Jacqueline R Harris, Christine W Gao, Jacquelyn F Britton, Carolyn D Applegate, Hans T Bjornsson, Jill A Fahrner
The multidisciplinary Epigenetics and Chromatin Clinic at Johns Hopkins provides comprehensive medical care for individuals with rare disorders that involve disrupted epigenetics. Initially centered on classical imprinting disorders, the focus shifted to the rapidly emerging group of genetic disorders resulting from pathogenic germline variants in epigenetic machinery genes. These are collectively called the Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery (MDEMs), or more broadly, Chromatinopathies. In five years, 741 clinic visits have been completed for 432 individual patients, with 153 having confirmed epigenetic diagnoses...
March 23, 2023: Human Genetics
Salma Shickh, Agnes Sebastian, Marc Clausen, Chloe Mighton, Christine Elser, Andrea Eisen, Larissa Waldman, Seema Panchal, Thomas Ward, June C Carroll, Emily Glogowski, Kasmintan A Schrader, Jordan Lerner-Ellis, Raymond H Kim, Kevin E Thorpe, Yvonne Bombard
We aimed to describe patient preferences for a broad range of secondary findings (SF) from genomic sequencing (GS) and factors driving preferences. We assessed preference data within a trial of the Genomics ADvISER, (SF decision aid) among adult cancer patients. Participants could choose from five categories of SF: (1) medically actionable; (2) polygenic risks; (3) rare diseases; (4) early-onset neurological diseases; and (5) carrier status. We analyzed preferences using descriptive statistics and drivers of preferences using multivariable logistic regression models...
March 21, 2023: Human Genetics
Franziska Schnabel, Elisabeth Schuler, Almundher Al-Maawali, Ankur Chaurasia, Steffen Syrbe, Adila Al-Kindi, Gandham SriLakshmi Bhavani, Anju Shukla, Janine Altmüller, Peter Nürnberg, Siddharth Banka, Katta M Girisha, Yun Li, Bernd Wollnik, Gökhan Yigit
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita forms a broad group of clinically and etiologically heterogeneous disorders characterized by congenital joint contractures that involve at least two different parts of the body. Neurological and muscular disorders are commonly underlying arthrogryposis. Here, we report five affected individuals from three independent families sharing an overlapping phenotype with congenital contractures affecting shoulder, elbow, hand, hip, knee and foot as well as scoliosis, reduced palmar and plantar skin folds, microcephaly and facial dysmorphism...
March 21, 2023: Human Genetics
Kaili Fan, Edith Pfister, Zhiping Weng
Regulatory elements are the genomic regions that interact with transcription factors to control cell-type-specific gene expression in different cellular environments. A precise and complete catalog of functional elements encoded by the human genome is key to understanding mammalian gene regulation. Here, we review the current state of regulatory element annotation. We first provide an overview of assays for characterizing functional elements, including genome, epigenome, transcriptome, three-dimensional chromatin interaction, and functional validation assays...
March 19, 2023: Human Genetics
Qingxia Meng, Binbin Shao, Dan Zhao, Xu Fu, Jiaxiong Wang, Hong Li, Qiao Zhou, Tingting Gao
One of the most severe forms of infertility in humans, caused by gametogenic failure, is non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). Approximately, 20-30% of men with NOA may have single-gene mutations or other genetic variables that cause this disease. While a range of single-gene mutations associated with infertility has been identified in prior whole-exome sequencing (WES) studies, current insight into the precise genetic etiology of impaired human gametogenesis remains limited. In this paper, we described a proband with NOA who experienced hereditary infertility...
March 18, 2023: Human Genetics
Dora Koller, Antonio Benítez-Burraco, Renato Polimanti
Self-domestication could contribute to shaping the biology of human brain and consequently the predisposition to neurodevelopmental disorders. Leveraging genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, we tested the enrichment of self-domestication and neural crest function loci with respect to the heritability of autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia (SCZ in East Asian and European ancestries, EAS and EUR, respectively), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette's syndrome (TS)...
March 17, 2023: Human Genetics
Kelly E Regan-Fendt, Kosuke Izumi
Nuclear speckles are small, membrane-less organelles that reside within the nucleus. Nuclear speckles serve as a regulatory hub coordinating complex RNA metabolism steps including gene transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, RNA modifications, and mRNA nuclear export. Reflecting the importance of proper nuclear speckle function in regulating normal human development, an increasing number of genetic disorders have been found to result from mutations in the genes encoding nuclear speckle proteins. To denote this growing class of genetic disorders, we propose "nuclear speckleopathies"...
