthun
In forensic toxicology, the pediatric population requires special focus when evaluating positive findings because of the many toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic differences (e.g., metabolic capabilities, body size, etc.) between the pediatric and adult populations. In particular, the administration of over-the-counter (OTC) medications needs careful consideration, as dosages given to the pediatric population (0 days - 18 years), particularly those given to individuals less than five years of age, tend to be lower than those given to individuals closer to adulthood...
May 21, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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