journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38581662/quantitation-of-hexahydrocannabinol-hhc-and-metabolites-in-blood-from-duid-cases
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Robert Kronstrand, Markus Roman, Henrik Green, Michael T Truver
Hexahydrocannabinol (HHC) was first reported in the EU in May 2022. HHC has three chiral carbon atoms, but only (6aR,9R,10aR)-HHC (9R-HHC) and (6aR,9S,10aR)-HHC (9S-HHC) have been encountered in HHC products. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a method for the quantitative analysis of 9R-HHC, 9S-HHC, 11-OH-9R-HHC, 9R-HHC-COOH, 9S-HHC-COOH, and 8-OH-9R-HHC. In addition, an objective was to investigate the immunochemical cross reactivity. Blood samples from DUID-cases screened positive for cannabis using ELISA and confirmed negative for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC, and THC-COOH were reanalyzed with a newly validated HHC method to investigate the presence of HHC and metabolites...
April 6, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38581660/the-60th-annual-meeting-of-the-international-association-of-toxicologists-tiaft-in-rome-italy-was-resounding-success
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Dimitri Gerostamoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38581658/automated-extraction-and-lc-ms-ms-analysis-of-11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol-isomers-and-prevalence-in-authentic-urine-specimens
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Larissa K Karas, Courtney Patterson, Zachary J Fuller, Erin L Karschner
11-Nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THCCOOH) is the most frequently detected illicit drug metabolite in the military drug testing program. An increasing number of specimens containing unresolved Δ8-THCCOOH prompted the addition of this analyte to the Department of Defense (DoD) drug testing panel. A method was developed and validated for the quantitative confirmation of the carboxylated metabolites of Δ8- and Δ9-THC in urine samples utilizing automated pipette tip dispersive solid phase extraction and analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
April 6, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38581653/extensive-evaluation-of-a-new-lc-ms-ms-method-to-quantify-monofluoroacetate-toxin-in-the-kidney
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
James Langston, Samuel Stump, Michael Filigenzi, Andriy Tkachenko, Jake Guag, Robert Poppenga, Wilson K Rumbeiha
Monofluoroacetate (MFA) is a highly lethal toxin which causes death by inhibiting cellular ATP production. The heart and brain are the primary target organs. Acute death is attributed to cardiac fibrillation and/or convulsions. Although it occurs naturally in some plants, a major source of animal intoxication is access to sodium monofluoroacetate (NaMFA) pesticide which continues to be a concern in the US and around the world despite restricted use in some countries including the US. There are also concerns about misuse of this pesticide for malicious poisoning...
April 6, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38619371/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-metabolic-study-of-three-new-psychoactive-%C3%AE-keto-arylcyclohexylamines
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Linhao Xu, Hui Yan, Yiling Tang, Yu Liu, Ping Xiang, Taijun Hang
Since the 2000s, an increasing number of new psychoactive substances have appeared on the illicit drug market. β-keto-arylcyclohexylamine compounds play important pharmacological roles in anesthesia; however, because these new psychoactive substances have rapidly increasing illicit recreational use, the lack of detailed toxicity data are of particular concern. Therefore, analysis of their metabolites can help forensic personnel provide references and suggestions on whether a suspect has taken an illicit new psychoactive β-keto-arylcyclohexylamine...
March 29, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38619360/2-fluorodeschloroketamine-consumption-about-two-deaths-and-a-case-of-self-mutilation
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Salomé Riess, Marjorie Chèze, Aurelie Muckensturm, Nadine Klinger, Olivier Roussel, Vincent Cirimele
2-Fluorodeschloroketamine (2-FDCK) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS), close to the ketamine structure. Few cases of 2-FDCK intake are described in the forensic literature, especially concerning death cases. We report here a case of self-mutilation (Case 1) and two forensic deaths linked to 2-FDCK consumption. The second case involved a man found dead in the street, having been stabbed. The third case was a man found dead following a suspected overdose and in an advanced state of putrefaction. For all three cases, biological fluids such as blood and urine were analyzed, as was hair for the two fatal cases...
March 29, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38613441/driving-under-the-influence-of-cocaine-and-mdma-relationship-between-blood-concentrations-and-results-from-clinical-test-of-impairment
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gunhild Heide, Ragnhild Elén Gjulem Jamt, Jonas Fainberg-Sandbu, Åse Marit Leere Øiestad, Gudrun Høiseth
The general use of cocaine is increasing in recent years, while the trend for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is less clear. The relationship between blood concentrations and impairment is poorly understood, which complicates interpretation. The aims of this study were to report prevalence and blood concentrations of cocaine and MDMA in drugged drivers, and to investigate the relationship between blood concentrations and impairment. Samples of whole blood were collected from apprehended drivers in the period 2000-2022, and a clinical test of impairment (CTI) was simultaneously performed...