March 16, 2023: Human Genetics
Catherina T Pinnaro, Chloe B Beck, Heather J Major, Benjamin W Darbro
Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal disorder caused by complete or partial loss of the second sex chromosome and exhibits phenotypic heterogeneity, even after accounting for mosaicism and karyotypic variation. Congenital heart defects (CHD) are found in up to 45 percent of girls with TS and span a phenotypic continuum of obstructive left-sided lesions, with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) being the most common. Several recent studies have demonstrated a genome-wide impact of X chromosome haploinsufficiency, including global hypomethylation and altered RNA expression...
March 16, 2023: Human Genetics
Xueming Yao, Hongxi Yang, Han Han, Xuejing Kou, Yuhan Jiang, Menghan Luo, Yao Zhou, Jianhua Wang, Xutong Fan, Xiaohong Wang, Mulin Jun Li, Hua Yan
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, and glaucoma are leading causes of blindness worldwide. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed a variety of susceptible loci associated with age-related ocular disorders, yet the genetic pleiotropy and causal genes across these diseases remain poorly understood. By leveraging large-scale genetic and observational data from ocular disease GWASs and UK Biobank (UKBB), we found significant pairwise genetic correlations and consistent epidemiological associations among these ocular disorders...
March 14, 2023: Human Genetics
Gonzalo Núñez-Moreno, Alejandra Tamayo, Carolina Ruiz-Sánchez, Marta Cortón, Pablo Mínguez
DNA variants altering the pre-mRNA splicing process represent an underestimated cause of human genetic diseases. Their association with disease traits should be confirmed using functional assays from patient cell lines or alternative models to detect aberrant mRNAs. Long-read sequencing is a suitable technique to identify and quantify mRNA isoforms. Available isoform detection and/or quantification tools are generally designed for the whole transcriptome analysis. However experiments focusing on genes of interest need more precise data fine-tuning and visualization tools...
March 7, 2023: Human Genetics
Pepper Dawes, Liam F Murray, Meagan N Olson, Nathaniel J Barton, Molly Smullen, Madhusoodhanan Suresh, Guang Yan, Yucheng Zhang, Aria Fernandez-Fontaine, Jay English, Mohammed Uddin, ChangHui Pak, George M Church, Yingleong Chan, Elaine T Lim
Cerebral organoids are comprised of diverse cell types found in the developing human brain, and can be leveraged in the identification of critical cell types perturbed by genetic risk variants in common, neuropsychiatric disorders. There is great interest in developing high-throughput technologies to associate genetic variants with cell types. Here, we describe a high-throughput, quantitative approach (oFlowSeq) by utilizing CRISPR-Cas9, FACS sorting, and next-generation sequencing. Using oFlowSeq, we found that deleterious mutations in autism-associated gene KCTD13 resulted in increased proportions of Nestin+ cells and decreased proportions of TRA-1-60+ cells within mosaic cerebral organoids...
March 6, 2023: Human Genetics
Laura Bryant, Annabel Sangree, Kelly Clark, Elizabeth Bhoj
There has been considerable recent interest in the role that germline variants in histone genes play in Mendelian syndromes. Specifically, missense variants in H3-3A and H3-3B, which both encode Histone 3.3, were discovered to cause a novel neurodevelopmental disorder, Bryant-Li-Bhoj syndrome. Most of the causative variants are private and scattered throughout the protein, but all seem to have either a gain-of-function or dominant negative effect on protein function. This is highly unusual and not well understood...
March 3, 2023: Human Genetics
Hua Lin Huang, Qing Xia Zhang, Fei Huang, Xiao Yan Long, Zhi Song, Bo Xiao, Guo Liang Li, Cai Yu Ma, Ding Liu
TMEM151A, located at 11q13.2 and encoding transmembrane protein 151A, was recently reported as causative for autosomal dominant paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD). Here, through comprehensive analysis of sporadic and familial cases, we expand the clinical and mutation spectrum of PKD. In doing so, we clarify the clinical and genetic features of Chinese PKD patients harboring TMEM151A variants and further explore the relationship between TMEM151A mutations and PKD. Whole exome sequencing was performed on 26 sporadic PKD patients and nine familial PKD pedigrees without PRRT2 variants...
