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Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Yiqi Ruben Luo, Cassandra Yun, Kara L Lynch
As the legalization of medical and recreational marijuana use expands, measurement of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in human breath has become an area of interest. The presence and concentration of cannabinoids in breath have been shown to correlate with recent marijuana use and may be correlated with impairment. Given the low concentration of THC in human breath, sensitive analytical methods are required to further evaluate its utility and window of detection. This paper describes a novel derivatization method based on an azo coupling reaction that significantly increases the ionization efficiency of cannabinoids for LC-MS/MS analysis...
April 5, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Christine L H Snozek, Rebecca L Corey, Matthew R Buras, Kamisha L Johnson-Davis
Drug screening during pre-transplant evaluations can have major implications for patient care, particularly because drug abuse has been associated with poor transplant outcomes. Although urine drug screening is usually preferred, serum testing is available for situations such as anuria due to end stage renal disease. However, there are few studies evaluating serum drug screening in specific populations such as patients undergoing kidney transplant evaluation. All serum drug screens ordered between January 2015 and November 2017 on patients being evaluated for renal transplant were compared against a large population of serum drug screens ordered from other institutions...
March 31, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Clementine Scholz, Boris B Quednow, Marcus Herdener, Thomas Kraemer, Markus R Baumgartner
Given that external contamination must be considered in hair analysis, there is still a demand for reliable tools to differentiate between incorporation of drugs into the hair as a result of drug consumption and of the hair shaft by external contamination. With the aim of establishing alternative discrimination parameters, some of the hydroxy metabolites of cocaine i.e., para- and meta-hydroxycocaine and para- and meta-hydroxybenzoylecgonine were measured together with cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, and norcocaine in five seized street cocaine samples and in hair samples from different cohorts: cohort 1 (in vivo external contamination study, n = 28), cohort 2 (individuals with self-reported cocaine use, n = 92), and cohort 3 (individuals with suspected cocaine use or contamination, n = 198)...
March 30, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Jessica Winborn, Sarah Kerrigan
Desomorphine, the principal opioid in Krokodil, has an analgesic potency approximately ten-times that of morphine. Similar to other opioids, during phase II metabolism it undergoes conjugation with glucuronic acid to form desomorphine-glucuronide. Although hydrolysis of conjugated species is sometimes required prior to analysis, desomorphine-glucuronide has not been fully investigated. In this study, six hydrolysis procedures were optimized and evaluated. Deconjugation efficiencies using chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated and stability in aqueous solution was assessed...
March 30, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Béatrice Garneau, Brigitte Desharnais, Audrey Beauchamp-Doré, Catherine Lavallée, Pascal Mireault, André Lajeunesse
In the last two decades, a large increase in opioid overdose death rates has been recorded in North America. This phenomenon, related to the misuse of prescription opioids, has been dubbed an "opioids crisis". Recent years have seen the entrance of novel synthetic opioids (NSO) on the market, compounding the fatal intoxications issue. This brings several challenges for forensic toxicology laboratories: an increased number of cases, a large number of novel structurally similar compounds to include in screening analytical methods, the low concentration of drugs in biological fluids, and the challenging interpretation in the absence of sufficient literature...
March 30, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Kevin M Legg, Laura M Labay, Sally S Aiken, Barry K Logan
The analysis of biological specimens collected at autopsy for the presence of exogenous insulin(s) is of special interest in select death investigations as they may be suspected in the cause of a death. Technical challenges include the limited stability of insulin, and the forensic requirement of differentiating endogenous insulin from pharmaceutical analogs. A novel method was developed for the detection and quantification of human insulin, Glulisine, Lispro, Aspart, Glargine and Detemir in vitreous fluid...
March 30, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Grayce Behnke, Nicholas B Tiscione, John Rakus, Lauren Richards-Waugh
This study demonstrates the validation of a semi-quantitative method for the rapid screening of whole blood and urine specimens using clonazepam as the target molecule for the Neogen® Benzodiazepine kit. Decision points were validated at 10.0 ng/mL for whole blood and 25.0 ng/mL for urine. The validation design was based on the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) Standard Practices for Method Validation and included the evaluation of sensitivity, precision, specificity, carryover, hook effect, drift, ruggedness/robustness and a case sample evaluation...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Tsandni Jamal, Carole Hennequin, Rabah Gahoual, Annie Leyris, Jean-Louis Beaudeux, Frédéric J Baud, Pascal Houzé
A 38-year-old man was admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) after supposed ingestion of 504 sustained-release tablets of Theralithe™ corresponding ~200 g of lithium carbonate. At the admission, ~19.5 h after ingestion, the patient was conscious with trembling limbs, intense thirst, profuse sweats and vomiting and lithium serum concentration was 14.2 mmol/L. Toxicological screenings performed in urine and serum, were negative. Patient was treated with continuous extrarenal epuration by continue veno-venous hemodiafiltration starting (CCVHDF) 24 h post-admission and was carried on until 64 h...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Frédéric Aknouche, Alice Ameline, Camille Richeval, Anne-Julie Schapira, Audrey Coulon, Christophe Maruejouls, Jean-Michel Gaulier, Pascal Kintz
The authors aim to report a case of surreptitious administration of a synthetic cannabinoid (SC) and the subsequent toxicological investigations to be able to document accurately the case for submission at a hearing. A dealer gave surreptitiously a substance to two juvenile migrants who experienced shakings and faintness. The laboratory received a blood sample from each of the two victims, who, according to the investigators, were probably exposed to SGT-151, a SC, also known as CUMYL-PEGACLONE. Blood and urine specimens from the dealer, who claimed being a user of SGT-151 were received at the same time...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Charles Veltri, Oliver Grundmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Roberta Melis, Jama Mohamed, Youna Ha, Elaine Lyon, Gwendolyn McMillin