March 29, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38613438/chiral-analysis-of-amphetamine-methamphetamine-mdma-and-mda-enantiomers-in-human-hair-samples
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Julian Bickel, Anne Szewczyk, Nadine Aboutara, Hilke Jungen, Alexander Müller, Benjamin Ondruschka, Stefanie Iwersen-Bergmann
A novel analytical method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of the R/S-enantiomers of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA and MDMA in hair samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). This method involved a straightforward derivatization step with dansyl chloride and the use of a chiral column, enabling the separation and quantification of all eight enantiomers in a single analysis. The method exhibited excellent linearity across a concentration range of 0.03-3.00 ng/mg for each enantiomer...
March 29, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38613436/characterization-of-iso-lsd-metabolism-using-human-liver-microsomes-in-comparison-to-lsd-and-its-applicability-as-urinary-biomarker-for-lsd-consumption
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Xue Qin Ng, Evelyn Mei Ling Goh, Asimah Hamzah, Yi Ju Yao, Hooi Yan Moy
Urinalysis of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) poses a challenge due to its rapid metabolism, resulting in little to no LSD detectable in urine. Instead, its primary metabolite, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, is predominantly detected. In this study, we observed several urine profiles with iso-LSD detected together with 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD. Iso-LSD is derived from illicit preparation of LSD as a major contaminant, and it was detected at higher abundance than LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD in certain urine samples. Therefore, the metabolism of iso-LSD and its potential as a viable urinary biomarker for confirming LSD consumption is of interest...
March 29, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38551067/development-of-a-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-method-for-the-evaluation-of-maternal-fetal-exposure-to-cocaine-employing-human-umbilical-cord-tissue
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gabriela de Paula Meirelles, Jefferson Pereira E Silva, Beatriz Aparecida Passos Bismara Paranhos, Mauricio Yonamine
Illicit drug use is a serious and complex public health problem, not only due to the severity of the health damage but also to the social implications, such as marginalization and drug trafficking. Currently, cocaine (COC) is among the most abused drugs worldwide with about 22 million users. Drug abuse has also been found in women during the pregnancy period, which has shed light on a new group for epidemiology. The diagnosis of COC use in these cases usually depends largely on the mother's reports, which in several cases omit or deny consumption...
March 29, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38441323/insights-into-the-metabolism-of-ch-piata-a-novel-synthetic-cannabinoid-featuring-an-acetamide-linker
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Annette Zschiesche, Martin Scheu, Detlef Thieme, Annekathrin M Keiler, Benedikt Pulver, Laura M Huppertz, Volker Auwärter
The recent change from the popular carboxamide to an acetamide (ATA) linker scaffold in synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) can be interpreted as an attempt to circumvent legal regulations, setting new analytical challenges. Metabolites of N-cyclohexyl-2-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetamide: CH-PIATA, the second ATA type SCRA detected in the EU, were investigated in urine and serum samples by LC-HRMS-MS and LC-MS-MS. Two different in vitro models: a pHLM assay and HepG2-cells as well as an in silico prediction by GLORYx freeware assisted in metabolite formation/identification...
March 5, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38441245/simultaneous-analysis-of-acyclovir-and-its-metabolite-using-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Saki Takeda, Satoshi Ueno, Rie Zenda, Kazuya Muto, Ken Iseki, Kazuki Harada
The antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) may induce drug-induced neuropsychiatric symptoms as side effects. The detailed pathogenic mechanism remains unclear; however, it is hypothesized that 9-carboxymethoxymethylguanine (CMMG), a metabolite of ACV, is the causative compound. Therefore, the blood concentrations of ACV and CMMG should be analyzed in ACV toxicity studies. However, it is rare to find methods that can sufficiently separate the ACV and CMMG peaks during simultaneous analysis of both compounds. Therefore, we intended to develop a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with improved peak separation of analytes...
March 5, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38502107/false-positive-mda-findings-in-hrms-based-screening-of-putrefied-postmortem-blood-samples-identification-of-the-interference-as-n-acetyltyramine
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Viviane C Stammer, Dirk K Wissenbach, Frank T Peters
An unidentified compound in putrefied postmortem blood samples showed identical accurate mass and chromatographic behavior as 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and led to false-positive preliminary screening results. The aim of the study was to identify this unknown interference. Postmortem blood samples were analyzed after protein precipitation on a QExactive Focus high-resolution mass spectrometer (Thermo Fisher, Germany) coupled to a RP C18 column (Macherey-Nagel, Germany). Based on the analysis of mass spectrometry (MS) adducts and isotope ratios using fullscan (m/z 134-330) information, the empiric formula of the protonated molecule [M + H]+ of the unknown compound was found to be C10H14O2N (+ 0...
