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Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31414614/a-low-cost-wearable-semg-sensor-for-upper-limb-prosthetic-application
#1
Alok Prakash, Bindu Kumari, Shiru Sharma
This paper proposes a low-cost and sensitive surface electromyography (sEMG) sensor for the myoelectric prosthesis. The sensor consists of a skin interface, signal conditioning circuitry and power supply unit all encased in a single package. The tuned RC parameters based envelope detection scheme employed in the sensor enables faster as well as reliable recognition of EMG signal patterns regardless of its strength and subject variability. The output performance of the developed sensor was compared with a commercial EMG sensor regarding signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), amplitude sensitivity and response time...
August 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31353984/electrocardiogram-signal-generation-using-electrical-model-of-cardiac-cell-application-in-cardiac-ischemia
#2
Alireza Fallahi, Hamidreza Ghanbari Khorram, Alireza Kokabi
One of the most common causes of heart failure is ischaemia. In this disease, the heart muscles die due to the lack or insufficiency of the blood in the cardiac veins. As a result of such a phenomenon, the action potential in that part of the heart would fade. In this article, using the electric model of the cardiac cell and the mechanism of producing an ECG signal in the heart, the process of producing cardiac electrical potential has been modelled. In this regard, the basic constituent signals of the ECG are generated...
July 29, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31313608/the-concept-of-high-dielectric-material-for-the-treatment-of-liver-cancer-through-microwave-heating
#3
Anupam Bhandari, Piyush Kuchhal
Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer tumours. In the present manuscript, improvement in the treatment of liver cancer through electromagnetic heating is studied using high dielectric material through mathematical modelling in COMSOL Multiphysics. It is observed from the result that without increasing the power input, intensity of the temperature can be increased by changing the dielectric constant. Treatment time in ablation of the liver tumour can also be reduced. Results are obtained for total power dissipation density, heat flux, temperature distribution and fraction of necrosis tissue...
July 17, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31305192/validation-of-an-ambient-measurement-system-ams-for-physical-activities-in-a-paediatric-population
#4
Jonathan S Varsanik, Zebadiah M Kimmel, Genevieve A Laforet, Valeria Ricotti, Gautam Sajeev, James Signorovitch, Jorge A Quiroz, Timothy W Chevalier
Ambient measurement systems (AMSs) can enable continuous assessment of functional performance at home, increasing the availability of data for monitoring of neuromuscular disease. An AMS passively measures movement whenever someone is in range of the sensor, without the need for any wearable sensors. The current study evaluates the performance of an AMS for three metrics associated with functional assessments in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): ambulation speed, rise-to-stand speed and arm-raise speed. Healthy paediatric subjects performed a series of functional tasks and were graded by both a human rater and an AMS...
July 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31305190/facial-muscle-reanimation-by-transcutaneous-electrical-stimulation-for-peripheral-facial-nerve-palsy
#5
Eeva Mäkelä, Hanna Venesvirta, Mirja Ilves, Jani Lylykangas, Ville Rantanen, Tuija Ylä-Kotola, Sinikka Suominen, Antti Vehkaoja, Jarmo Verho, Jukka Lekkala, Veikko Surakka, Markus Rautiainen
Reanimation of paralysed facial muscles by electrical stimulation has been studied extensively in animal models, but human studies in this field are largely lacking. Twenty-four subjects with a peripheral facial nerve palsy with a median duration of three years were enrolled. We studied activations of four facial muscles with electrical stimulation using surface electrodes. In subjects whose voluntary movement was severely impaired or completely absent, the electrical stimulation produced a movement that was greater in amplitude compared with the voluntary effort in 10 out of 18 subjects in the frontalis muscle, in 5 out of 14 subjects in the zygomaticus major muscle, and in 3 out of 8 subjects in the orbicularis oris muscle...
July 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31305185/a-complex-flow-phantom-for-medical-imaging-ring-vortex-phantom-design-and-technical-specification
#6
Simone Ambrogio, Adrian Walker, Andrew Narracott, Simone Ferrari, Prashant Verma, John Fenner
Cardiovascular fluid dynamics exhibit complex flow patterns, such as recirculation and vortices. Quantitative analysis of these complexities supports diagnosis, leading to early prediction of pathologies. Quality assurance of technologies that image such flows is challenging but essential, and to this end, a novel, cost-effective, portable, complex flow phantom is proposed and the design specifications are provided. The vortex ring is the flow of choice because it offers patterns comparable to physiological flows and is stable, predictable, reproducible and controllable...
