Meredith Ramba, Dusan Bogunovic
Over 200,000 individuals in the United States alone live with Down Syndrome (DS), the most common genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability. DS has a constellation of features across the body, including dysregulation of the immune system. Individuals with DS have both a higher frequency of autoimmunity and more severe infections than the general population, highlighting the importance of understanding the immune system in this population. Individuals with DS present with dysregulation of both the innate and adaptive immune systems...
December 5, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Donald B Kohn
Severe combined immune deficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA SCID) is an inborn error of immunity with pan-lymphopenia, due to accumulated cytotoxic adenine metabolites. ADA SCID has been treated using gene therapy with a normal human ADA gene added to autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for over 30 years. Iterative improvements in vector design, HSC processing methods, and clinical HSC transplant procedures have led nearly all ADA SCID gene therapy patients to achieve consistently beneficial immune restoration with stable engraftment of ADA gene-corrected HSC over the duration of observation (as long as 20 years)...
November 30, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Neil Romberg, Carole Le Coz
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogenous disease category created to distinguish late-onset antibody deficiencies from early-onset diseases like agammaglobulinemia or more expansively dysfunctional combined immunodeficiencies. Opinions vary on which affected patients should receive a CVID diagnosis which confuses clinicians and erects reproducibility barriers for researchers. Most experts agree that CVID's most indeliable feature is defective germinal center (GC) production of isotype-switched, affinity-maturated antibodies...
November 28, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Gonench Kilich, Ludmila Perelygina, Kathleen E Sullivan
Infectious susceptibility is a component of many inborn errors of immunity. Nevertheless, antibiotic use is often used as a surrogate in history taking for infectious susceptibility, thereby disadvantaging patients who present with viral infections as their phenotype. Further complicating clinical evaluations are unusual manifestations of viral infections which may be less familiar that the typical respiratory viral infections. This review covers several unusual viral phenotypes arising in patients with inborn errors of immunity and other settings of immune compromise...
November 27, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Simon Borna, Eric Meffre, Rosa Bacchetta
FOXP3 gene is a key transcription factor driving immune tolerance and its deficiency causes immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy X-linked syndrome (IPEX), a prototypic primary immune regulatory disorder (PIRD) with defective regulatory T (Treg) cells. Although life-threatening, the increased awareness and early diagnosis have contributed to improved control of the disease. IPEX currently comprises a broad spectrum of clinical autoimmune manifestations from severe early onset organ involvement to moderate, recurrent manifestations...
November 23, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Stuart G Tangye, Joseph Mackie, Karrnan Pathmanandavel, Cindy S Ma
The essential role of B cells is to produce protective immunoglobulins (Ig) that recognize, neutralize, and clear invading pathogens. This results from the integration of signals provided by pathogens or vaccines and the stimulatory microenvironment within sites of immune activation, such as secondary lymphoid tissues, that drive mature B cells to differentiate into memory B cells and antibody (Ab)-secreting plasma cells. In this context, B cells undergo several molecular events including Ig class switching and somatic hypermutation that results in the production of high-affinity Ag-specific Abs of different classes, enabling effective pathogen neutralization and long-lived humoral immunity...
November 20, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Xin Li, Zuoqian Jing, Xuejie Li, Lei Liu, Xiang Xiao, Yifan Zhong, Zihan Ren
Cancer arises from the growth and division of uncontrolled erroneous cells. Programmed cell death (PCD), or regulated cell death (RCD), includes natural processes that eliminate damaged or abnormal cells. Dysregulation of PCD is a hallmark of cancer, as cancer cells often evade cell death and continue to proliferate. Exosomes nanoscale extracellular vesicles secreted by different types of cells carrying a variety of molecules, including nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, to have indispensable role in the communication between cells, and can influence various cellular processes, including PCD...
November 10, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Raquel S Laureano, Isaure Vanmeerbeek, Jenny Sprooten, Jannes Govaerts, Stefan Naulaerts, Abhishek D Garg
The cellular stress and immunity cycle is a cornerstone of organismal homeostasis. Stress activates intracellular and intercellular communications within a tissue or organ to initiate adaptive responses aiming to resolve the origin of this stress. If such local measures are unable to ameliorate this stress, then intercellular communications expand toward immune activation with the aim of recruiting immune cells to effectively resolve the situation while executing tissue repair to ameliorate any damage and facilitate homeostasis...
November 8, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Zachary J Bernstein, Anjali Shenoy, Amy Chen, Nicola M Heller, Jamie B Spangler
The structurally and functionally related interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 cytokines play pivotal roles in shaping immune activity. The IL-4/IL-13 axis is best known for its critical role in T helper 2 (Th2) cell-mediated Type 2 inflammation, which protects the host from large multicellular pathogens, such as parasitic helminth worms, and regulates immune responses to allergens. In addition, IL-4 and IL-13 stimulate a wide range of innate and adaptive immune cells, as well as non-hematopoietic cells, to coordinate various functions, including immune regulation, antibody production, and fibrosis...