Genetic characterization of CYP2D6 post-mortem may help explain drug involvement in cause of death. Here we describe methods for DNA extraction, CYP2D6 genotyping and copy number variation (CNV) testing using dried blood archived at autopsy with FTA® cards. Bloodstained cards (n=75) were obtained from the Utah Office of the Medical Examiner. DNA was extracted from 3mm punches; DNA yield was 9-100 ng/μL; the 260/280 ratio was 1.2-2.0. CYP2D6 alleles detected using the iPLEX® genotyping assay and MassARRAY (Agena Bioscience) include (n=) *2A (20), *3 (2), *4 (26), *5(3), *6 (2), *10 (1), *29 (1), *35 (9) and*41 (10)...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Massimo Gottardi, Roberta Pacifici, Maria Rosaria Varì, Anastasio Tini, Anna Rita Volpe, Raffaele Giorgetti, Simona Pichini
Nail analysis can be performed as a substitute or complement to hair analysis for the retrospective determination of psychotropic drugs consumption in forensic contexts. The application of nail analysis in a "chemsex" context is reported herein. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify the most common drugs of abuse, synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones and GHB in fingernails and toenails of individuals presumptively using these drugs in music and sex settings...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Pietro Papa, Antonella Valli, Marcello Di Tuccio, Giampietro Frison, Flavio Zancanaro, Eleonora Buscaglia, Carlo Alessandro Locatelli
4-Fluoromethylphenidate (4F-MPH) is an halogenated derivative of methylphenidate (MPH), a re-uptake inhibitor for dopamine and norepinephrine used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. In the last few years, several compounds structurally related to MPH have been marked as new psychoactive substances (NPS) with stimulating and euphoric effects similar to the parent drug, but with more dopaminergic activity. This report represents the first case of an analytically confirmed non-fatal intoxication by 4F-MPH...
March 4, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Gregory G Sarris, Jennifer F Limoges
Demoxepam, when derivatized by silylation and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), produces artifacts which are falsely identified as nordiazepam and oxazepam. Demoxepam was analyzed unextracted at various concentrations, using different derivatization procedures, and on different GC-MS systems. Oxazepam and nordiazepam were consistently identified in neat demoxepam samples, despite the changing variables. Under certain conditions, oxazepam was identified as low as 50 ng/mL derivatized demoxepam, and nordiazepam identified as low as 500 ng/mL derivatized demoxepam...
February 23, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Marissa J Finkelstein, Chris W Chronister, Christina Stanley, Laurie M Ogilvie, Bruce A Goldberger
In 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a warning regarding a new recreational drug, acetyl fentanyl. Acetyl fentanyl is a μ-opioid receptor agonist, and its pharmacological effects include euphoria, altered mood, miosis and central nervous system depression. The objective of this report was to develop a sensitive and specific method for the quantitation of acetyl fentanyl by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in postmortem casework. Acetyl fentanyl was isolated from biological matrices using solid-phase extraction and acetyl fentanyl-13C6 was employed as an internal standard...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Birthe Schubert, Florian Pitterl, Barbara Saxl, Marion Pavlic
Buprenorphine is a commonly used opioid in pain therapy as well as in opiate maintenance therapy. Immunoassays are quick and cost-effective methods for the necessary toxicological urine analysis of maintenance therapy patients. In this study a novel enzymatic immunoassay, the Thermo Fisher Scientific CEDIA Buprenorphine II assay (Bup2) was evaluated for the detection of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine and their conjugated metabolites in human urine samples. The Bup2 assay has a cut-off of 10 ng/mL with ±25% controls, whereas the existing CEDIA Buprenorphine assay (Bup1) has a cut-off of 5 ng/mL and ±40% controls...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Thomas G Rosano, Patrice Y Ohouo, Michelle Wood
The transition from presumptive (immunoassay) drug screening to definitive screening has continued in the practice of analytical toxicology. Development of a ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) screening method for over sixty drugs and metabolites (analytes) in urine has been reported by the authors and has been applied in probation, drug court, social services, chemical dependency, pain management and addiction medicine casework. Testing by the definitive screening method has increased both the rate and diversity of initial-positive drug findings, due to the lower positive thresholds and wider panel of analytes...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Pascal Kintz, Alice Ameline, Jean-Sébastien Raul
The retrospective calendar of an individual's drug use requires a multisectional analysis in which the length of hair, corresponding to the full temporal window available, is cut into shorter sections to measure drug use during shorter periods of time (generally 1 cm corresponds to ~1 month). Segmental hair analysis is used to verify both previous drug history and recent enforced abstinence. However, after drug discontinuation, the fresh new hair growth segment cannot be immediately negative, due to the contribution of dormant hair...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Lorna A Nisbet, Fiona M Wylie, Barry K Logan, Karen S Scott
New psychoactive substances (NPSs) have become an integral part of the recreational drug market with "new" compounds being reported by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction weekly. Due to the changing nature of NPSs, it is impractical to carry out single analyte or even simple class quantitation. Although several gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods have been developed these are typically class specific. We present a validated GC-MS method for the quantitation of 2-DPMP, 3-MeO-PCE, 3-MeO-PCP, 5-APB, 6-APB, benzedrone, butylone, ethylone, flephedrone, methiopropamine, MDPV, mephedrone, methoxetamine, methylone, naphyrone, 25B-NBOME, 25C-NBOME, 25D-NBOMe, 25E-NBOME, 25H-NBOME, 25I-NBOME, Mescaline-NBOME and 25P-NBOME in blood and urine samples...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Stefan Gaugler, Maha K Al-Mazroua, Sahar Y Issa, Jana Rykl, Matthias Grill, Asem Qanair, Vicente L Cebolla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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