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Journal of Analytical Toxicology

Lilian de Lima Feltraco Lizot, Anne Caroline Cezimbra da Silva, Marcos Frank Bastiani, Tales Fernando Maurer, Roberta Zilles Hahn, Magda Susana Perassolo, Marina Venzon Antunes, Rafael Linden
The determination of cocaine (COC) and its metabolites ecgonine methyl ester (EME), benzoylecgonine (BZE), norcocaine (NCOC) and cocaethylene (CE) in human plasma is relevant in clinical and forensic toxicology. An efficient extraction and clean-up of plasma specimens for the simultaneous determination of BZE along with COC and basic metabolites is challenging due to their widely different polarities and ionization characteristics. Recently, biocompatible SPME LC tips C18 became commercially available. We applied SPME LC tips C18 to the simultaneous extraction of COC, BZE, EME, NCOC, and CE by direct immersion of the fiber in plasma diluted with a buffer at pH 8...
May 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Amanda Thompson, Sarah Morey, Andrew Griffiths
Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant and analgesic designed to treat neuropathic pain and partial seizure disorders and has been available in Australia as a prescription medication since 2005. Studies have found high rates of polydrug use associated with pregabalin and it is reportedly used recreationally for its euphoric and relaxing effects as well as to self-manage opioid withdrawal symptoms. A robust analytical method for the analysis of pregabalin using protein precipitation and LC/MS/MS was developed, validated and employed in routine case work...
May 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Anais Serre, Olivier Vuillot, Céline Eiden, Julien Gambier, Aude Berger, Olivier Mathieu, Thomas Nefau, Mustapha Sebbane, Hélène Donnadieu-Rigole, Hélène Peyrière
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Luying Wang, Chunfang Ni, Hongliang Shen, Zhenhai Sheng, Chen Liang, Rong Wang, Yurong Zhang
Heroin abuse is a serious problem that endangers human health and affects social stability. Though often being used as confirmation of heroin use, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) has limitations due to its short detection window. To compare the detection windows of heroin metabolites (morphine (MOR), 6-MAM, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G)) in human urine, an automated online solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and fully validated...
May 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Xiaoli Wang, Tao Guo, Yunbo Wei, Guiju Xu, Na Li, Jinhong Feng, Rusong Zhao
Quinolone antibiotic residues may pose potential threat to human health. A rapid and sensitive method was developed for the determination of quinolone residues in human serum and urine. After solid phase extraction (SPE) process, eight quinolone residues were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) using ciprofloxacin-d8 as the internal standard. The relative standard deviation of intra-day and inter-day precision for the eight quinolones were less than 7.52% and the accuracies ranged from 95...
May 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Marie Mardal, Mette Findal Andreasen, Christian Brinch Mollerup, Peter Stockham, Rasmus Telving, Nikolaos S Thomaidis, Konstantina S Diamanti, Kristian Linnet, Petur Weihe Dalsgaard
The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is constantly increasing. However, although the number might be large, most NPS have a low prevalence of use, so keeping screening libraries updated with the relevant analytical targets becomes a challenge. One way to ensure sufficient screening coverage is to use shared high resolution-mass spectrometry (HR-MS) databases, such as a free, online, spreadsheet-format, crowd-sourced HR-MS database for NPS screening. The aims of this study were (i) to present the database to the scientific community and (ii) to verify that the HighResNPS database can be utilized in suspect screening workflows for LC-HR-MS instruments and software from four different instrument vendors...
May 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Francesca Accioni, Maria Nieddu, Paola Corona, Gianpiero Boatto
Monitoring of new phenethylamine designer drugs in oral fluid (OF) is a crucial aim in workplace testing and driving under the influence of drug programs. In this study a simple and very quick method for the quantification of 11 illicit drugs in OF, which gave negative results to immunoassay tests, is proposed. Sample treatment and extraction of analytes were simultaneously achieved by applying supramolecular solvents (SUPRAS) tool. Chromatographic separation and compounds quantification were carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis...
May 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Tory R Spindle, Edward J Cone, Nicolas J Schlienz, John M Mitchell, George E Bigelow, Ronald Flegel, Eugene Hayes, Ryan Vandrey
As cannabis has become more accessible, use of alternative methods for cannabis administration such as vaporizers has become more prevalent. Most prior controlled pharmacokinetic evaluations have examined smoked cannabis in frequent (often daily) cannabis users. This study characterized the urinary excretion profile of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH), the primary analytical outcome for detection of cannabis use, among infrequent cannabis users following controlled administration of both smoked and vaporized cannabis...
