Youngjun Kim, Jeong-Min Kim, Hye-Won Cho, Hyun-Young Park, Mi-Hyun Park
Exome and genome sequencing (ES/GS) in genetic medicine and research leads to discovering genomic secondary findings (SFs) unrelated to the purpose of the primary test. There is a lack of agreement to return the SF results for individuals undergoing the test. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of actionable secondary findings using GS data obtained from the rare disease study and the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) in the National Project of Bio Big Data pilot study. Pathogenic (P) or likely pathogenic (LP) variants of 78 SF genes recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) were screened in the rare disease study and KoGES...
September 20, 2023: Human Genetics
Charles L Ford, William J Riggs, Tera Quigley, Orion P Keifer, Jonathon P Whitton, Vassili Valayannopoulos
Congenital hearing loss affects one in 500 newborns. Sequence variations in OTOF, which encodes the calcium-binding protein otoferlin, are responsible for 1-8% of congenital, nonsyndromic hearing loss and are the leading cause of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders. The natural history of otoferlin-related hearing loss, the relationship between OTOF genotype and hearing loss phenotype, and the outcomes of clinical practices in patients with this genetic disorder are incompletely understood because most analyses have reported on small numbers of cases with homogeneous OTOF genotypes...
September 7, 2023: Human Genetics
Sarah W Curtis, Jenna C Carlson, Terri H Beaty, Jeffrey C Murray, Seth M Weinberg, Mary L Marazita, Justin L Cotney, David J Cutler, Michael P Epstein, Elizabeth J Leslie
As one of the most common structural birth defects, orofacial clefts (OFCs) have been studied for decades, and recent studies have demonstrated that there are genetic differences between the different phenotypic presentations of OFCs. However, the contribution of rare genetic variation genome-wide to different subtypes of OFCs has been understudied, with most studies focusing on common genetic variation or rare variation within targeted regions of the genome. Therefore, we used whole-genome sequencing data from the Gabriella Miller Kids First Pediatric Research Program to conduct a gene-based burden analysis to test for genetic modifiers of cleft lip (CL) vs cleft lip and palate (CLP)...
September 7, 2023: Human Genetics
Isabelle Roux, Cristina Fenollar-Ferrer, Hyun Jae Lee, Parna Chattaraj, Ivan A Lopez, Kyungreem Han, Keiji Honda, Carmen C Brewer, John A Butman, Robert J Morell, Donna M Martin, Andrew J Griffith
Enlargement of the endolymphatic sac, duct, and vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is the most common inner ear malformation identified in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. EVA is associated with pathogenic variants in SLC26A4. However, in European-Caucasian populations, about 50% of patients with EVA carry no pathogenic alleles of SLC26A4. We tested for the presence of variants in CHD7, a gene known to be associated with CHARGE syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, in a cohort of 34 families with EVA subjects without pathogenic alleles of SLC26A4...
September 5, 2023: Human Genetics
Cheuk Yan Chung, Dora Jue Pan, Silvia Paracchini, Wenxuan Jiang, Hon-Cheong So, Catherine McBride, Urs Maurer, Mo Zheng, Kwong Wai Choy
A recent genome-wide association study on dyslexia in 51,800 affected European adults and 1,087,070 controls detected 42 genome-wide significant single nucleotide variants (SNPs). The association between rs2624839 in SEMA3F and reading fluency was replicated in a Chinese cohort. This study explores the genetic overlap between Chinese and English word reading, vocabulary knowledge and spelling, and aims at replicating the association in a unique cohort of bilingual (Chinese-English) Hong Kong Chinese twins. Our result showed an almost complete genetic overlap in vocabulary knowledge (r2  = 0...
September 5, 2023: Human Genetics
Mohammad Yaser Anwar, Mariaelisa Graff, Heather M Highland, Roelof Smit, Zhe Wang, Victoria L Buchanan, Kristin L Young, Eimear E Kenny, Lindsay Fernandez-Rhodes, Simin Liu, Themistocles Assimes, David O Garcia, Kim Daeeun, Christopher R Gignoux, Anne E Justice, Christopher A Haiman, Steve Buyske, Ulrike Peters, Ruth J F Loos, Charles Kooperberg, Kari E North
Inadequate representation of non-European ancestry populations in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has limited opportunities to isolate functional variants. Fine-mapping in multi-ancestry populations should improve the efficiency of prioritizing variants for functional interrogation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we leveraged ancestry architecture to perform comparative GWAS and fine-mapping of obesity-related phenotypes in European ancestry populations from the UK Biobank (UKBB) and multi-ancestry samples from the Population Architecture for Genetic Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium with comparable sample sizes...
