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Neurochemical Research

Junchao Xie, Xiaoyan Li, Yuchen Zhou, Jiayan Wu, Yan Tan, Xiaoye Ma, Yichen Zhao, Xueyuan Liu, Yanxin Zhao
Hypoxia promotes both total extracellular and exosomal amyloid-β (Aβ) production and aggravates Alzheimer's disease (AD). Resveratrol (RSV) has been proved to be neuroprotective in AD models, and down-regulated the expression of CD147, an additional subunit of γ-secretase. In this study, we aimed to explore the role and mechanisms of RSV in hypoxia-induced upregulation of Aβ, especially exosomal Aβ. SH-SY5Y cells and HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as C57BL/6 mice were treated with RSV and exposed to hypoxic conditions...
February 15, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Alexei Verkhratsky, Alexandr Chvátal
Astrocytes support glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system through multiple mechanisms which include: (i) glutamate clearance and control over glutamate spillover due to operation of glutamate transporters; (ii) supply of obligatory glutamate precursor glutamine via operation of glutamate-glutamine shuttle; (iii) supply of L-serine, the indispensable precursor of positive NMDA receptors neuromodulator D-serine and (iv) through overall homoeostatic control of the synaptic cleft. Astroglial cells express an extended complement of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, which mediate glutamatergic input to astrocytes...
February 14, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Konrad A Szychowski, Jan Gmiński
The products of elastin degradation, namely elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), are detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid of healthy individuals and in patients after ischemic stroke, and their number increases with age. Depending on their concentrations, both nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) take part either in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury or in neurovascular protection after ischemic stroke. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of VGVAPG peptide on ROS and NO production and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNos), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNos) in mouse cortical astrocytes in vitro...
February 13, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Ilona Joniec-Maciejak, Agnieszka Ciesielska, Łukasz A Poniatowski, Adriana Wawer, Anna Sznejder-Pachołek, Ewa Wojnar, Piotr Maciejak, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel
The aim of the study was to examine the Braak's hypothesis to explain the spreading and distribution of the neuropathological changes observed in the course of Parkinson's disease among ascending neuroanatomical regions. We investigated the neurotransmitter levels (monoamines and amino acid concentration) as well as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and transglutaminase-2 (TG2) mRNA expression in the mouse striata (ST) after intracerebral α-synuclein (ASN) administration into gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi)...
February 13, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Monica Armida, Alessandra Matteucci, Antonella Pèzzola, Younis Baqi, Christa E Müller, Patrizia Popoli, Rosa Luisa Potenza
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressing neurodegenerative disease; to date, despite the intense research effort, only two therapeutic options, with very limited effects, are available. The purinergic system has been indicated as a possible new therapeutic target for ALS, but the results are often contradictory and generally confused. The present study was designed to determine whether P1 adenosine receptor ligands affected disease progression in a transgenic model of ALS. SOD1G93A mice were chronically treated, from presymptomatic stage, with a selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist (CGS21680), antagonist (KW6002) or the A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX...
February 12, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Jian Zhou, Weihua Yu, Man Zhang, Xin Tian, Yu Li, Yang Lü
Clinically, superimposed systemic inflammation generally has significant deleterious effects on the Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. However, the related molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Microglial toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) are two key regulators of inflammation that may play an essential role in this complex pathophysiological process. In this study, intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into APP/PS1 transgenic AD model was used to mimic systemic inflammation in the development of AD...
February 12, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Xiao-Peng Wang, Pin Ye, Jiao Lv, Lei Zhou, Zhong-Yi Qian, Yong-Jie Huang, Zhi-Hao Mu, Xie Wang, Xin-Jie Liu, Qi Wan, Zhi-Hong Yang, Fang Wang, Ying-Ying Zou
Cognitive impairment in diabetes (CID) is a severe chronic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). It has been hypothesized that diabetes can lead to cognitive dysfunction due to expression changes of excitatory neurotransmission mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR); however, the pathogenesis involved in this has not been fully understood, especially at early phase of DM. Here, we sought to determine the cognitive changes and aim to correlate this with the expression changes of NMDAR and AMPAR of glutamate signaling pathways in the rat hippocampus from early phase of DM and in the course of the disease progression...
February 12, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Jamshid Tabeshpour, Soghra Mehri, Khalil Abnous, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Acrylamide (ACR) is extensively used in industrial areas and has been demonstrated to induce neurotoxicity via oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this study, we assessed the probable protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ), an active constituent of Nigella sativa, against ACR-induced neurotoxicity. ACR (50 mg/kg, i.p., for 11 days) and TQ (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p., for 11 days) were administered to rats. On 12th day, gait score was examined and rats were sacrificed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were determined in sciatic nerve...