July 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31232123/accuracy-of-classifying-the-movement-strategy-in-the-functional-reach-test-using-a-markerless-motion-capture-system
#7
Ryo Tanaka, Yuki Ishikawa, Takahiro Yamasaki, Alejandro Diez
The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of classifying the movement strategy in the functional reach test (FRT) using a markerless motion capture system (MLS) on the basis of values acquired with a marker-based motion capture system (MBS). Sixty young, injury-free individuals participated in this study. The task action involved reaching forward in the standing position. Using the Microsoft Kinect v2 as an MLS and Vicon as a MBS, the coordinates of the hip joints, knee joints and ankle joints were measured...
June 24, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31210554/two-level-process-validation-approach-for-medical-devices
#8
Yeong-Lin Chen
Medical device industry encompasses a wide range of technologies and applications. Due to the diversity, medical device process validation guidance does not suggest a particular strategy and approach of validation implementation as that of pharmaceutical industry. Based on medical device manufacturing characteristics, and philosophies/principles of medical device/pharmaceutical industry process validation guidance documents, this article illustrates two-level process validation approach which includes component production level and device assembly level...
June 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31210085/using-tracheal-breathing-sounds-and-anthropometric-information-for-screening-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-during-wakefulness
#9
Ahmed Elwali, Sonia Meza-Vargas, Zahra Moussavi
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common yet underdiagnosed disorder. Undiagnosed OSA significantly increases perioperative morbidity and mortality for OSA patients undergoing surgery, requiring full anaesthesia. Tracheal breathing sounds characteristics during wakefulness have shown a high correlation with the apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI), while they are also affected by the anthropometric parameters, e.g., sex, age, etc. This study investigates the effects of the anthropometric parameters on our new quick objective OSA screening tool during wakefulness...
June 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31210069/wireless-body-area-network-for-health-monitoring
#10
Bahae Abidi, Abdelillah Jilbab, El Haziti Mohamed
A Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consists basically of a group of nodes, that communicate with each other through a wireless transmission, and does not need any existing infrastructure. The recent developments in technology and wireless communication, to be used in various applications, foster the development of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). They are emerging as important networks in order to reduce the need for patients, and to help the elderly and chronically ill people to live an independent life...
June 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31198073/a-review-on-computer-aided-recent-developments-for-automatic-detection-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#11
Santosh Nagnath Randive, Ranjan K Senapati, Amol D Rahulkar
Diabetic retinopathy is a serious microvascular disorder that might result in loss of vision and blindness. It seriously damages the retinal blood vessels and reduces the light-sensitive inner layer of the eye. Due to the manual inspection of retinal fundus images on diabetic retinopathy to detect the morphological abnormalities in Microaneurysms (MAs), Exudates (EXs), Haemorrhages (HMs), and Inter retinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMA) is very difficult and time consuming process. In order to avoid this, the regular follow-up screening process, and early automatic Diabetic Retinopathy detection are necessary...
June 14, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31154880/new-pressure-sensing-elements-for-ffr-coronary-catheter
#12
J Saarilahti, D Gomes Martins, A Kärkkäinen, F Gao, J Kyynäräinen, H Kuisma
The next generation FFR Coronary Catheter includes a new stable pressure sensor, AD conversion at the tip of the catheter and mount of these components on the sidewall of the catheter instead of the guide wire enabling thus to use standard guide wires. The new ultrathin capacitive MEMS pressure sensor die with corresponding readout ASIC circuit offers better accuracy, robustness and automated assembly. The measured performance values of the fabricated chips correlate well with the simulated ones indicating comprehensive understanding of the sensor operation and control of the fabrication process...
June 3, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31119965/clinical-translation-of-biomedical-sensors-for-sports-medicine
#13
Dhruv R Seshadri, Samantha Magliato, James E Voos, Colin Drummond
The digital health field has seen a surge in product development over the last decade, with product introductions ranging from wrist monitors, epidermal electronics, electronic pills and smart garments, much of these precipitated through the commercialisation and commoditisation of sensor technology. The emergence of wearable technology has recently garnered heightened interest by physicians and the general public. The convenient use of wireless technology to track and monitor physiological parameters, such as heart rate, distance, sleep and stress, has emerged to become relevant to patient care and human performance assessment...
May 23, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31091134/a-concise-review-on-drug-loaded-electrospun-nanofibres-as-promising-wound-dressings
#14
Farzaneh Aavani, Sajedeh Khorshidi, Akbar Karkhaneh
The diversity of wound types has gathered momentum to develop a wide range of wound dressings to improve different aspects of the wound healing process. Wound healing is a dynamic, complex and highly regulated mechanism of tissue repair and regeneration. The wound dressing should encourage regeneration and prevent possible infection or scaring. Wound dressings are different from the bandages as they come in direct contact with the wound and are used to absorb exudates and accelerate healing. Wound dressings can have a variety of functions, depending upon the type, severity, and position of the wound...
