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Behavioural Processes

Kamila Janaina Pereira, Marco Antonio Correa Varella, Karel Kleisner, Ondřej Pavlovič, Jaroslava Varella Valentova
Multicomponent stimuli improve information reception. In women, perceived facial and vocal femininity-masculinity (FM) are concordant; however, mixed results are found for men. Some feminine and masculine traits are related to sex hormone action and can indicate reproductive qualities. However, most of the current research about human mate choice focuses on isolated indicators, especially visual assessment of faces. We therefore examined the cross-modal concordance hypothesis by testing correlations between perceptions of FM based on facial, vocal, and behavioral stimuli...
April 16, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Cristiano Bertolucci
To cope with the variable environment, animals are continuously required to learn novel behaviours or, in certain cases, to inhibit automatic and previously learned behaviours. Traditionally, inhibition has been regarded as cognitively demanding and studied mostly in primates, other mammals and birds, using laboratory tasks, such as the cylinder task. Recent studies have also revealed that fish show high levels of inhibition in the cylinder task. However, conclusions on such results are undermined by evidence that the cylinder task may be inappropriate to compare such phylogenetically distant species...
April 16, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Luciana Leirião, Carla Piantoni, Pedro L Ribeiro, Carlos A Navas
Studies on ectothermic vertebrates generally lead to average indicators of thermal preferences measured in the laboratory, which do not say about responses to natural environmental change and may not inform about individual variation and its triggering mechanisms. We studied whether and how changes in costs of thermoregulation influence the preferred temperature (Tp ) of individual lizards and their energetic investment in thermoregulation by exposing specimens to three treatments of increasing costs, recording body temperature (Tb ) and distance walked (energetic investment)...
April 9, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Jacopo P Mortola
During the last days of incubation vocalization is a form of communication between the avian embryo and the incubating parent. Commonly, embryonic calls increase when ambient temperature (Ta) deviates from the optimal range, but no information is available on whether the characteristics of the calls differ between warming and cooling. Rate of calls, power spectra (distribution of the call's energy among its frequency components) and spectrograms (time-frequency plots) were obtained in chicken embryos during the external pipping phase, in normothermia (38 °C), during progressive cooling to Ta = 27 °C (C) or progressive warming to Ta = 43 °C (W) over a short (30 min) or a long (150 min) period...
April 6, 2019: Behavioural Processes
James Campbell
Underwater sound fields can be complex, both in open water and small tank environments. Here we measured 1) spatial variation in artificially elevated sound levels in a small fish tank for both particle motion and sound pressure. We confirmed that the ratio of pressure and particle motion deviated considerably from what would be expected in theoretical far field environments. We also tested 2) whether the acoustic response tendency of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) was correlated to the sound field conditions at their position at the moment of sound on-set...
April 3, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Birgit Szabo, Martin J Whiting, Daniel W A Noble
We have a poor understanding of differences in learning performance between male and female non-avian reptiles compared to other vertebrates. Recently, learning studies in non-avian reptiles greatly increased enabling us to test for sex-based learning using a meta-analysis. Although, we initially considered all reptiles, only lizard studies (N = 11) provided sufficient data to calculate effect sizes. We found weak evidence for sex-dependent learning. We found moderate heterogeneity in effect sizes across studies, yet our hypothesized moderator variables (type of stimuli, task type, species, genus and family) explained little variation...
April 2, 2019: Behavioural Processes
L Ancillotto, G Venturi, D Russo
Proximity to humans is a primary stressor for wildlife, especially in urban habitats where frequent disturbance may occur. Several bat species often roost in buildings but while the effects of disturbance inside the roost are well documented, little is known about those occurring in the proximity of roosts. We tested the effects of anthropogenic stressors on bats by monitoring reactions to disturbance in a colony of greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). We assessed disturbance by recording and quantifying the presence of people, domestic cats and noise sources near the roost...
April 2, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Mitch J Fryling, Linda J Hayes
The present commentary considers a paper by Silva, Silva, and Machado (2019) published in this special issue, which describes some relations between Behavioral Systems Theory and Interbehavioral Psychology. In particular, the systems aspects, field orientation, and role of experimentation in both Behavioral Systems Theory and Interbehavioral Psychology are discussed. Similarities and differences among the two perspectives are highlighted, and misconceptions about Interbehavioral Psychology are addressed.
March 27, 2019: Behavioural Processes
José João Pereira, Evandro P Lopes, Miguel Á Carretero, Raquel Vasconcelos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Artur Golawski, Michał Polakowski, Piotr Filimowski, Krzysztof Stępniewski, Katarzyna Stępniewska, Grzegorz Kiljan, Dawid Kilon, Małgorzata Pietkiewicz, Hanna Sztwiertnia, Anna Cichocka, Jakub Z Kosicki
Urban and rural habitats provide different conditions to wintering birds mainly due to different access to bird feeders. Returning to the food sources, even under the stress related to trapping, could play an important role in the energetic budget of wintering birds. We studied the duration of period between the first and the second capture of the Great Tits (Parus major) caught and ringed at bird feeders. We expected that recapturing of birds, which could be connected with their experience, would depend on their sex, age and on the size of human settlements (urban vs...
