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Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

Gurwinder Singh, Birmohan Singh, Manpreet Kaur
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disease worldwide. It is diagnosed by analyzing a long electroencephalogram (EEG) recording in a clinical environment, which may be much prone to errors and a time-consuming task. In this paper, a methodology for the classification of an epileptic seizure is proposed for analyzing EEG signals. EEG signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). A fusion, of the extracted non-linear and spike-based features from each of the IMF signals, is made...
February 12, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Lu Yin, Hongwei Jiang, Weiwei Zhao, Hui Li
Therapeutic hypothermia is a treatment method to reduce brain injuries after stroke, especially for cerebral ischemia. This study investigates in the temperature distribution of the head within selective brain cooling (SBC). Anatomically accurate geometries based on CT images of head and neck regions are used to develop the 3D geometry and physical model for the finite element modeling. Two cooling methods, the direct head surface cooling strategy and the combination cooling strategy of both head and neck, are evaluated to analyze the inducing hypothermia...
February 12, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Xiaobing Zhang, Xuebin Yu, Qingquan Bao, Liming Yang, Yu Sun, Peng Qi
Emerging evidence has revealed widespread stroke-induced brain dysconnectivity, which leads to abnormal network organization. However, there are apparent discrepancies in dysconnectivity between structural connectivity and functional connectivity studies. In this work, resting-state fMRI and structural diffusion tensor imaging were obtained from 26 patients with subacute (10-14 days) intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 20 matched healthy participants (patients/controls = 21/18 after head motion rejection). Graph theoretical approaches were applied to multimodal brain networks to quantitatively compare topological properties between both groups...
February 9, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Yang Zheng, Guanghua Xu
Improper selection of the number and the amplitude of noise channels in noise-assisted multivariate empirical mode decomposition (NA-MEMD) would induce mode mixing and leakage in the obtained intrinsic mode functions (IMF), which would degrade the performance in applications like brain-computer interface (BCI) systems based on motor imagery. A measurement (ML-index) using no prior knowledge of the underlying components of the original signals was proposed to quantify the amount of mode mixing and leakage of IMFs...
February 9, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Noor Aimie-Salleh, M B Malarvili, Anna C Whittaker
Adverse childhood experiences have been suggested to cause changes in physiological processes and can determine the magnitude of the stress response which might have a significant impact on health later in life. To detect the stress response, biomarkers that represent both the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis are proposed. Among the available biomarkers, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been proven as a powerful biomarker that represents ANS. Meanwhile, salivary cortisol has been suggested as a biomarker that reflects the HPA axis...
February 7, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Santiago Alférez, Anna Merino, Andrea Acevedo, Laura Puigví, José Rodellar
Current computerized image systems are able to recognize normal blood cells in peripheral blood, but fail with abnormal cells like the classes of lymphocytes associated to lymphomas. The main challenge lies in the subtle differences in morphologic characteristics among these classes, which requires a refined segmentation. A new efficient segmentation framework has been developed, which uses the image color information through fuzzy clustering of different color components and the application of the watershed transformation with markers...
February 7, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Riccardo Pernice, Michal Javorka, Jana Krohova, Barbora Czippelova, Zuzana Turianikova, Alessandro Busacca, Luca Faes
Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis represents an important tool for the characterization of complex cardiovascular control. HRV indexes are usually calculated from electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings after measuring the time duration between consecutive R peaks, and this is considered the gold standard. An alternative method consists of assessing the pulse rate variability (PRV) from signals acquired through photoplethysmography, a technique also employed for the continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood pressure...
February 7, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Ayush Goyal
A rapid method for left and right ventricular endocardial volume segmentation and clinical cardiac parameter calculation from MRI images of cardiac patients is presented. The clinical motivation is providing cardiologists a tool for assessing the cardiac function in a patient through the left ventricular endocardial volume's ejection fraction. A new method combining adapted fuzzy membership-based c-means pixel clustering and connected regions component labeling is used for automatic segmentation of the left and right ventricular endocardial volumes...
January 28, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Jannatul Naeem, Nur Azah Hamzaid, Md Anamul Islam, Amelia Wong Azman, Manfred Bijak
Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) benefit from muscle training with functional electrical stimulation (FES). For safety reasons and to optimize training outcome, the fatigue state of the target muscle must be monitored. Detection of muscle fatigue from mel frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) feature of mechanomyographic (MMG) signal using support vector machine (SVM) classifier is a promising new approach. Five individuals with SCI performed FES cycling exercises for 30 min. MMG signals were recorded on the quadriceps muscle group (rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM)) and categorized into non-fatigued and fatigued muscle contractions for the first and last 10 min of the cycling session...
January 28, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
XiaoQing Zhang, Shu-Guang Zhao
The development of computer technology now allows the quick and efficient automatic fluorescence microscopy generation of a large number of images of proteins in specific subcellular compartments using fluorescence microscopy. Digital image processing and pattern recognition technology can easily classify these images, identify the subcellular location of proteins, and subsequently carry out related work such as analysis and investigation of protein function. Here, based on a fluorescence microscopy 2D image dataset of HeLa cells, the CapsNet network model was used to classify ten types of images of proteins in different subcellular compartments...
January 28, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Amparo Güemes, Pau Herrero, Jorge Bondia, Pantelis Georgiou
The nervous system has a significant impact in glucose homeostasis and endocrine pancreatic secretion in humans, especially during the cephalic phase of insulin release (CPIR); that is, before a meal is absorbed. However, the underlying mechanisms of this neural-pancreatic interaction are not well understood and therefore often neglected, despite their significance to achieving an optimal glucose control. As a result, the dynamics of insulin release from the pancreas are currently described by mathematical models that reproduce the behavior of the β cells using exclusively glucose levels and other hormones as inputs...
