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Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology | Page 2

Dhruv R Seshadri, Samantha Magliato, James E Voos, Colin Drummond
The digital health field has seen a surge in product development over the last decade, with product introductions ranging from wrist monitors, epidermal electronics, electronic pills and smart garments, much of these precipitated through the commercialisation and commoditisation of sensor technology. The emergence of wearable technology has recently garnered heightened interest by physicians and the general public. The convenient use of wireless technology to track and monitor physiological parameters, such as heart rate, distance, sleep and stress, has emerged to become relevant to patient care and human performance assessment...
May 23, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Farzaneh Aavani, Sajedeh Khorshidi, Akbar Karkhaneh
The diversity of wound types has gathered momentum to develop a wide range of wound dressings to improve different aspects of the wound healing process. Wound healing is a dynamic, complex and highly regulated mechanism of tissue repair and regeneration. The wound dressing should encourage regeneration and prevent possible infection or scaring. Wound dressings are different from the bandages as they come in direct contact with the wound and are used to absorb exudates and accelerate healing. Wound dressings can have a variety of functions, depending upon the type, severity, and position of the wound...
May 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Abhishek Mahajan, R Swarnalatha, Kashif Sherwani, Neelesh Kumar
Freezing of gait (FOG) is an episodic motor symptom that occurs in almost half of the patients having Parkinson's Disease (PD). Levodopa and other dopaminergic drugs, although quite effective for tremors and bradykinesia (dyskinesia) are not so effective in case of postural instability and freezing of gait. This establishes a need for a non-pharmacological intervention. It has been well established in research that PD patients who experience FOG respond positively to sensory cueing. In this paper, a complete modular system has been developed that has both: (i) biofeedback in the form of vibrational cueing, synchronised with gait (hardware), as well as (ii) real-time monitoring, and graph generation for offline analysis (software)...
May 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Georgios I Papagiannis, Athanasios I Triantafyllou, Ilias M Roumpelakis, Frantzeska Zampeli, Pinioti Garyfallia Eleni, Panayiotis Koulouvaris, Elias C Papadopoulos, Panayiotis J Papagelopoulos, George C Babis
Gait analysis is a significant diagnostic procedure for the clinicians who manage musculoskeletal disorders. Surface electromyography (sEMG) combined with kinematic and kinetic data is a useful tool for decision making of the appropriate method needed to treat such patients. sEMG has been used for decades to evaluate neuromuscular responses during a range of activities and develop rehabilitation protocols. The sEMG methodology followed by researchers assessed the issues of noise control, wave frequency, cross talk, low signal reception, muscle co-contraction, electrode placement protocol and procedure as well as EMG signal timing, intensity and normalisation so as to collect accurate, adequate and meaningful data...
May 10, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Alireza Karimi, Seyed Mohammadali Rahmati, Reza Razaghi, Mojtaba Hasani
The cerebellum is responsible for controlling the posture and walking stability of the body. The cerebellum can subject to the traumatic injuries following by complicated clinical problems, i.e., the cerebellar pathologies. Application of the computational models can be helpful to figure out the injury mechanisms of the cerebellum, however, there is a lack of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the cerebellum under compressive loading. Therefore, this study aimed to perform an experimental study to measure the mechanical properties of 17 male individuals' cerebellum under the series of compressive loadings...
May 9, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Joseph M Mahoney, Matthew B Rhudy
With the rising popularity of activity tracking, there is a desire to not only count the number of steps a person takes, but also identify the type of step (e.g., walking or running) they are taking. For rehabilitation and athletic training, this difference is important to the prescribed regiment. Fourteen healthy adults walked, jogged and ran on a treadmill at three different constant speeds (1.21, 2.01, 2.68 m/s) for 90 s. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) with accelerometer and gyroscope was affixed to their left ankle...