May 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31091131/labview-based-monitoring-and-rehabilitation-module-for-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Abhishek Mahajan, R Swarnalatha, Kashif Sherwani, Neelesh Kumar
Freezing of gait (FOG) is an episodic motor symptom that occurs in almost half of the patients having Parkinson's Disease (PD). Levodopa and other dopaminergic drugs, although quite effective for tremors and bradykinesia (dyskinesia) are not so effective in case of postural instability and freezing of gait. This establishes a need for a non-pharmacological intervention. It has been well established in research that PD patients who experience FOG respond positively to sensory cueing. In this paper, a complete modular system has been developed that has both: (i) biofeedback in the form of vibrational cueing, synchronised with gait (hardware), as well as (ii) real-time monitoring, and graph generation for offline analysis (software)...
May 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31074312/methodology-of-surface-electromyography-in-gait-analysis-review-of-the-literature
#16
Georgios I Papagiannis, Athanasios I Triantafyllou, Ilias M Roumpelakis, Frantzeska Zampeli, Pinioti Garyfallia Eleni, Panayiotis Koulouvaris, Elias C Papadopoulos, Panayiotis J Papagelopoulos, George C Babis
Gait analysis is a significant diagnostic procedure for the clinicians who manage musculoskeletal disorders. Surface electromyography (sEMG) combined with kinematic and kinetic data is a useful tool for decision making of the appropriate method needed to treat such patients. sEMG has been used for decades to evaluate neuromuscular responses during a range of activities and develop rehabilitation protocols. The sEMG methodology followed by researchers assessed the issues of noise control, wave frequency, cross talk, low signal reception, muscle co-contraction, electrode placement protocol and procedure as well as EMG signal timing, intensity and normalisation so as to collect accurate, adequate and meaningful data...
May 10, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31068041/mechanical-measurement-of-the-human-cerebellum-under-compressive-loading
#17
Alireza Karimi, Seyed Mohammadali Rahmati, Reza Razaghi, Mojtaba Hasani
The cerebellum is responsible for controlling the posture and walking stability of the body. The cerebellum can subject to the traumatic injuries following by complicated clinical problems, i.e., the cerebellar pathologies. Application of the computational models can be helpful to figure out the injury mechanisms of the cerebellum, however, there is a lack of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the cerebellum under compressive loading. Therefore, this study aimed to perform an experimental study to measure the mechanical properties of 17 male individuals' cerebellum under the series of compressive loadings...
May 9, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31037995/methodology-and-validation-for-identifying-gait-type-using-machine-learning-on-imu-data
#18
Joseph M Mahoney, Matthew B Rhudy
With the rising popularity of activity tracking, there is a desire to not only count the number of steps a person takes, but also identify the type of step (e.g., walking or running) they are taking. For rehabilitation and athletic training, this difference is important to the prescribed regiment. Fourteen healthy adults walked, jogged and ran on a treadmill at three different constant speeds (1.21, 2.01, 2.68 m/s) for 90 s. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) with accelerometer and gyroscope was affixed to their left ankle...
April 30, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31033375/validation-of-joint-angle-measurements-comparison-of-a-novel-low-cost-marker-less-system-with-an-industry-standard-marker-based-system
#19
Shayan Bahadori, Philip Davenport, Tikki Immins, Thomas W Wainwright
Human motion tracking is widely used for the assessment of movement dysfunction in orthopaedic patients. Currently, most clinical motion analysis centres use marker-based three-dimensional (3D) systems as they are deemed to be the most accurate method. However, due to space, costs and logistics they are not available in many clinical settings. This study compared joint angles measured in functional tests using the novel low-cost Microsoft Kinect Perfect Phorm system with the established marker-based Nexus VICON system...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31033365/proof-of-concept-prototype-drill-guide-for-use-in-medial-patello-femoral-ligament-mpfl-reconstruction-surgery
#20
B H van Duren, M Lebe, D C Davies, H Pandit, N Somashekar
For surgical reconstruction of the medial patello-femoral ligament (MPFL) a variety of techniques are used for fixation of the graft to the medial border of the patella. The bone bridge or V-shaped tunnel technique utilises two tunnels drilled from the medial aspect of the patella that converge centrally creating a tunnel through which the graft is threaded. This technique has advantages: it avoids hardware (bone anchors) and their associated complications, creates a broad attachment of the ligament approximating normal anatomy and the tunnel does not breach the lateral cortex of the patella reducing the risk of patella fracture...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
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