September 1, 2023: Human Genetics
Hanan E Shamseldin, Mukunth Sadagopan, Javier Martini, Ruslan Al-Ali, Mandy Radefeldt, Mojgan Ataei, Sabrina Lemke, Zuhair Rahbeeni, Fuad Al Mutairi, Faroug Ababneh, Hadeel A AlRukban, Firdous Abdulwahab, Saleh Mohammed Alhajj, Peter Bauer, Aida Bertoli-Avella, Fowzan S Alkuraya
DBR1 encodes the only known human lariat debranching enzyme and its deficiency has been found to cause an autosomal recessive inborn error of immunity characterized by pediatric brainstem viral-induced encephalitis (MIM 619441). We describe a distinct allelic disorder caused by a founder recessive DBR1 variant in four families (DBR1(NM_016216.4):c.200A > G (p.Tyr67Cys)). Consistent features include prematurity, severe intrauterine growth deficiency, congenital ichthyosis-like presentation (collodion membrane, severe skin peeling and xerosis), and death before the first year of life...
September 1, 2023: Human Genetics
Julian Daniel Sunday Willett, Tianyuan Lu, Tomoko Nakanishi, Satoshi Yoshiji, Guillaume Butler-Laporte, Sirui Zhou, Yossi Farjoun, J Brent Richards
Identifying causal genes at GWAS loci can help pinpoint targets for therapeutic interventions. Expression studies can disentangle such loci but signals from expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) often fail to colocalize-which means that the genetic control of measured expression is not shared with the genetic control of disease risk. This may be because gene expression is measured in the wrong cell type, physiological state, or organ. We tested whether Mendelian randomization (MR) could identify genes at loci influencing COVID-19 outcomes and whether the colocalization of genetic control of expression and COVID-19 outcomes was influenced by cell type, cell stimulation, and organ...
August 28, 2023: Human Genetics
Takeshi Sugimoto, Hidehito Inagaki, Tasuku Mariya, Rie Kawamura, Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Seiji Mizuno, Yukako Muramatsu, Ikuya Tsuge, Hirofumi Ohashi, Nakamichi Saito, Yuiko Hasegawa, Nobuhiko Ochi, Masatoshi Yamaguchi, Jun Murotsuki, Hiroki Kurahashi
Constitutional complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are rare cytogenetic aberrations arising in the germline via an unknown mechanism. Here we analyzed the breakpoint junctions of microscopically three-way or more complex translocations using comprehensive genomic and epigenomic analyses. All of these translocation junctions showed submicroscopic genomic complexity reminiscent of chromothripsis. The breakpoints were clustered within small genomic domains with junctions showing microhomology or microinsertions...
August 24, 2023: Human Genetics
Andrea Roso-Mares, Isabel Andújar, Tania Díaz Corpas, Bryan K Sun
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging as biomarkers, molecular signatures, and therapeutic tools and targets for diseases. In this review, we focus specifically on skin diseases to highlight how two classes of ncRNAs-microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs-are being used to diagnose medical conditions of unclear etiology, improve our ability to guide treatment response, and predict disease prognosis. Furthermore, we explore how ncRNAs are being used as both as drug targets and associated therapies have unique benefits, risks, and challenges to development, but offer a distinctive promise for improving patient care and outcomes...
August 14, 2023: Human Genetics
Kathleen Morrill, Frances Chen, Elinor Karlsson
Domestic dogs display a wide array of heritable behaviors that have intermediate genetic complexity thanks to a long history of human-influenced selection. Comparative genetics in dogs could address the scarcity of non-human neurogenetic systems relevant to human neuropsychiatric disorders, which are characterized by mental, emotional, and behavioral symptoms and involve vastly complex genetic and non-genetic risk factors. Our review describes the diverse behavioral "phenome" of domestic dogs, past and ongoing sources of behavioral selection, and the state of canine behavioral genetics...
August 14, 2023: Human Genetics
Guido Zagnoli-Vieira, Jan Brazina, Kris Van Den Bogaert, Wim Huybrechts, Guy Molenaers, Keith W Caldecott, Hilde Van Esch
Mutations in TDP2, encoding tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2, have been associated with a syndromal form of autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia, type 23 (SCAR23). This is a very rare and progressive neurodegenerative disorder described in only nine patients to date, and caused by splice site or nonsense mutations that result in greatly reduced or absent TDP2 protein. TDP2 is required for the rapid repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by abortive DNA topoisomerase II (TOP2) activity, important for genetic stability in post-mitotic cells such as neurons...