April 30, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Shayan Bahadori, Philip Davenport, Tikki Immins, Thomas W Wainwright
Human motion tracking is widely used for the assessment of movement dysfunction in orthopaedic patients. Currently, most clinical motion analysis centres use marker-based three-dimensional (3D) systems as they are deemed to be the most accurate method. However, due to space, costs and logistics they are not available in many clinical settings. This study compared joint angles measured in functional tests using the novel low-cost Microsoft Kinect Perfect Phorm system with the established marker-based Nexus VICON system...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
B H van Duren, M Lebe, D C Davies, H Pandit, N Somashekar
For surgical reconstruction of the medial patello-femoral ligament (MPFL) a variety of techniques are used for fixation of the graft to the medial border of the patella. The bone bridge or V-shaped tunnel technique utilises two tunnels drilled from the medial aspect of the patella that converge centrally creating a tunnel through which the graft is threaded. This technique has advantages: it avoids hardware (bone anchors) and their associated complications, creates a broad attachment of the ligament approximating normal anatomy and the tunnel does not breach the lateral cortex of the patella reducing the risk of patella fracture...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Amin Amini, Konstantinos Banitsas
The Kinect sensor has been widely used in different applications such as rehabilitation and gait analysis. Whilst Kinect v2 was released with several improvements over its predecessor, it still incorporates depth-map intrinsic inaccuracies. This results in inconsistencies in skeletal-data acquisition, especially in joint localisation and distance-to-ground tracking with respect to the Kinect's 3-D Cartesian coordinate reference point. This research proposes a correction technique based on the two-point linear equation derived from the information gathered from different subjects' skeletal data and data regression analysis to compensate the inaccuracies in joint-to-ground data collection...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Mirae Harford, Samuel H Clark, Jodie F Smythe, Stephen Gerry, Mauricio Villarroel, Joao Jorge, Sitthichok Chaichulee, Lionel Tarassenko, Duncan Young, Peter Watkinson
Thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) are non-invasive methods to estimate stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). Thoracic electrical bioimpedance is not in widespread clinical use with reports of inaccurate cardiac output estimation compared to invasive monitors, particularly in non-healthy populations. We explore its use as a trend monitor by comparing it against thoracic echocardiography in fifteen healthy volunteers undergoing two physical challenges designed to vary cardiac output...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Yomna H Shash, Mohamed A A Eldosoky, Mohamed T Elwakad
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, a network of vessels and blood. Blood vessels are the tubular structure carrying blood through the tissues and organs. Disorders in this vast network can cause a range of health problems which can be severe or fatal. Blood pooling method has been used to measure the change in blood volume of the thigh, abdomen, limbs, etc. with the pressure change. This method occludes the vessel to prevent blood flowing out of the segment being investigated. In recent years, bioimpedance analysis (BIA) has become a popular modality in detecting various body diseases since it is a non-invasive, low-cost and simple for usage...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Michael Schmidt, Torsten Prietzel, Toni Wendler, Robert Möbius, Stefan Schleifenbaum, Niels Hammer, Ronny Grunert
Following total hip arthroplasty (THA), leg length can easily be modified, for example by different-sized endoprosthetic components. Currently, precise reconstruction depends mainly on the assessment of the surgeon. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of a new optical measuring system (OMS) using a novel measuring method capable of determining changes in leg length. Measurements with different investigators on an artificial leg and under clinical conditions were carried out. Measurements under clinical conditions were accomplished with a human body donor before and following prosthetic hip implantation...
April 3, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
M E Boghosian, M S Hammes, K W Cassel, S M J Akherat, F Coe
The surgical creation of an artery-vein connection via a Brachicephalic fistula (BCF) in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) provides a unique opportunity to study blood vessel response mechanisms to extreme hemodynamic conditions in relatively short timeframes. After BCF creation, the flow rate in the vein increases by an order of magnitude leading to separated flows and corresponding abnormally low, or negative, wall shear stress (WSS) in the curved arch segment of the cephalic vein. Locations of abnormally low WSS are shown to correlate with development of neointimal hyperplasia (NH) and subsequent stenosis...
