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Microbiology and Immunology

Nashwa H M Abdel-Maksoud, Ahmed El-Shamy, Hanaa H A Gomaa, Mokhtar M A Eltarabilli, Mohamed Fawzy
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is among the serious nosocomial infections affecting the hemodialysis (HD) patients. Nevertheless, certain HBV variants are not detected in the routine serological tests in the Egyptian dialysis units owing to the mutations that change important viral antigens (Ag). In addition, these mutations result in the appearance of different HBV variants with different clinical forms. Thus, the present study aimed to assess different clinical forms of HBV infections and viral genotypes among HD patients in Ismailia governorate...
January 24, 2019: Microbiology and Immunology
Takayuki Abe, Yuki Marutani, Ikuo Shoji
It has not been fully elucidated how host cells recognize many kinds of RNA and DNA viruses and initiate innate antiviral responses against them. Over the past decade, investigations into the mechanisms underlying these antiviral responses have focused extensively on immune surveillance sensors that recognize virus-derived components (such as lipids, sugars, and nucleic acids). These researches have suggested that the antiviral responses are mediated by cytosolic or intracellular compartment sensors and their adaptor molecules (e...
January 24, 2019: Microbiology and Immunology
Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
Silkworm, Bombyx mori, has various advantages as an experimental animal, such as low cost for rearing and a small ethical problem. Silkworm infection models with pathogenic bacteria have been established for identification of genes encoding virulence factors by a large-scale in vivo screening. In this review, we describe recent progress for the study of silkworm infection models for elucidating the mechanisms of fungi infection. The silkworm infection models have been established for Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Cryptococcus neoformans, which are yeast type fungi, and Aspergillus fumigatus, Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii, Arthroderma benhamiae, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum, and Rhizopus oryzae, which are filamentous fungi...
January 21, 2019: Microbiology and Immunology
Shota Koide, Wataru Hayashi, Yui Taniguchi, Hayato Tanaka, Kouji Kimura, Yukiko Nagano, Yoshichika Arakawa, Noriyuki Nagano
This study investigated the selective potential of group B Streptococcus isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) in a neonate-hypervirulent ST17 lineage by in vitro exposure to β-lactams. After the 19th passages of stepwise penicillin exposure yielded PRGBS exhibiting elevated penicillin MIC (0.5 mg/L), and drastically augmented ceftibuten MIC (>512 mg/L) with acquiring G406D predicted to provide destabilizing effect (ΔΔG 0.099 kcal/mol) on PBP2X structure. In early passages of stepwise cefotaxime exposure, PRGBS possessing G398E predicted to stabilize PBP2X (ΔΔG -0...
January 11, 2019: Microbiology and Immunology
Mariko Naito, Takashi Tominaga, Mikio Shoji, Koji Nakayama
The type IX secretion system (T9SS) was originally discovered in Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the pathogenic bacteria associated with periodontal disease and is now known to be present in many members of the phylum Bacteroidetes. The T9SS secretes a number of potent virulence factors, including the highly hydrolytic proteases called gingipains, across the outer membrane in P. gingivalis. To understand the entire machinery of T9SS, we performed exhaustive search for T9SS-related genes in P. gingivalis using the mariner family transposon (Tn) and Tn-seq analysis...
January 1, 2019: Microbiology and Immunology
Shinji Saito, Ikuyo Takayama, Mina Nakauchi, Shiho Nagata, Kunihiro Oba, Takato Odagiri, Tsutomu Kageyama
The H9N2 subtype of avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) has spread among domestic poultry and wild bird worldwide. H9N2 AIV is sporadically transmitted to humans from avian species. A total of 42 laboratory-confirmed cases of non-fatal human infection with the Eurasian Y280 and G1 lineages have been reported in China, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, and Egypt since 1997. H9N2 AIV infections in poultry have become endemic in Asia and the Middle East and are a major source of viral internal genes for other AIV subtypes, such that continuous monitoring of H9N2 AIV is recommended...