November 2023: Immunological Reviews
Jiahan Le, Guangzhao Pan, Che Zhang, Yitao Chen, Amit K Tiwari, Jiang-Jiang Qin
Ferroptosis is a novel form of programmed cell death morphologically, genetically, and biochemically distinct from other cell death pathways and characterized by the accumulation of iron-dependent lipid peroxides and oxidative damage. It is now understood that ferroptosis plays an essential role in various biological processes, especially in the metabolism of iron, lipids, and amino acids. Gastric cancer (GC) is a prevalent malignant tumor worldwide with low early diagnosis rates and high metastasis rates, accounting for its relatively poor prognosis...
October 30, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Ying Guo, Jin Zhou, Yaqi Wang, Xueliang Wu, Yakui Mou, Xicheng Song
Necroptosis is generally considered as an inflammatory cell death form. The core regulators of necroptotic signaling are receptor-interacting serine-threonine protein kinases 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3, and the executioner, mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL). Evidence demonstrates that necroptosis contributes profoundly to inflammatory respiratory diseases that are common public health problem. Necroptosis occurs in nearly all pulmonary cell types in the settings of inflammatory respiratory diseases...
October 28, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Wilson W Wong, Wendell A Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Yanhong Li, Yinlang Wu, Jingang Huang, Xue Cao, Qiyuan An, Yun Peng, Yi Zhao, Yubin Luo
Neutrophils are important in the context of innate immunity and actively contribute to the progression of diverse autoimmune disorders. Distinct death mechanisms of neutrophils may exhibit specific and pivotal roles in autoimmune diseases and disease pathogenesis through the orchestration of immune homeostasis, the facilitation of autoantibody production, the induction of tissue and organ damage, and the incitement of pathological alterations. In recent years, more studies have provided in-depth examination of various neutrophil death modes, revealing nuances that challenge conventional understanding and underscoring their potential clinical utility in diagnosis and treatment...
October 18, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Xu Sun, Yanpeng Yang, Xiaona Meng, Jia Li, Xiaoli Liu, Huaimin Liu
Cell death can be executed through distinct subroutines. PANoptosis is a unique inflammatory cell death modality involving the interactions between pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis, which can be mediated by multifaceted PANoptosome complexes assembled via integrating components from other cell death modalities. There is growing interest in the process and function of PANoptosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that PANoptosis occurs under diverse stimuli, for example, viral or bacterial infection, cytokine storm, and cancer...
October 12, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Carlos Luri-Rey, Gabriel Gomis, Javier Glez-Vaz, Almudena Manzanal, Ana Martinez RiaƱo, Maria E Rodriguez Ruiz, Alvaro Teijeira, Ignacio Melero
Antigen cross-priming of CD8+ T cells is a critical process necessary for the effective expansion and activation of CD8+ T cells endowed with the ability to recognize and destroy tumor cells. The cross-presentation of tumor antigens to cross-prime CD8+ T cells is mainly mediated, if not only, by a subset of professional antigen-presenting cells termed type-1 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1). The demise of malignant cells can be immunogenic if it occurs in the context of premortem stress. These ways of dying are termed immunogenic cell death (ICD) and are associated with biochemical features favoring cDC1 for the efficient cross-priming of tumor antigens...
October 11, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Gabrielle Fredman, Sayeed Khan
The failure to resolve inflammation underpins to several prevalent diseases, like atherosclerosis, and so identifying ways to boost resolution is unmet clinical needs. The resolution of inflammation is governed by several factors such as specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) that counter-regulate pro-inflammatory pathways and promote tissue repair without compromising host defense. A major function of nearly all SPMs is to enhance the clearance of dead cells or efferocytosis. As such, phagocytes, such as macrophages, are essential cellular players in the resolution of inflammation because of their ability to rapidly and efficiently clear dead cells...
October 3, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Kodi S Ravichandran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2023: Immunological Reviews
Wei-Qing Liu, Wan-Rong Lin, Li Yan, Wen-Hao Xu, Jun Yang
Copper is an essential nutrient for maintaining enzyme activity and transcription factor function. Excess copper results in the aggregation of lipoylated dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (DLAT), which correlates to the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, resulting in proteotoxic stress and eliciting a novel cell death modality: cuproptosis. Cuproptosis exerts an indispensable role in cancer progression, which is considered a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Cancer immunotherapy has gained extensive attention owing to breakthroughs in immune checkpoint blockade; furthermore, cuproptosis is strongly connected to the modulation of antitumor immunity...
September 16, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Yanyan Hu, Houhong Wang, Yang Liu
The process of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation, called NETosis, is a peculiar death modality of neutrophils, which was first observed as an immune response against bacterial infection. However, recent work has revealed the unique biology of NETosis in facilitating tumor metastatic process. Neutrophil extracellular traps released by the tumor microenvironment (TME) shield tumor cells from cytotoxic immunity, leading to impaired tumor clearance. Besides, tumor cells tapped by NETs enable to travel through vessels and subsequently seed distant organs...
September 15, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Marie-Noelle Kronig, Marc Wehrli, Diego Salas-Benito, Marcela V Maus
Digestive tract cancers (DTC) belong to the most investigated family of tumors. The incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate of DTC remain high, especially for patients with pancreatic cancer. Even though immunotherapy such as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have revolutionized the treatment of solid cancer types, ICI are still restricted to a very small group of patients and seem to be more efficacious in combination with chemotherapy. Cellular immunotherapy such as CAR T-cell therapy has entered clinical routine in hematological malignancies with outstanding results...
September 11, 2023: Immunological Reviews
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.