April 3, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Jukka A Lipponen, Mika P Tarvainen
Purpose: Heart rate variability is a commonly used measurement to evaluate functioning of autonomic nervous system, psychophysiological stress, and exercise intensity and recovery. HRV measurements contain artefacts such as extra, missed or misaligned beat detections, which can produce significant distortion on HRV parameters. In this paper, a robust automatic method for artefact detection from HRV time series is proposed. Methods: The proposed detection method is based on time-varying thresholds estimated from distribution of successive RR-interval differences combined with a novel beat classification scheme...
April 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Eeva Mäkelä, Hanna Venesvirta, Mirja Ilves, Jani Lylykangas, Ville Rantanen, Tuija Ylä-Kotola, Sinikka Suominen, Antti Vehkaoja, Jarmo Verho, Jukka Lekkala, Veikko Surakka, Markus Rautiainen
Reanimation of paralysed facial muscles by electrical stimulation has been studied extensively in animal models, but human studies in this field are largely lacking. Twenty-four subjects with a peripheral facial nerve palsy with a median duration of three years were enrolled. We studied activations of four facial muscles with electrical stimulation using surface electrodes. In subjects whose voluntary movement was severely impaired or completely absent, the electrical stimulation produced a movement that was greater in amplitude compared with the voluntary effort in 10 out of 18 subjects in the frontalis muscle, in 5 out of 14 subjects in the zygomaticus major muscle, and in 3 out of 8 subjects in the orbicularis oris muscle...
April 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Kiruthika V, Sathiya S, Ramya M M
Detection of ovarian follicle/cysts and monitoring its growth is vital in infertility treatment in women. Ultrasound imaging technique is used for recognition of ovarian follicles and cysts. Profound variation in location, shape, size and color is seen in follicles. Human interpretation of follicles gives a chance for misinterpretation and false diagnosis. Follicle recognition becomes a challenging task due to the non-homogenous nature of the follicles and presence of speckle noise. To overcome this problem, computer assisted recognition of ovarian follicle and cysts followed by ovarian classification were proposed...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Carlos Zerpa, Ayan Sadhu, Mohamed Khalil Zammali, Katelyn Varga
This study examined the effect of a spring-loaded cane stiffness reduction on upper and lower extremity ground reaction forces in time and frequency domain during cane-aided walking. Twenty-nine participants walked five times over two force plates with a spring-loaded cane set at four different stiffnesses and T-scope knee brace set at 30° of knee flexion to simulate a foot injury. Time-frequency domain analyses revealed an increase in ground reaction forces at the simulated injured foot and a decrease in ground reaction forces at the hand via the shaft of the cane for each spring loaded-cane stiffness reduction during walking...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Erick Javier Argüello Prada, Rafael Daniel Serna Maldonado
Low-amplitude PPG signals are more affected by noise contamination and other undesirable effects because the signal strength is comparable to noise power. Although several authors claim that decreases in the amplitude of the PPG wave should be addressed from signal acquisition and conditioning stages such decreases can also be associated with changes in the patient condition. In that instance, it is important to ensure continuous and reliable HR monitoring which, in turn, depends on how robust is the peak detection method...
March 28, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Alfred Sarkissian
Medical device manufacturing and distribution is globalised; consequently, medical device failures pose serious but preventable global public health hazard. Moreover, a clear understanding of recalls will help firms improve their operations. This study examines 871 U.S. FDA Class I (i.e. most serious) medical device recalls, highlights the shortcomings of the recall reporting system and proposes recommendations for improvement. Top three recall reasons are: "packaging" (47.4%), "component" issues (14%) and "design" (13...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Nilanjan Das, Nikita Nagpal, Shailee Singh Bankura
Amputation is one of the serious issue across the globe which is mainly caused by trauma, medical illness or congenital condition. Because of steep increase in amputation incidences, the need for progress in technicality of prosthesis is becoming imperative. In this article, the journey of advancements in upper arm prosthesis has been discussed step by step. Moreover, it has also been enunciated that how from a simple replacement for an arm it now has reached the mark of giving a patient a fully functional limb with the help of sensors and myoelectric transducers that are able to translate the remaining muscle signals into full movement of the prosthesis...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
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