January 1, 2019: Microbiology and Immunology
Takako Kurata, Kiyoko Uchino, Chiemi Hotta, Atsushi Ogura, Tatsuya Miyoshi, Tomoko Ogawa, Daiki Kanbayashi, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Takahiro Yumisashi, Jun Komano
A total of 300 nucleic acid test (NAT)-confirmed rubella patients, mostly adults, were examined to address clinical value of rubella specific IgM test using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. The IgM titer increased after rash onset, and the median IgM titer at 3 days post-onset was significantly higher than those at previous days (p < 0.0001). Similarly, the IgM-positive rate at 3 days post-onset (61.5%) was significantly higher than those at previous days (p < 0.0001). We demonstrated that the IgM test against rubella at 3 days or more post-disease onset provided the most clinically relevant information...
December 14, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Ryo Kutsuna, Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama, Koji Mori, Masahiro Hayashi, Junko Tomida, Yuji Morita, Kaori Tanaka, Yoshiaki Kawamura
Taxonomic studies of strain PAGU 1678T , an obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain positive, spore-forming bacterium isolated from Biobreeding rat feces, were performed. This strain has been demonstrated that the ability to exacerbate pathosis in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed high homology with Paraclostridium bifermentans. To clear the accurate taxonomic position of strain PAGU 1678T , a comparative taxonomic study using P...
December 14, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Hajera Khatun, Yutaro Yamaoka, Yuki Matsushima, Satoko Matsunaga, Hirokazu Kimura, Jonhan Ho, Masahiro Shuda, Akihide Ryo
Trichodysplasia spinulosa associated polyomavirus (TSPyV), a newly identified polyomavirus has been implicated as a causative agent of trychodysplasia spinulosa (TS), a rare proliferative skin disease in severly immunocompromised hosts. The diagnosis using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been provided as a promising tool as it offers high specificity towards specific antigen. Till there is no good mAb available for diagnosis of TS disease. In this study we developed and characterized the mAbs specific for VP1 of TSPyV...
December 11, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Sandra Cadena-Mota, Adriana Monsiváis-Urenda, Mariana Salgado-Bustamante, César Monjarás-Ávila, Sofía Bernal-Silva, Saray Aranda-Romo, Daniel E Noyola
Leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor B1 (LILRB1) is a receptor with a significant role in several infectious, autoimmune, cardiovascular, and oncologic disorders. LILRB1 expression varies between individuals and may be associated to polymorphisms on the regulatory region of the LILRB1 gene, as well as to previous cytomegalovirus infection. We analyzed the contribution of these two factors to LILRB1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy young adults. LILRB1 expression in NK cells, T cells, B cells, and monocytes was significantly higher in subjects with previous cytomegalovirus infection than in those without infection (P < 0...
November 21, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Ryutaro Nishimura, Akio Abe, Yusuke Sakuma, Asaomi Kuwae
Bordetella species, including B. pertussis, have a type III secretion system that is highly conserved among Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Genes encoding the component proteins of a type III secretion system are localized at the bsc locus in the Bordetella genome. Here we investigated the function of a hypothetical protein Bcr4 encoded at the bsc locus in the B. bronchiseptica genome. We created a Bcr4-deficient mutant and determined the amounts of type III secreted proteins (e.g., BopB, BopN, and Bsp22) in both the supernatant fraction and whole-cell lysates of the Bcr4-deficient mutant...
November 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yoshifumi Naito, Saeko Hamaoka, Mao Kinoshita, Atsushi Kainuma, Masaru Shimizu, Hideya Katoh, Kiyoshi Moriyama, Ken J Ishii, Teiji Sawa
An effective vaccine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa would be hugely beneficial to people who are susceptible to the serious infections it causes. Vaccination against PcrV of the P. aeruginosa type III secretion system is a potential prophylactic strategy for improving the incidence and poor prognosis of P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Here, the effect of nasal PcrV adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG) was compared with a nasal PcrV/aluminum hydroxide gel (alum) vaccine. Seven mouse groups in the infection series were vaccinated intranasally with one of the following: 1, PcrV-CpG; 2, PcrV-alum; 3, PcrV alone; 4, CpG alone; 5, alum alone; 6 and 7, a saline control...
