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Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia

Andreas Bringmann
The cellular structure and functional relevance of the bird fovea are still incompletely understood. This review gives an overview of the cellular composition of the bird fovea, with special regard to Müller glial cells that provide the mechanical stability of the foveal tissue. A survey of previous data shows that the visual acuity of different bird groups (with the exception of owls) depends on the eye size, while the shape of the foveal pit does not correlate with the visual acuity. Among various bird groups, the foveal pit may have two depths, shallow (80-120 µm) or deep (190-240 µm)...
February 7, 2019: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Ahmed Saif Hilal Al-Amri, Waleed Al-Marzooqi, Mohammed Al-Abri, Eugene H Johnson
An ultrastructural study on the platelets from peripheral blood samples from 20 healthy adult Arabian oryx (Oryx leucocoryx) was performed. Characteristic was the extreme polymorphism of both the platelets, as well as their alpha granules. They vary in size from 100 to 800 nm in diameter and their numbers typically are less than those reported for humans and other animal species. Also, the alpha granules in contrast to those of humans and animals, such as the Arabian tahr, do not have nucleoids. Typically, the oryx platelets exhibit only 1-2 electron-dense bodies per cell and they lack an open canalicular system...
February 7, 2019: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Ana Cecília Machado Cruvinel, Matheus Camargos de Britto Rosa, Bruna Lívia Lopes Guimarães, Cecília Ferreira Amaral Silva, Paulo Henrique de Sampaio da Silva, Cesar de Lima Borges Leão, Juliano V Peixoto, João Chrysostomo de Resende Júnior, Antonio Carlos Cunha Lacreta Junior, Marcelo Passamani, André Rodrigues da Cunha Barreto-Vianna, Eduardo M M de Lima, Gregório Corrêa Guimarães
The name of the species tetradactyla means "four digits." In the literature, the hand of the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla) is described as having four digits (I, II, III and IV) with the absence of a fifth digit. The purpose of this study was to carry out an update adequately proposing an anatomical description of the T. tetradactyla hand. The present findings were analysed on the validation of Morse's law for this species. In total, seven male cadavers were radiographed and dissected. We observed that the hand of the T...
February 7, 2019: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Hideki Endo, Son Truong Nguyen, Masataka Yoshida, Kohei Kudo
The three-dimensionally real position and movement of the scapula in the lateral side of the ribcage could not be clarified in the horse, since the body size of the horse is too large to apply the CT scanning and image analysis methods. In this study, therefore, we examined the position and the movability of scapula using a carcass of the Falabella which is one of the smallest breeds of the horse. The whole skeletal system in thoracic part of the Falabella could be three-dimensionally observed by CT scanning method...
January 29, 2019: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Taiki Matsuo, Fumio Morita, Daisuke Tani, Hitomi Nakamura, Yasuo Higurashi, Junji Ohgi, Claudius Luziga, Naomi Wada
The mammalian forelimb is adapted to different functions including postural, locomotor, feeding, exploratory, grooming and defence. Comparative studies on morphology of the mammalian scapula have been performed in an attempt to establish the functional differences in the use of the forelimb. In this study, a total of 102 scapulae collected from 66 species of animals, representatives of all major taxa from rodents, sirenians, marsupials, pilosa, cetaceans, carnivores, ungulates, primates and apes, were analysed...
January 29, 2019: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Sérgio Ricardo Rios Nascimento, Cristiane Regina Ruiz, Samara Urban de Oliva
The use of hearts from different animals as models in the experimental pharmacology and surgical clinic has led, in recent years, to an increase on interest of research with this organ. The heart's conducting system, from the septomarginal trabecula, presents several variations, which generates numerous controversies in the literature. So, the objective of the present study is to analyse the morphology of the septomarginal trabecula of bovine hearts, identifying possible macro- and microscopic variations. Thirty-four bovine hearts were analysed...
January 21, 2019: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Modesta Makungu
The aim of this study was to provide the detailed normal gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvic limb in adult small East African goats as a reference for clinical use, biomedical research and teaching. Radiography of the pelvic limb was performed in five adult small East African goats. Bone specimens of four skeletally mature small East African goats were used for gross osteological study. The ilial wing was wide. The ischiatic tuberosity was prominent and well developed. The acetabulum was rounded...