January 26, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Javier Navallas, Sonia Porta, Armando Malanda
Inter-discharge interval distribution modeling of the motor unit firing pattern plays an important role in electromyographic decomposition and the statistical analysis of firing patterns. When modeling firing patterns obtained from automatic procedures, false positives and false negatives can be taken into account to enhance performance in estimating firing pattern statistics. Available models of this type, however, are only approximate and use Gaussian distributions, which are not strictly suitable for modeling renewal point processes...
January 26, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Ladislav Soukup, Jana Hruskova, Pavel Jurak, Josef Halamek, Eva Zavodna, Ivo Viscor, Magdalena Matejkova, Vlastimil Vondra
The main goal of this study was to make a comparison of aortic flow timing obtained by PW Doppler in four aortic sections with timing of - dZ/dt max obtained by bioimpedance measurement in nine locations on the thorax and neck. This knowledge is essential for determination of which bioimpedance channel could be used as a proximal for evaluation of pulse wave velocity (PWV) from the beginning of the ascending aorta or another aortic section. Time intervals between the Doppler flow and bioimpedance information (- dZ/dt max) were compared...
January 24, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Nazife Begum Karan, Sevil Kahraman
The possible negative outcomes of mandibular setback surgery (MSS) on the upper airway (UA) have become an important issue in recent years. The purpose of the present study was to compare the different amounts of MSS and to confirm the accepted maximum amount of mandibular setback by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. An anatomically similar UA model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of a systemically healthy individual. Two out of six models were kept as control models and the remaining four models were created to represent MSS scenarios with different amounts to correct Class III skeletal abnormality...
January 23, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Zhi Li, Shanshan Gao, Hongyu Chen, Ruiyang Ma, Tingting Wu, Haiyang Yu
Micromotion between IAI affects long-term survival rate of dental implants. The use of practical implants for mechanical test is costly. Finite element analysis (FEA) could test the micron level deformation changes, but whether it reflects the in vitro mechanical performances remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the correlation between IAI micromotion of FEA and in vitro performances. The two-step-two-component FEA method was used to test the relative deformation between IAI for three implant designs (M1, M2, and M3) during torque loading and cyclic oblique loading...
January 17, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Monica Betta, Alberto Landi, Piero Manfredi, Marco Laurino
The introduction of mass vaccination against Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV) is being delayed in many European countries mainly because of the "fear" of a subsequent boom in natural herpes zoster (HZ) incidence in the first decades after the initiation of vaccination, caused by the expected decline in the protective effect of natural immunity boosting due to reduced virus circulation. Optimal control theory has proven to be a successful tool in understanding ways to curtail the spread of infectious diseases by devising the optimal disease intervention strategies...
January 16, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Qiming Liu, Jie Liu, Fengjiao Guan, Xu Han, Lixiong Cao, Kezhen Shan
To fully understand the brain injury mechanism and develop effective protective approaches, an accurate constitutive model of brain tissue is firstly required. Generally, the brain tissue is regarded as a kind of viscoelastic material and is simply used in the simulation of brain injury. In fact, the brain tissue has the behavior of the visco-hyperelastic property. Therefore, this paper presents an effective computational inverse method to determine the material parameters of visco-hyperelastic constitutive model of brain white matter through compression experiments...
January 11, 2019: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
G Caiti, J G G Dobbe, E Bervoets, M Beerens, S D Strackee, G J Strijkers, G J Streekstra
Use of patient-specific fixation plates is promising in corrective osteotomy of the distal radius. So far, custom plates were mostly shaped to closely fit onto the bone surface and ensure accurate positioning of bone segments, however, without considering the biomechanical needs for bone healing. In this study, we investigated how custom plates can be optimized to stimulate callus formation under daily loading conditions. We calculated implant stress distributions, axial screw forces, and interfragmentary strains via finite element analysis (FEA) and compared these parameters for a corrective distal radius osteotomy model fixated by standard and custom plates...
December 26, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Kaya Kuru, Darren Ansell, Martin Jones, Christian De Goede, Peter Leather
Unsatisfactory cure rates for the treatment of nocturnal enuresis (NE), i.e. bed-wetting, have led to the need to explore alternative modalities. New treatment methods that focus on preventing enuretic episodes by means of a pre-void alerting system could improve outcomes for children with NE in many aspects. No such technology exists currently to monitor the bladder to alarm before bed-wetting. The aim of this study is to carry out the feasibility of building, refining and evaluating a new, safe, comfortable and non-invasive wearable autonomous intelligent electronic device to monitor the bladder using a single-element low-powered low-frequency ultrasound with the help of Machine Learning techniques and to treat NE by warning the patient at the pre-void stage, enhancing quality of life for these children starting from the first use...
December 26, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Teodor Buchner
In order to propose an interpretation of recent experimental findings concerning short-term variability of arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate variability (HRV), and their dependence on body posture, we develop a qualitative dynamical model of the short-term cardiovascular variability at respiratory frequency (HF). It shows the respiratory-related blood pressure fluctuations in relation to the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Results of the model-based analysis show that the observed phenomena may be interpreted as buffering of the respiratory-related ABP fluctuations by heart rate (HR) fluctuations, i...
December 22, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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