October 31, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Patricia C García, Braulio A Paillavil, Natalia Scioscia, James B Dale, Paulette Legarraga, Francisco J Salazar-Echegarai, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis, Aniela Wozniak
Protein subunit vaccines are often preferred because of their protective effcacy and safety. Lactic acid bacteria expressing heterologous antigens are a promising aproach for vaccine development. However, their safety in terms of toxicity and bacterial clearance must be evaluated. Anti-Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) vaccines face additional safety concerns because they may elicit autoimmune responses. We report here the assessment of toxicity, clearance and autoimmunity of an anti-streptococcal vaccine based in Lactococcus lactis (L...
October 25, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Mizue Matsushita, Torahiko Okubo, Takaki Hasegawa, Junji Matsuo, Takanori Watanabe, Sumio Iwasaki, Tatsuya Fukumoto, Kasumi Hayasaka, Kozi Akizawa, Chikara Shimizu, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Ciliates (Tetrahymena) can facilitate plasmid transfer among Escherichia coli or from E. coli to Salmonella Enteritidis via vesicle accumulation. In this study, we assessed whether ciliates promote the interactive transfer of plasmids encoding blaIMP-1 between fecal E. coli and environmental Aeromonas caviae. Both bacteria were mixed with or without ciliates and incubated overnight at 30°C. The frequency of plasmid-acquired bacteria was estimated by colony counts using an agar plate containing ceftazidim (CAZ) followed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment...
October 25, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yuko Shigeno, Mutsumi Toyama, Mutsumi Nakamura, Kimie Niimi, Eiki Takahashi, Yoshimi Benno
Chronic diarrhea among laboratory-bred marmosets represents a serious problem for the health control during experiments. Despite the growing demand for the laboratory-bred experimental marmosets, the mechanisms underlying the development of diarrhea and its effective treatment and prevention remain unclear. To explore the factors affecting the development of chronic diarrhea in the laboratory-bred marmosets, we analyzed the gut microbiota composition (GMC) of 58 laboratory-bred marmosets, including 19 animals with chronic diarrhea, using the terminal-RFLP analysis...
October 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Triveni Kalleshamurthy, Ranjitha Shekar, Harish Heballi Niranjanamurthy, Krithiga Natesan, Bibek Ranjan Shome, Rajendra Gulabrao Bambal, Lipi Sairiwal, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe, Amol Sahare, Sreenivasulu Kilari, Habibur Rahman, Rajeswari Shome
Brucellosis caused by the bacteria of the genus Brucella is an important zoonosis and constitute a serious public health hazard. Brucellosis is diagnosed mainly by Rose Bengal plate test and indirect ELISA which are associated with the reduced specificity due to the false positive serological reactions observed while screening B.abortus S19 vaccinated animals. Fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) was evaluated for screening the samples from cattle and buffalo calves with persistent antibody titres induced by vaccination...
October 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Nurhafiza Zainal, Kim-Kee Tan, Jefree Johari, Heselynn Hussein, Wan Rosmaiza Wan Musa, Jamiyah Hassan, Yee-Shin Lin, Sazaly AbuBakar
Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease in Southeast Asia, where the incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is approximately 30 to 53 per 100,000. Severe dengue, however, is rarely reported among individuals with SLE. Here, whether sera of patients with SLE cross-neutralize dengue virus (DENV) was investigated. Serum samples were obtained from individuals with SLE who were dengue IgG and IgM serology negative. Neutralization assays were performed against the three major DENV serotypes. Of the dengue serology negative sera of individuals with SLE, 60%, 61% and 52% of the sera at 1/320 dilution showed more than 50% inhibition against dengue type-1 virus (DENV-1), DENV-2 and DENV-3, respectively...
October 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Tho Duc Pham, Tuan Hai Nguyen, Hanako Iwashita, Taichiro Takemura, Kouichi Morita, Tetsu Yamashiro
Vibrio cholerae O1 causes cholera, and cholera toxin, the principal mediator of massive diarrhea, is encoded by ctxAB in the cholera toxin (CTX) prophage. In this study, the structures of the CTX prophage region of V. cholerae strains isolated during the seventh pandemic wave 1 in Asian countries were determined and compared. Eighteen strains were categorized into eight groups by CTX prophage region-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism and PCR profiles and the structure of the region of a representative strain from each group was determined by DNA sequencing...
October 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
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