January 21, 2019: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Patricia Mendoza, Robson F Giglio, Christopher Olmo, Jeffrey R Abbott, Richard D Johnson, Clifford R Berry
Accessory fissures in the lungs are well described in humans, considered a normal finding, being identified in 60% of autopsied lungs, and more prevalent in the right lung (Gesase, ; Nene, Gajendra, & Sarma, 2011). In dogs, interlobar fissures are well recognized, but there is the lack of anatomic characterization for accessory fissures in the accessible literature. The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify the prevalence and to describe the anatomic localization of accessory fissures. The lungs from 87 dog cadavers used to teach veterinary gross anatomy were collected...
January 18, 2019: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Maneenooch Khiao In, Kenneth C Richardson, Anna Loewa, Sarah Hedtrich, Sabine Kaessmeyer, Johanna Plendl
Because of the shortage of human skin for research purposes, porcine skin has been used as a model of human skin. The aim of this study was to identify the region of German Landrace pig skin that could be used as the best possible substitute for human abdominal skin. Porcine samples were collected from the ear, flank, back and caudal abdomen; human abdominal skin samples were excised during plastic surgery. Histological and ultrastructural assessments were carried out on the epidermis and dermis, with emphasis on the dermo-epidermal interface length, dermo-epidermal thickness ratio as well as densities of; hair follicles, arrector pili muscles, blood vessels and sweat glands...
January 16, 2019: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Tomasz Uzar, Wojciech Andrzejewski, Jerzy Kozak
The inferior pharyngeal bones are a characteristic feature of the Cyprinidae. Morphology of inferior pharyngeal bones is important in the diagnosis of carnivorous food, or determining the diet of fishes. Due to the lack of literature data, the aim of the study was to examine the morphology of the inferior pharyngeal bone in detail. 102 Blicca bjoerkna specimens caught in the River Warta (Poland) were analysed. 204 inferior pharyngeal bones were collected. The parameters of the inferior pharyngeal bones correlated with the measured head features and the total fish length...
January 4, 2019: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Fanny Hontoir, Erika Rejas, Ana Falticeanu, Jean-François Nisolle, Vincent Simon, Charles Nicaise, Peter D Clegg, Jean-Michel E Vandeweerd
Diffusion of drugs injected into the distal interphalangeal joint or the navicular (podotrochlear) bursa can influence diagnosis and treatment of foot pain. Previous anatomical and radiographic studies of the communication between these synovial structures have produced conflicting results and did not identify the location of any communication if present. This anatomic study aimed to assess the presence and site of communication between the distal interphalangeal joint and the navicular bursa in the horse by computed tomography arthrography...
January 4, 2019: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Mahmoud Abdelghaffar Emam, Ahmed I Abo-Ahmed
The moderator band (MB) is a common fibromuscular anatomical structure for the right ventricle of most animals. The histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of the MBs of Egyptian Baladi cattle in relation to age was the aim of this study. Eighteen clinically healthy animals of both sexes were used for this study. The animals were divided into three groups depending on age, group I (N = 4, <1 year), group II (N = 8, 1-2 years) and group III (N = 6, 4-8 years). Cross sections of the MBs from all groups were stained with H&E, Masson's trichrome and anti-connexin43 (Cx43) antibody for histological and immunohistochemical examinations...
December 26, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Miguelangel Moncayo-Donoso, Johana M Guevara, Kalenia Márquez-Flórez, Marta R Fontanilla, Luis A Barrera, Diego A Garzón-Alvarado
In mammals, long bones are formed by ossification of a cartilaginous mould during early stages of development, through the formation of structures called the primary ossification centre, the secondary ossification centres (SOCs) and the physeal cartilages (PCs). The PC is responsible for long bone growth. The morphology of the PC and the SOCs varies during different stages of femoral growth. In this respect, several details involving the process of murine femoral development are lacking. In the present study, a morphological characterization of femur development from the embryonic period to adulthood in mice was studied using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)...
