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Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology | Page 2

Amin Amini, Konstantinos Banitsas
The Kinect sensor has been widely used in different applications such as rehabilitation and gait analysis. Whilst Kinect v2 was released with several improvements over its predecessor, it still incorporates depth-map intrinsic inaccuracies. This results in inconsistencies in skeletal-data acquisition, especially in joint localisation and distance-to-ground tracking with respect to the Kinect's 3-D Cartesian coordinate reference point. This research proposes a correction technique based on the two-point linear equation derived from the information gathered from different subjects' skeletal data and data regression analysis to compensate the inaccuracies in joint-to-ground data collection...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Mirae Harford, Samuel H Clark, Jodie F Smythe, Stephen Gerry, Mauricio Villarroel, Joao Jorge, Sitthichok Chaichulee, Lionel Tarassenko, Duncan Young, Peter Watkinson
Thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) are non-invasive methods to estimate stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). Thoracic electrical bioimpedance is not in widespread clinical use with reports of inaccurate cardiac output estimation compared to invasive monitors, particularly in non-healthy populations. We explore its use as a trend monitor by comparing it against thoracic echocardiography in fifteen healthy volunteers undergoing two physical challenges designed to vary cardiac output...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Yomna H Shash, Mohamed A A Eldosoky, Mohamed T Elwakad
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, a network of vessels and blood. Blood vessels are the tubular structure carrying blood through the tissues and organs. Disorders in this vast network can cause a range of health problems which can be severe or fatal. Blood pooling method has been used to measure the change in blood volume of the thigh, abdomen, limbs, etc. with the pressure change. This method occludes the vessel to prevent blood flowing out of the segment being investigated. In recent years, bioimpedance analysis (BIA) has become a popular modality in detecting various body diseases since it is a non-invasive, low-cost and simple for usage...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Michael Schmidt, Torsten Prietzel, Toni Wendler, Robert Möbius, Stefan Schleifenbaum, Niels Hammer, Ronny Grunert
Following total hip arthroplasty (THA), leg length can easily be modified, for example by different-sized endoprosthetic components. Currently, precise reconstruction depends mainly on the assessment of the surgeon. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of a new optical measuring system (OMS) using a novel measuring method capable of determining changes in leg length. Measurements with different investigators on an artificial leg and under clinical conditions were carried out. Measurements under clinical conditions were accomplished with a human body donor before and following prosthetic hip implantation...
April 3, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
M E Boghosian, M S Hammes, K W Cassel, S M J Akherat, F Coe
The surgical creation of an artery-vein connection via a Brachicephalic fistula (BCF) in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) provides a unique opportunity to study blood vessel response mechanisms to extreme hemodynamic conditions in relatively short timeframes. After BCF creation, the flow rate in the vein increases by an order of magnitude leading to separated flows and corresponding abnormally low, or negative, wall shear stress (WSS) in the curved arch segment of the cephalic vein. Locations of abnormally low WSS are shown to correlate with development of neointimal hyperplasia (NH) and subsequent stenosis...
April 3, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Jukka A Lipponen, Mika P Tarvainen
Purpose: Heart rate variability is a commonly used measurement to evaluate functioning of autonomic nervous system, psychophysiological stress, and exercise intensity and recovery. HRV measurements contain artefacts such as extra, missed or misaligned beat detections, which can produce significant distortion on HRV parameters. In this paper, a robust automatic method for artefact detection from HRV time series is proposed. Methods: The proposed detection method is based on time-varying thresholds estimated from distribution of successive RR-interval differences combined with a novel beat classification scheme...
April 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Kiruthika V, Sathiya S, Ramya M M
Detection of ovarian follicle/cysts and monitoring its growth is vital in infertility treatment in women. Ultrasound imaging technique is used for recognition of ovarian follicles and cysts. Profound variation in location, shape, size and color is seen in follicles. Human interpretation of follicles gives a chance for misinterpretation and false diagnosis. Follicle recognition becomes a challenging task due to the non-homogenous nature of the follicles and presence of speckle noise. To overcome this problem, computer assisted recognition of ovarian follicle and cysts followed by ovarian classification were proposed...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Carlos Zerpa, Ayan Sadhu, Mohamed Khalil Zammali, Katelyn Varga
This study examined the effect of a spring-loaded cane stiffness reduction on upper and lower extremity ground reaction forces in time and frequency domain during cane-aided walking. Twenty-nine participants walked five times over two force plates with a spring-loaded cane set at four different stiffnesses and T-scope knee brace set at 30° of knee flexion to simulate a foot injury. Time-frequency domain analyses revealed an increase in ground reaction forces at the simulated injured foot and a decrease in ground reaction forces at the hand via the shaft of the cane for each spring loaded-cane stiffness reduction during walking...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Erick Javier Argüello Prada, Rafael Daniel Serna Maldonado
Low-amplitude PPG signals are more affected by noise contamination and other undesirable effects because the signal strength is comparable to noise power. Although several authors claim that decreases in the amplitude of the PPG wave should be addressed from signal acquisition and conditioning stages such decreases can also be associated with changes in the patient condition. In that instance, it is important to ensure continuous and reliable HR monitoring which, in turn, depends on how robust is the peak detection method...