March 15, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Joshua C Gray, Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Harriet de Wit, James MacKillop, Abraham A Palmer
Delayed reward discounting (DRD) is a behavioral economic measure of impulsivity, reflecting how rapidly a reward loses value based on its temporal distance. In humans, more impulsive DRD is associated with susceptibility to a number of psychiatric diseases (e.g., addiction, ADHD), health outcomes (e.g., obesity), and lifetime outcomes (e.g., educational attainment). Although the determinants of DRD are both genetic and environmental, this review focuses on its genetic basis. Both rodent studies using inbred strains and human twin studies indicate that DRD is moderately heritable, a conclusion that was further supported by a recent human genome-wide association study (GWAS) that used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to estimate heritability...
March 12, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Rusty W Nall, Jillian M Rung, Timothy A Shahan
Differential-reinforcement-based treatments involving extinction of target problem behavior and reinforcement of an alternative behavior are highly effective. However, extinction of problem behavior is sometimes difficult or contraindicated in clinical settings. In such cases, punishment instead of extinction may be used in combination with alternative reinforcement. Although it is well documented that omitting alternative reinforcement can produce recurrence (i.e., resurgence) of behavior previously suppressed by extinction plus alternative reinforcement, it remains unclear if resurgence similarly occurs for behavior previously suppressed by punishment plus alternative reinforcement...
March 9, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Yosuke Kurihara, Mari Nishikawa, Koji Mochida
Primates flexibly change their grooming behavior depending on group size and composition to maintain social relationships among group members. However, how drastic social changes influence their grooming behavior remains unclear. We observed the grooming behavior of adult female Japanese macaques in two groups temporarily formed as one-female groups from multi-female groups and compared their behaviors between the multi-female and one-female periods. Adult females more frequently performed grooming with both their relatives and unrelated juveniles during the one-female period when other adult females were unavailable as alternatives to their absent familiar partners...
March 9, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Mary Jean Amon, Luis H Favela
Distributed cognition generally refers to situations in which task requirements are shared among multiple agents or, potentially, off-loaded onto the environment. With few exceptions, socially distributed cognition has largely been discussed in terms of intraspecific interactions. This conception fails to capture some forms of group-level cognition among human and non-human animals that are not readily measured or explained in mentalistic or verbal terms. In response to these limitations, we argue for a more stringent set of empirically-verifiable criteria for assessing whether a system is an instance of distributed cognition: interaction-dominant dynamics, agency, and shared task orientation...
March 5, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Marco Marini, Fabio Paglieri
A decoy is an irrelevant option that, when added to a binary choice, is not selected but nonetheless alters the subjects' preferences, systematically biasing towards its target. The decoy effect, also known as attraction effect, is considered an anomaly of rational decision-making, albeit its applicability to real-life choices outside of laboratory settings has been challenged. In particular, when decoys have been studied in choices between outcomes occurring at different points in time, i.e. intertemporal choices, or with different probabilities of realizing their utility, i...
March 5, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Kenneth W Jacobs, Zachary H Morford, James E King
Disequilibrium theory is an approach to reinforcement that reconsiders the putative response strengthening prowess of stimuli. This disequilibrium approach-the pinnacle of the response deprivation hypothesis-reliably predicts changes in behavior without reference to a response strengthening process. While the strengthening model of reinforcement has received renewed and critical appraisal in behavior analysis, its appraisers have not fully considered the role that a disequilibrium conceptualization might play in their respective theories of reinforcement...
March 1, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Michael Domjan, Germán Gutiérrez
In this paper we review and update evidence relevant to formulating a behavior system for sexual learning. We emphasize behavioral rather than neurobiological evidence and mechanisms. Our analysis focuses on three types of responses or response modes: general search, focal search, and consummatory or copulatory behavior. We consider how these response modes are influenced by three categories of stimuli: spatially distributed contextual cues, arbitrary localized stimuli, and species-typical cues provided by the sexual partner...
March 1, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Adam E Fox, Emma J Visser, Alycia M Nicholson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Nora H Prior, Marie S A Fernandez, Hédi A Soula, Clémentine Vignal
Seasonally-breeding species experience significant and predictable shifts in vocal behaviour; however, it is unclear to what extent this is true for species that breed opportunistically. The Australian zebra finch is an opportunistically breeding species, which means individuals must time breeding bouts based on many environmental factors. Here we tested the effect of experimental water restriction, which suppresses reproductive readiness in zebra finches, on vocal behaviour of males and females. More specifically, we quantified the effect of water restriction on three parameters of vocal behaviour within pair-bonded zebra finches: vocal activity, patterns of vocal exchanges, and the acoustic structure of vocalisations (calls and male song)...
February 27, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Eszter Matrai, Matthias Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Shaw Ting Kwok
Perceptual and behavioral asymmetry has been observed in a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate species with its origin estimated to go back over 500 million years. Previously, hemispheric lateralization in marine mammals has been recorded during foraging, parental care, preferred swimming direction as well as when solving cognitive challenges. Visual laterality has been demonstrated in preferred eye use and performance accuracy. A female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin was trained to associate eight pairs of non-identical visual stimuli...
February 16, 2019: Behavioural Processes
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