December 25, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Mahendra Pratap Singh Tomar, Neelam Bansal
The development of retina in Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has not been reported previously. The aim of the present study was therefore to report the major landmarks and the time course in the development of retina. Serial histological sections of Indian buffalo embryos and foetuses were used as group1 (<20.0 cm CVRL), group2 (>20.0 but <40.0 cm CVRL) and group3 (>40.0 cm CVRL). Age estimation was made on the basis of crown vertebral-rump length (CVRL), which ranged between 36 and 286 days (1...
December 10, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Maria Cristina Ferrarini Nunes Soares Hage, Rejane Dos Santos Sousa, Davi Siqueira Chaves, Raduan Hage, Francisco Leonardo Costa de Oliveira, Mailson Renan Borges Dias, Natalia Sato Minami, Anna Carolina Mazeto Ercolin, Carolina Fortes Cirimbelli, Enrico Lippi Ortolani
The purpose of this work was to determine a radiographic standard of normality for lateral and medial ungulae in 3-year-old bovine females of the Nellore breed. Twenty-six cows underwent radiographic exposure of the medial and lateral ungulae of the hindlimbs and forelimbs; abaxioaxial projections were used. The images were analyzed; distances were measured between the dorsal surface of the distal phalanx and the surface of the hoof capsule. The two angles formed, i.e., an angle between the dorsal surface of the distal phalanx and a line parallel to the sole (inner), and an angle between the dorsal surface of the hoof and a line parallel to the sole (outer), were also recorded...
December 3, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Mohamed M A Abumandour
The present investigation was designed to describe the surface ultrastructure of the gill system of tilapia Zilli. The gill system is formed from four gill arches and each gill arch carries a row of gill filaments on its convex border and two rows of the gill rakers on its concave border. The quadrilateral interbranchial septum has elevated part at the level of the third gill arch. By SEM observations, the gill arch was divided into three regions: rostral, middle and caudal region. The caudal region contained two characteristic structures: oval leaf-like structure and rounded-shaped structure...
November 25, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Wentao Tan, Xueming Zhang, Zhengzhu Wang, Yue Chen, Aibing Wang, Meiran Chu, Bo Tang, Ziyi Li
Wilms' tumour 1 gene (WT1) is essential for the development of mammalian urogenital system. However, the expression pattern of WT1 in the development of porcine urogenital organs is still unclear. Here, we examined the expression of WT1 mRNA and protein in porcine kidneys, ovaries and testes from embryonic days 35 and 60 (E35d, E60d, n = 3) to the newborn (0d, n = 4) and adult (210d, n = 3) stages, using real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining. Real-time PCR analysis showed that porcine kidneys, ovaries and testes all expressed high level of WT1 mRNAs, especially in adult testes (p < 0...
November 18, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Elsayed Metwally, Sameh M Farouk, Md Shafayat Hossain, Obayed Raihan
The optic nerve (ON) is an important organ in the visual system of animals, which transfers electrical impulses towards the brain from the retina. High enrichment of glial cells in ON is known to support neuron and regulate retinal homoeostasis. However, research on immunohistochemical of glial cells proteins in the camel is scanty in available literature. Hence, the current work is an attempt to investigate the histomorphology of camel ON with regard to the expression patterns of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), myelin basic protein (MBP) and Iba1 for the three glial subtypes, namely astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia, respectively...
November 18, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Joy Y Balta, Maria Twomey, Fiachra Moloney, Orla Duggan, Kevin P Murphy, Owen J O'Connor, Michael Cronin, John F Cryan, Michael M Maher, Siobhain M O'Mahony
Cadaveric material has long been used to teach anatomy and more recently to train students in clinical skills. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach to compare the impact of four embalming solutions on the tissues of human cadavers. To this end, a formalin-based solution, Thiel, Genelyn and Imperial College London soft-preservation (ICL-SP) solution were compared. The effect of these chemicals on the properties of the tissue was assessed by measuring the range of motion (ROM) of joints and measuring the dimensions of different structures on computed tomography (CT) images before and after embalming...
November 18, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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January 2019: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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