May 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Limon Khatun Nahar, Kevin G Murphy, Sue Paterson
Due to the rise in their misuse and associated mortality, the UK government is reclassifying gabapentin (GBP) and pregabalin (PGL) to Class C controlled drugs from April 2019. However, it is impossible to gauge the extent of their use with current post-mortem toxicological screening, where GBP and PGL are only screened for if they are mentioned in the case documents. This study determines the prevalence of GBP and PGL, the potential extent of their under-reporting and poly-drug use in a post-mortem population...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Amy J Reisinger, Autumn C Miller, Lacey A Shaw, Jana L Champion, Marc A Neiswonger
A relatively overlooked aspect of forensic science is the potential of oral cavity fluid for contributing to a forensic diagnosis. Although traditional specimens, like blood and urine, are routinely evaluated for forensic toxicology testing, fluid from the oral cavity has not been investigated as a matrix in postmortem cases. Our laboratory developed and validated qualitative and quantitative analytical methods for determining 47 medicinal and illicit drugs from oral cavity fluid. These developed methods aimed to compare results from liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses of oral cavity fluid to those of traditional matrices collected from the same postmortem subjects...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Lambert K Sørensen, Jørgen B Hasselstrøm
Buprenorphine (BUP) was not long-term stable in whole blood samples preserved with fluoride citrate (FC) and fluoride oxalate (FX) mixtures when stored at -20°C. On average, only half of the initial concentrations of BUP was recovered after 12 weeks of storage at -20°C when interrupted by 3-4 thaw/freeze cycles. Norbuprenorphine (NBUP) was less unstable; approximately 90% was recovered after 12 weeks of storage at -20°C. The instability was less at 5°C, but the formation of BUP and NBUP from their glucuronides was observed at that temperature, especially in FC-preserved blood...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Marc Luginbühl, Stefan Gaugler, Wolfgang Weinmann
PURPOSE: Direct alcohol markers are widely applied during abstinence monitoring, driving aptitude assessments and workplace drug testing. The most promising direct alcohol marker was found to be phosphatidylethanol (PEth). Compared to other markers it shows a long window of detection due to accumulation in blood. To facilitate and accelerate the determination of PEth in DBS, we developed a fully automated analysis approach. METHODS: The validated and novel online-SPE-LC-MS/MS method with automated sample preparation using a CAMAG DBS-MS 500 system reduces manual sample preparation to an absolute minimum, only requiring calibration and quality control DBS...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Sebastian Halter, Lukas Mogler, Volker Auwärter
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonizts (SCRAs), also known as synthetic cannabinoids, are mostly consumed in the form of herbal mixtures available in online shops. These herbal mixtures are produced by soaking dried, crushed plant material in a solution of SCRAs or by spraying the solution on the plant material. Inhomogeneity in the distribution of the active ingredient can occur during the production process and pose a serious health risk for consumers of these drugs. In the present study 20 herbal mixtures containing Cumyl-PEGACLONE, one of the most prevalent SCRAs in Germany in 2017, were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) after an initial screening by gas chromatography mass spectrometry...
May 2, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Melanie A Rehder Silinski, Teruyo Uenoyama, Stephen D Cooper, Reshan A Fernando, Veronica G Robinson, Suramya Waidyanatha
Sulfolane is an industrial solvent commonly used for extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons in the oil refining process, as well in the purification of natural gas. Its wide use and high solubility in water has led to contamination of groundwater. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an analytical method to quantitate sulfolane in rodent plasma in support of the National Toxicology Program toxicology and toxicokinetic studies of sulfolane. The method uses extraction of plasma with ethyl acetate and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron ionization...
May 2, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Thomas P van der Meer, Martijn van Faassen, Hanne Frederiksen, André P van Beek, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Ido P Kema, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk
People are constantly exposed to a wide variety of chemicals. Some of these compounds, such as parabens, bisphenols and phthalates, are known to have endocrine disrupting potencies. Over the years, these endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been a rising cause for concern. In this study, we describe setup and validation of two methods to measure EDCs in human urine, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The phenol method determines methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, n-butyl- and benzylparaben and bisphenol A, F and S...
May 2, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Aude Eibel, Alice Ameline, Jean-Sébastien Raul, Pascal Kintz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
G Neil Stowe, Ryan B Paulsen, Virginia A Hill, Michael I Schaffer
Opioids, both naturally occurring and semisynthetic, are effective pain management medications, but also possess the potential for abuse. Analyses of over 37,000 head and body hair samples containing codeine, morphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone or oxymorphone provide a view of use habits of workplace-testing subjects that cannot be obtained from fluid matrices results. Testing was performed using FDA cleared immunoassays using either 2 ng morphine or oxycodone per 10 mg hair as calibrators. Non-negative screening samples were washed with an extended aqueous wash procedure followed by LC-MS-MS confirmation at a cutoff concentration of 2 ng opioid per 10 mg hair...
April 22, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Yiqi Ruben Luo, Cassandra Yun, Kara L Lynch
As the legalization of medical and recreational marijuana use expands, measurement of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in human breath has become an area of interest. The presence and concentration of cannabinoids in breath have been shown to correlate with recent marijuana use and may be correlated with impairment. Given the low concentration of THC in human breath, sensitive analytical methods are required to further evaluate its utility and window of detection. This paper describes a novel derivatization method based on an azo coupling reaction that significantly increases the ionization efficiency of cannabinoids for LC-MS/MS analysis...
April 5, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Christine L H Snozek, Rebecca L Corey, Matthew R Buras, Kamisha L Johnson-Davis
Drug screening during pre-transplant evaluations can have major implications for patient care, particularly because drug abuse has been associated with poor transplant outcomes. Although urine drug screening is usually preferred, serum testing is available for situations such as anuria due to end stage renal disease. However, there are few studies evaluating serum drug screening in specific populations such as patients undergoing kidney transplant evaluation. All serum drug screens ordered between January 2015 and November 2017 on patients being evaluated for renal transplant were compared against a large population of serum drug screens ordered from other institutions...
March 31, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Clementine Scholz, Boris B Quednow, Marcus Herdener, Thomas Kraemer, Markus R Baumgartner
Given that external contamination must be considered in hair analysis, there is still a demand for reliable tools to differentiate between incorporation of drugs into the hair as a result of drug consumption and of the hair shaft by external contamination. With the aim of establishing alternative discrimination parameters, some of the hydroxy metabolites of cocaine i.e., para- and meta-hydroxycocaine and para- and meta-hydroxybenzoylecgonine were measured together with cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, and norcocaine in five seized street cocaine samples and in hair samples from different cohorts: cohort 1 (in vivo external contamination study, n = 28), cohort 2 (individuals with self-reported cocaine use, n = 92), and cohort 3 (individuals with suspected cocaine use or contamination, n = 198)...
March 30, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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