August 10, 2023: Human Genetics
Kylie Gwynne, Shirley Jiang, Robertson Venema, Vita Christie, Tiffany Boughtwood, Marida Ritha, John Skinner, Nyesa Ali, Boe Rambaldini, Tom Calma
Genomics research related to Indigenous people has been at worst exploitative and at best, retrospectively on a journey to improve effective engagement of Indigenous individuals and communities. Genomics can positively impact all stages of clinical management, and to improve genomic effectiveness researchers aggregate genomic data from diverse global sub-populations, such as shared ancestry groupings, as people within these groupings will have a greater proportion of shared DNA traits. While genomics is already being used worldwide to improve lives, its utility and effectiveness has not been maximized for individuals with Indigenous ancestry...
July 21, 2023: Human Genetics
Elaine T Lim, Yingleong Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2023: Human Genetics
Ajay Subramanian, Shengqin Su, Everett J Moding, Michael Sargent Binkley
The tissue-specific incidence of cancers and their genetic basis are poorly understood. Although prior studies have shown global correlation across tissues for cancer risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), any shared functional regulation of gene expression on a per SNP basis has not been well characterized. We set to quantify cis-mediated gene regulation and tissue sharing for SNPs associated with eight common cancers. We identify significant tissue sharing for individual SNPs and global enrichment for breast, colorectal, and Hodgkin lymphoma cancer risk SNPs in multiple tissues...
July 20, 2023: Human Genetics
Tess Levy, Thariana Pichardo, Hailey Silver, Bonnie Lerman, Jessica Zweifach, Danielle Halpern, Paige M Siper, Alexander Kolevzon, Joseph D Buxbaum
CHAMP1 disorder is a genetic neurodevelopmental condition caused by mutations in the CHAMP1 gene that result in premature termination codons. The disorder is associated with intellectual disability, medical comorbidities, and dysmorphic features. Deletions of the CHAMP1 gene, as part of 13q34 deletion syndrome, have been briefly described with the suggestion of a milder clinical phenotype. To date, no studies have directly assessed differences between individuals with mutations in CHAMP1 to those with deletions of the gene...
July 16, 2023: Human Genetics
Kugui Yoshida-Tanaka, Ko Ikemoto, Ryoji Kuribayashi, Motoko Unoki, Takako Takano, Akihiro Fujimoto
Complex congenital chromosome abnormalities are rare but often cause severe symptoms. However, the structures and biological impacts of such abnormalities have seldomly been analyzed at the molecular level. Previously, we reported a Japanese female patient with severe developmental defects. The patient had an extra dicentric chromosome 21 (chr21) consisting of two partial chr21 copies fused together within their long arms along with two centromeres and many copy number changes. In this study, we performed whole-genome, transcriptional, and DNA methylation analyses, coupled with novel bioinformatic approaches, to reveal the complex structure of the extra chromosome and its transcriptional and epigenetic changes...
July 11, 2023: Human Genetics
Paul J Dunn, Rodney A Lea, Neven Maksemous, Robert A Smith, Heidi G Sutherland, Larisa M Haupt, Lyn R Griffiths
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a condition caused by mutations in NOTCH3 and results in a phenotype characterised by recurrent strokes, vascular dementia and migraines. Whilst a genetic basis for the disease is known, the molecular mechanisms underpinning the pathology of CADASIL are still yet to be determined. Studies conducted at the Genomics Research Centre (GRC) have also identified that only 15-23% of individuals clinically suspected of CADASIL have mutations in NOTCH3...
July 8, 2023: Human Genetics
Isabelle M McGrath, Grant W Montgomery, Sally Mortlock
Comorbid conditions can be driven by underlying pleiotropic and causal mechanisms that can provide insights into shared molecular and biological processes contributing to disease risk. Endometriosis is a chronic condition affecting one in nine women of reproductive age and poses many challenges including lengthy diagnostic delays and limited treatment efficacy owing to poor understanding of disease aetiology. To shed light on the underlying biological mechanisms and to identify potential risk factors, we examine the epidemiological and genomic relationship between endometriosis and its comorbidities...
July 6, 2023: Human Genetics
Gonzalo Núñez-Moreno, Alejandra Tamayo, Carolina Ruiz-Sánchez, Marta Cortón, Pablo Mínguez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2023: Human Genetics
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