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Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology

Clément D Favier, Janet A Deane, Alison H McGregor, Andrew T M Phillips
Balance recovery mechanisms are of paramount importance in situations like public transport where sudden loss of equilibrium can occur. These mechanisms can be altered by aging or pathological disorders. However it is almost impossible to investigate these phenomena in real-life conditions, and the safe environment of a laboratory is needed. This paper investigates how jerk perturbations in the transverse plane similar to those experienced on public transport can be simulated in a controlled manner. A platform capable of producing horizontal perturbations with a person standing on it was developed...
October 17, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
J S Frazer, G E Barnes, V Woodcock, E Flanagan, T Littlewood, R J Stevens, S Fleming, H F Ashdown
Between-individual variability of body temperature has been little investigated, but is of clinical importance: for example, in detection of neutropenic sepsis during chemotherapy. We studied within-person and between-person variability in temperature in healthy adults and those receiving chemotherapy using a prospective observational design involving 29 healthy participants and 23 patients undergoing chemotherapy. Primary outcome was oral temperature. We calculated each patient's mean temperature, standard deviation within each patient (within-person variability), and between patients (between-person variability)...
October 3, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
J Zuluaga-Gomez, N Zerhouni, Z Al Masry, C Devalland, C Varnier
Breast cancer is a disease that threat many women's life, thus, the early and accurate detection play a key role in reducing the mortality rate. Mammography stands as the reference technique for breast cancer screening; nevertheless, many countries still lack access to mammograms due to economic, social and cultural issues. Last advances in computational tools, infra-red cameras and devices for bio-impedance quantification allowed the development of parallel techniques like, thermography, infra-red imaging and electrical impedance tomography, these being faster, reliable and cheaper...
September 23, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Hanene Sahli, Aymen Mouelhi, Amine Ben Slama, Mounir Sayadi, Radhouane Rachdi
This paper presents an advanced approach for foetal brain abnormalities diagnostic by integrating significant biometric features in the identification process. In foetal anomaly diagnosis, manual evaluation of foetal behaviour in ultrasound images is a subjective, slow and error-prone task, especially in the preliminary treatment phases. The effectiveness of this appearance is strictly subject to the attention and the experience of gynaecologists. In this case, automatic methods of image analysis offer the possibility of obtaining a homogeneous, objective and above all fast diagnosis of the foetal head in order to identify pregnancy behaviour...
September 10, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Jovany Uribe Ocampo, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
The development process of medical devices (MDs) implies the integration of knowledge and skills from the fields of medicine and engineering. Such an integration is difficult because of lack of communication, mismatch of priorities and work-style differences among those fields. Besides, MD development has particularities that make the product development process (PDP) even more complex such as high level of regulations, concurrent technologies application as well as different end users requirements. In addition, these MDs are classified according to the level of risk they offer to users - low, medium and high - what makes their development project very complex in practice depending on the risk associated...
September 9, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Jamal Al-Nabulsi, Sameh El-Sharo, Nicole Salawy, Halah Al-Doori
The purpose of this study is to review available methods of utilising the human body to obtain energy during the course of daily life activities, without interference with an individual's lifestyle. The number of individuals with health issues requiring assistance from external or internal health-aiding devices is rapidly increasing. Battery life associated with these devices is currently a major limitation. Currently, medical devices that depend on batteries (i.e., implantable devices) require constant battery monitoring...
September 6, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Gardner Yost, Olivia Murray, Pam Kutz-McClain, Abby Koch, Mary L Delaney, Andrea M DuBois, Andrew B Onderdonk, Stacie Geller, Valerie Dobiesz
Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), the leading cause of maternal mortality, is particularly problematic in low resource settings where access to safe blood supplies and definitive medical treatment is limited. We describe the continued development of an autotransfusion device designed to treat PPH by collection, filtration and infusion of maternal blood. Previous study has demonstrated that the device effectively moves blood through a filtration apparatus and removes up to 97% of aerobic bacteria but had poor anaerobic bacteria reduction...
September 3, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Yubing Shi, Hongyi Yang
In vitro study plays an important role in the experimental study of cardiovascular dynamics. An essential hardware facility that mimics the blood flow changes and provides the required test conditions, a mock circulatory test rig (MCTR), is imperative for the execution of in vitro study. This paper examines the current MCTRs in use for the testing of artificial cardiovascular organs. Various aspects of the MCTRs are surveyed, including the necessity of in vitro study, the building of MCTRs, relevant standards, general system structure (e...
August 29, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Satish Singh, Rajesh Singh, Kushal Sen, Sneh Anand
The reported paper presents the development of a microwave sensor with a resonant frequency 2.4 GHz. The sensor is also demonstrated in vitro to investigate the variation in its response as a function of glucose concentration. The sensor could be used for the monitoring of blood glucose level in diabetics through non-invasive technology. The approach followed is based on the notion that, change in glucose concentration in the blood affects dielectric properties of blood which in turn produce an impact on reflection properties of the sensor...
August 29, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Alok Prakash, Bindu Kumari, Shiru Sharma
This paper proposes a low-cost and sensitive surface electromyography (sEMG) sensor for the myoelectric prosthesis. The sensor consists of a skin interface, signal conditioning circuitry and power supply unit all encased in a single package. The tuned RC parameters based envelope detection scheme employed in the sensor enables faster as well as reliable recognition of EMG signal patterns regardless of its strength and subject variability. The output performance of the developed sensor was compared with a commercial EMG sensor regarding signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), amplitude sensitivity and response time...