February 28, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38502105/green-analytical-toxicology-procedure-for-determination-of-ketamine-its-metabolites-and-analogues-in-oral-fluid-samples-using-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-dllme
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Juliana Ribeiro Ibiapina Leitão Oliveira, Leonardo Costalonga Rodrigues, Júlia Martinelli Magalhães Kahl, Débora Zorrón Berlinck, Jose Luiz Costa
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are often synthesized via small changes in the molecular structure, producing drugs whose effect and potency are not yet fully known. Ketamine is one of the oldest NPS, with therapeutic use in human and veterinary medicine authorized in several countries, being metabolized mainly into norketamine and 6-hydroxy-norketamine. Furthermore, two structural analogues of ketamine have recently been identified, deschloroketamine and 2-fluorodeschloroketamine, marketed as drugs of abuse...
February 28, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38456706/evaluating-cross-reactivity-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-in-human-whole-blood-by-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-elisa
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Grace Cieri, Amanda L A Mohr, Rebecca Mastrovito, Barry K Logan
Due to the increase in the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and their overall prevalence, it is important to have effective and reliable screening technologies to detect NPS in biological matrices. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are among the most popular screening methods. To evaluate the effectiveness of ELISA for NPS detection, five subclasses of NPS (novel synthetic opioids, fentanyl analogs, stimulants, benzodiazepines and hallucinogens) were evaluated in whole blood for their cross-reactivity on commercially available ELISA kits...
February 28, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38491987/%C3%AE-pyrrolidinohexanophenone-%C3%AE-php-vs-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinoisohexanophenone-%C3%AE-pihp-a-toxicological-investigation-about-plasma-concentrations-and-behavior-in-forensic-routine-cases
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Isabel Brueckner, Jessica Welter-Luedeke, Anna Zangl, Matthias Graw, Liane D Paul
New psychoactive substances (NPS), like pyrrolidinophenones, are still very present on the illegal drug market. The presented study reports on two members of this substance group, α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (α-PHP) and α-pyrrolidinoisohexanophenone (α-PiHP), which occurred in forensic routine cases in the last 6 years. α-PHP could be detected predominantly by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method in 33 authentic human plasma samples and α-PiHP in 8...
February 27, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38491986/atypical-postmortem-redistribution-in-chronic-methadone-consumers
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Béatrice Garneau, Cynthia Roy, Julie Motard, Brigitte Desharnais, Corinne Bouchard, Pascal Mireault
Available literature demonstrates that methadone is prone to moderate postmortem redistribution, but subject to high interindividual variability in the central to peripheral blood concentration ratios (C/P). In this case series, 10 cases of chronic methadone users displaying C/P < 1 (range 0.26-0.82) are described. Femoral, cardiac and ante-mortem blood concentrations of methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) are reported for all cases, as well as sex, age, case history, results of the pathological investigation, other toxicological findings and cause and manner of death...
February 27, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38407283/distribution-of-quetiapine-between-serum-and-whole-blood-in-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-specimens
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Håvard Breivik, Mette Elise Tunset, Morten Brix Schou, Joachim Frost
Quetiapine use is on the rise, leading to a corresponding increase in acute intoxications, some of which have fatal outcomes. When assessing whole blood quetiapine concentrations during forensic autopsies, interpretations are primarily based on toxicity data from studies of serum concentrations. To our knowledge, there are only two previous studies that have attempted to establish the ratio between whole blood and serum quetiapine concentrations, with limited populations and high variability of results. Paired specimens of whole blood and serum from 16 quetiapine users recruited from the Psychiatric Clinic, St...
February 26, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38407251/analysis-of-home-made-cannabis-edibles-by-uhplc-hrms-after-standard-addition-method
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Thiebot P, Magny R, Langrand J, Dufayet L, Houze P, Labat L
With recent evolution of cannabis legalization around the world, cannabis edibles are booming, and determining their concentration in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the regulated psychoactive substance, remains a challenge for toxicology laboratories, which must prove the legal status or not of the product. Cannabinoids are a large family of structurally similar and lipophilic molecules, requiring dedicated pre-analytical methods, as well as efficient chromatographic separation to differentiate cannabinoid isomers which are distinguished by their psychoactive properties and their legal status...
February 26, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38459917/analysis-of-over-250-novel-synthetic-opioids-and-xylazine-by-lc-ms-ms-in-blood-and-urine
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Katie Diekhans, Jihau Yu, Megan Farley, Luke N Rodda
Novel Synthetic Opioids (NSO) are frequently found in postmortem (PM) and human performance (HP) forensic toxicology casework, resulting in impairment and fatal overdoses. Developing a broad NSO method benefits public health, as it can be used to identify trends in potent opioid use to develop risk management programs. This project aimed to design a comprehensive, rapid and routine method for the selective analysis of over 250 novel synthetic opioids in blood and urine. This method rapidly extracted 150 µL of blood or urine via protein precipitation followed by size-exclusion filtration, evaporation and reconstitution...
February 23, 2024: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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