March 1, 2023: Human Genetics
Ching-Shiang Chi, Chi-Ren Tsai, Hsiu-Fen Lee
Biallelic SHQ1 variant-related neurodevelopmental disorder is extremely rare. To date, only six affected individuals, from four families, have been reported. Here, we report eight individuals, from seven unrelated families, who exhibited neurodevelopmental disorder and/or dystonia, received whole-genome sequencing, and had inherited biallelic SHQ1 variants. The median age at disease onset was 3.5 months old. All eight individuals exhibited normal eye contact, profound hypotonia, paroxysmal dystonia, and brisk deep tendon reflexes at the first visit...
February 27, 2023: Human Genetics
Md Rafiqul Islam, Dale R Nyholt
The co-occurrence of migraine and glycemic traits has long been reported in observational epidemiological studies, but it has remained unknown how they are linked genetically. We used large-scale GWAS summary statistics on migraine, headache, and nine glycemic traits in European populations to perform cross-trait analyses to estimate genetic correlation, identify shared genomic regions, loci, genes, and pathways, and test for causal relationships. Out of the nine glycemic traits, significant genetic correlation was observed for fasting insulin (FI) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) with both migraine and headache, while 2-h glucose was genetically correlated only with migraine...
February 20, 2023: Human Genetics
Soumia Brakta, Zoe A Hawkins, Nikhil Sahajpal, Natalie Seman, Dina Kira, Lynn P Chorich, Hyung-Goo Kim, Hongyan Xu, John A Phillips, Ravindra Kolhe, Lawrence C Layman
The molecular basis of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome remains largely unknown. Pathogenic variants in WNT4 and HNF1B have been confirmed in a small percent of individuals. A variety of copy number variants have been reported, but causal gene(s) remain to be identified. We hypothesized that rare structural variants (SVs) would be present in some individuals with MRKH, which could explain the genetic basis of the syndrome. Large molecular weight DNA was extracted from lymphoblastoid cells from 87 individuals with MRKH and available parents...
February 17, 2023: Human Genetics
Dima Hamideh, Anirban Das, Vanessa Bianchi, Jiil Chung, Logine Negm, Adrian Levine, Maya Basbous, Santiago Sanchez-Ramirez, Leonie Mikael, Nada Jabado, Lamya Atweh, Mireille Lteif, Rami Mahfouz, Nidale Tarek, Miguel Abboud, Samar Muwakkit, Cynthia Hawkins, Uri Tabori, Raya Saab
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is an aggressive and highly penetrant cancer predisposition syndrome. Because of its variable clinical presentation and phenotypical overlap with neurofibromatosis, timely diagnosis remains challenging, especially in countries with limited resources. Since current tests are either difficult to implement or interpret or both we used a novel and relatively inexpensive functional genomic assay (LOGIC) which has been recently reported to have high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing CMMRD...
February 15, 2023: Human Genetics
Lorraine Stallard, Iram Siddiqui, Aleixo Muise
Diarrhoeal disorders in childhood extend beyond the inflammatory bowel diseases. Persistent and severe forms of diarrhoea can occur from birth and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These disorders can affect not only the gastrointestinal tract but frequently have extraintestinal manifestations, immunodeficiencies and endocrinopathies. Genomic analysis has advanced our understanding of these conditions and has revealed precision-based treatment options such as potentially curative haematopoietic stem cell transplant...
February 14, 2023: Human Genetics
Fevronia Kiparissi, Antonia Dastamani, Liina Palm, Aline Azabdaftari, Luis Campos, Edward Gaynor, Stephanie Grünewald, Holm H Uhlig, Robert Kleta, Detlef Böckenhauer, Kelsey D J Jones
Phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2) deficiency causes Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation (PMM2-CDG), but does not have a recognised association with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). A distinct clinical syndrome of hyperinsulinism and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (HIPKD) arises in the context of a specific variant in the PMM2 promotor, either in homozygosity, or compound heterozygous with a deleterious PMM2 variant. Here, we describe the development of IBD in three patients with PMM2-HIPKD, with onset of IBD at 0, 6, and 10 years of age...
February 11, 2023: Human Genetics
Salvatore D'Antona, Gita A Pathak, Dora Koller, Danilo Porro, Claudia Cava, Renato Polimanti
Leveraging genome-wide association statistics generated from a large study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 29,612 cases and 122,656 controls) and UK Biobank (UKB; 4,024 phenotypes, up to 361,194 participants), we conducted a phenome-wide analysis of ALS genetic liability and identified 46 genetically correlated traits, such as fluid intelligence score (rg  = - 0.21, p = 1.74 × 10-6 ), "spending time in pub or social club" (rg  = 0.24, p = 2...
February 11, 2023: Human Genetics
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