March 28, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Alfred Sarkissian
Medical device manufacturing and distribution is globalised; consequently, medical device failures pose serious but preventable global public health hazard. Moreover, a clear understanding of recalls will help firms improve their operations. This study examines 871 U.S. FDA Class I (i.e. most serious) medical device recalls, highlights the shortcomings of the recall reporting system and proposes recommendations for improvement. Top three recall reasons are: "packaging" (47.4%), "component" issues (14%) and "design" (13...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Abbigail J Ramadhar, Frank Abraham, Christoph McAllen
Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) is prohibitively expensive at the moment and therefore not easily accessible in low-income countries. An additional problem is the requirement of consistent reliable electricity to power the devices. A new low-cost NPWT device was designed from low cost and simple materials and it can be built and operated following a simple set of instructions. The so-called Gravity device was made from parts costing just under £6 GBP (May 2016) and it creates a constant pressure of 125 mmHg...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Nilanjan Das, Nikita Nagpal, Shailee Singh Bankura
Amputation is one of the serious issue across the globe which is mainly caused by trauma, medical illness or congenital condition. Because of steep increase in amputation incidences, the need for progress in technicality of prosthesis is becoming imperative. In this article, the journey of advancements in upper arm prosthesis has been discussed step by step. Moreover, it has also been enunciated that how from a simple replacement for an arm it now has reached the mark of giving a patient a fully functional limb with the help of sensors and myoelectric transducers that are able to translate the remaining muscle signals into full movement of the prosthesis...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Carlos A Ferri, Antonio A F Quevedo
Peripheral nerve stimulators have widespread among anaesthesiologists and remain a popular technique. However, in commercial devices, the user has to manually adjust stimulus intensity. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose a method that allows automating the current intensity control. An earlier nerve stimulator prototype was modified to add an accelerometer and an sEMG module. The choice of these two sensors is aimed at the possibility of observing the mechanical and electrical responses of the muscle contraction evoked by the stimulation...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Mohammad Akrami, Kim Craig, Mahdieh Dibaj, Akbar A Javadi, Abdelmalek Benattayallah
A three-dimensional hip model was created from the MRI scans of one human subject based on constructing the entire pelvis and femur. The ball and socket joint was modelled between the hip's acetabulum and the femoral head to analyse the multiaxial loads applied in the hip joint. The three key ligaments that reinforce the external surface of the hip to help to stabilise the joint were also modelled which are the iliofemoral, the pubofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments. Each of these ligaments wraps around the joint connection to form a seal over the synovial membrane, a line of attachment around the head of the femur...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
A Sharmila, P Geethanjali
In this pattern recognition study of detecting epilepsy, the first time the authors have attempted to use time domain (TD) features such as waveform length (WL), number of zero-crossings (ZC) and number of slope sign changes (SSC) which are extracted from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for the detecting the epilepsy for University of Bonn datasets and real-time clinical data. The performance of these TD features is studied along with mean absolute value (MAV) which has been attempted by other researchers...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Yubing Shi, Patricia Lawford, D Rodney Hose
Lumped-parameter models are widely used by cardiovascular researchers in the analysis of the circulatory dynamics. However, portability and model exchange have always been a problem, with different researchers implement the model differently. To improve the situation, in this study, a group of lumped-parameter cardiovascular system models with different levels of complexity have been implemented using the CellML mark-up language. The models have been curated and made publicly available in the CellML model repository, and the purpose of this paper is to provide further technical details to support the usage of these models by the research community...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Miguel Sotaquirá, Demián Alvear, Misael Mondragón
Cardiac auscultation is one of the most conventional approaches for the initial assessment of heart disease, however the technique is highly user-dependent and with low repeatability. Several computational approaches based on the analysis of the phonocardiograms (PCG) have been proposed to classify heart sounds into normal or abnormal, but most often do not achieve acceptable levels of sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) or require the use of special hardware. We propose a novel approach for classification of PCG...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Jan-Christoph Edelmann, Dominik Mair, Daniel Ziesel, Martin Burtscher, Thomas Ussmueller
This work introduces a low-cost open-source electrocardiography (ECG) simulator comprising both MATLAB software for signal generation and a dedicated circuit board for signal output via a commercial sound card. Synthetic, rate-dependent ECG simulation is based on third-order polynomials that are calculated in sections for the main waves and spikes, respectively. Besides the heart rate, the output profile is fully adjustable with respect to Einthoven lead signals I-III, the amplitudes of the individual ECG waves and spikes, as well as the constitution and intensity of common distortions...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Gerard Cummins, Ben F Cox, Jack D Walker, Sandy Cochran, Marc P Y Desmulliez
The role of technology in healthcare is rapidly evolving. However, it can be argued that gastroenterology has not kept pace with other medical fields due to the multifaceted needs of this speciality and other issues. Innovation in healthcare technology increasingly requires interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers and clinicians. Nevertheless, working in such an interdisciplinary environment can be challenging due to factors such as working culture, communication and difference in priorities. We surveyed the views of clinicians specialising in gastroenterology and engineers on interdisciplinary health research...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Peter K Moua, Christopher L Nguyen, David A Piotrowski, Mitchell J Resch, Tasnia Tabassum, Kenneth Noonan, Amit J Nimunkar
One method to clear intraoperative blood from the surgical field is to remove blood with surgical sponges. Currently, absorbed blood cannot be retrieved effectively and is lost. A spinning device was created to salvage red blood cells from the sponges. With this device the sponges are gently washed with saline and the resultant bloody fluid can be delivered to a cell saver to prepare it for autologous blood transfusion. In this article, we demonstrate how a novel sponge extractor can be used to extract blood from sponges...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
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