August 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Alireza Fallahi, Hamidreza Ghanbari Khorram, Alireza Kokabi
One of the most common causes of heart failure is ischaemia. In this disease, the heart muscles die due to the lack or insufficiency of the blood in the cardiac veins. As a result of such a phenomenon, the action potential in that part of the heart would fade. In this article, using the electric model of the cardiac cell and the mechanism of producing an ECG signal in the heart, the process of producing cardiac electrical potential has been modelled. In this regard, the basic constituent signals of the ECG are generated...
July 29, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Anupam Bhandari, Piyush Kuchhal
Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer tumours. In the present manuscript, improvement in the treatment of liver cancer through electromagnetic heating is studied using high dielectric material through mathematical modelling in COMSOL Multiphysics. It is observed from the result that without increasing the power input, intensity of the temperature can be increased by changing the dielectric constant. Treatment time in ablation of the liver tumour can also be reduced. Results are obtained for total power dissipation density, heat flux, temperature distribution and fraction of necrosis tissue...
July 17, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Jonathan S Varsanik, Zebadiah M Kimmel, Genevieve A Laforet, Valeria Ricotti, Gautam Sajeev, James Signorovitch, Jorge A Quiroz, Timothy W Chevalier
Ambient measurement systems (AMSs) can enable continuous assessment of functional performance at home, increasing the availability of data for monitoring of neuromuscular disease. An AMS passively measures movement whenever someone is in range of the sensor, without the need for any wearable sensors. The current study evaluates the performance of an AMS for three metrics associated with functional assessments in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): ambulation speed, rise-to-stand speed and arm-raise speed. Healthy paediatric subjects performed a series of functional tasks and were graded by both a human rater and an AMS...
July 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Simone Ambrogio, Adrian Walker, Andrew Narracott, Simone Ferrari, Prashant Verma, John Fenner
Cardiovascular fluid dynamics exhibit complex flow patterns, such as recirculation and vortices. Quantitative analysis of these complexities supports diagnosis, leading to early prediction of pathologies. Quality assurance of technologies that image such flows is challenging but essential, and to this end, a novel, cost-effective, portable, complex flow phantom is proposed and the design specifications are provided. The vortex ring is the flow of choice because it offers patterns comparable to physiological flows and is stable, predictable, reproducible and controllable...
July 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Ryo Tanaka, Yuki Ishikawa, Takahiro Yamasaki, Alejandro Diez
The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of classifying the movement strategy in the functional reach test (FRT) using a markerless motion capture system (MLS) on the basis of values acquired with a marker-based motion capture system (MBS). Sixty young, injury-free individuals participated in this study. The task action involved reaching forward in the standing position. Using the Microsoft Kinect v2 as an MLS and Vicon as a MBS, the coordinates of the hip joints, knee joints and ankle joints were measured...
June 24, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Yeong-Lin Chen
Medical device industry encompasses a wide range of technologies and applications. Due to the diversity, medical device process validation guidance does not suggest a particular strategy and approach of validation implementation as that of pharmaceutical industry. Based on medical device manufacturing characteristics, and philosophies/principles of medical device/pharmaceutical industry process validation guidance documents, this article illustrates two-level process validation approach which includes component production level and device assembly level...
June 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Ahmed Elwali, Sonia Meza-Vargas, Zahra Moussavi
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common yet underdiagnosed disorder. Undiagnosed OSA significantly increases perioperative morbidity and mortality for OSA patients undergoing surgery, requiring full anaesthesia. Tracheal breathing sounds characteristics during wakefulness have shown a high correlation with the apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI), while they are also affected by the anthropometric parameters, e.g., sex, age, etc. This study investigates the effects of the anthropometric parameters on our new quick objective OSA screening tool during wakefulness...
June 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Bahae Abidi, Abdelillah Jilbab, El Haziti Mohamed
A Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consists basically of a group of nodes, that communicate with each other through a wireless transmission, and does not need any existing infrastructure. The recent developments in technology and wireless communication, to be used in various applications, foster the development of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). They are emerging as important networks in order to reduce the need for patients, and to help the elderly and chronically ill people to live an independent life...
June 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Santosh Nagnath Randive, Ranjan K Senapati, Amol D Rahulkar
Diabetic retinopathy is a serious microvascular disorder that might result in loss of vision and blindness. It seriously damages the retinal blood vessels and reduces the light-sensitive inner layer of the eye. Due to the manual inspection of retinal fundus images on diabetic retinopathy to detect the morphological abnormalities in Microaneurysms (MAs), Exudates (EXs), Haemorrhages (HMs), and Inter retinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMA) is very difficult and time consuming process. In order to avoid this, the regular follow-up screening process, and early automatic Diabetic Retinopathy detection are necessary...
June 14, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
J Saarilahti, D Gomes Martins, A Kärkkäinen, F Gao, J Kyynäräinen, H Kuisma
The next generation FFR Coronary Catheter includes a new stable pressure sensor, AD conversion at the tip of the catheter and mount of these components on the sidewall of the catheter instead of the guide wire enabling thus to use standard guide wires. The new ultrathin capacitive MEMS pressure sensor die with corresponding readout ASIC circuit offers better accuracy, robustness and automated assembly. The measured performance values of the fabricated chips correlate well with the simulated ones indicating comprehensive understanding of the sensor operation and control of the fabrication process...
June 3, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
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