February 6, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Xuefeng Zheng, Ziyun Huang, Yaofeng Zhu, Bingbing Liu, Zhi Chen, Tao Chen, Linju Jia, Yanmei Li, Wanlong Lei
Dopaminergic neuron degeneration is known to give rise to dendrite injury and spine loss of striatal neurons, however, changes of intrastriatal glutamatergic terminals and their synapses after 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA)-induced dopamine (DA)-depletion remains controversial. To confirm the effect of striatal DA-depletion on the morphology and protein levels of corticostriatal and thalamostriatal glutamatergic terminals and synapses, immunohistochemistry, immuno-electron microscope (EM), western blotting techniques were performed on Parkinson's disease rat models in this study...
February 4, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Rui-Zhu Liu, Tao Li, Guo-Qing Zhao
Inhalation anesthetic isoflurane may cause an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Previous studies have indicated that this cognitive decline is associated with neuroinflammation mediated by high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). HMGB1 is released from cells and acts as a damage-associated molecule in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effect of intracellular HMGB1 during emulsified isoflurane (EI) exposure is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of autophagy on neuroprotection, evaluate variation of HMGB1, and determine its role in autophagic flux after EI exposure in vitro...
February 2, 2019: Neurochemical Research
A Lehmenkühler, F Richter
In cerebral cortex of anesthetized rats single waves of spreading depolarization (CSD) were elicited by needle prick. CSD-related changes of DC (direct current) potentials were either recorded from the intact skin or together with concomitant changes of potassium concentration with K+ -selective microelectrodes simultaneously at the surface of the dura mater or of the cortex ([K+ ]s ) and in the extracellular space at a cortical depth of 1200 µm. At the intact skin CSD-related DC-shifts had amplitudes of less than 1 mV and had only in a minority of cases the typical CSD-like shape...
February 1, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Hua Wei, Leiting Xu, Chunmiao Li, Lianliang Liu, Derry Minyao Ng, Maria Haleem, Lingli Jiang, Ning Sun, Qingzhi Ling, Shaohua Ma, Lingli Zhang, Qinwen Wang, Tao Tao
Astrocytes migration is essential in the formation of the glial scar during the injury response process of the central nervous system (CNS) especially during inflammation. Integrin β1 is part of the extracellular matrix receptors in the CNS and it has been reported that integrin β-deficient astrocytes randomly migrate into wounds. Previous studies have found that β-1,4 Galactosyltransferase-I (β-1,4-GalT-I) enhanced the β-1,4-galactosylation of integrin β1. Src-suppressed C kinase substrate (SSeCKS) is an inflammatory response protein which functionally interacts with β-1,4 Galactosyltransferase-I (β-1,4-GalT-I)...
January 31, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Xi-Bei Hu, Zhi-Yu Xi, Lin-Qing Liu, Kai Kang, Wan-Hong Li, Yu-Xian Shen, Fang Kang, Juan Li
Iron overload is a common pathophysiological state underlying many diseases that has a detrimental influence on cells. The protective effects of Dexmedetomidine (Dex), a high selective alpha-2-adrenoceptor agonist, have been revealed through many experimental models, whereas no study reports its effects on an iron overload model. To elucidate these effects, we used FeCl2 with or without Dex to treat SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h and then detected indicators of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis and investigated possible mechanisms further...
January 29, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Liu Xiaoying, Tian Li, Shang Yu, Jiang Jiusheng, Zhang Jilin, Wei Jiayi, Liu Dongxin, Fang Wengang, Zhao Xinyue, Yu Hao, Chen Yuhua, Shang Deshu
Neuroinflammation is an important part of the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Inflammatory factors destroy the balance of the microenvironment, which results in changes in neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation behaviour. However, the mechanism underlying inflammatory factor-induced NSC behavioural changes is not clear. Resistin is a proinflammatory and adipogenic factor and is involved in several human pathology processes...
January 28, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Marta Soltesova Prnova, Karol Svik, Stefan Bezek, Lucia Kovacikova, Cimen Karasu, Milan Stefek
Peripheral neuropathy is the most prevalent chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. Good glycemic control can delay the appearance of neuropathic symptoms in diabetic patients but it is not sufficient to prevent or cure the disease. Therefore therapeutic approaches should focus on attenuation of pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for the nerve injury. Considering the role of polyol pathway in the etiology of diabetic neuropathy, we evaluated the effect of a novel efficient and selective aldose reductase inhibitor, 3-mercapto-5H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indole-5-acetic acid (cemtirestat), on symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats...
January 28, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Dorota Nieoczym, Katarzyna Socała, Kinga Gawel, Camila V Esguerra, Elżbieta Wyska, Piotr Wlaź
Pterostilbene (PTE), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol, possesses numerous health-beneficial properties. The ability of PTE to cross the blood-brain barrier raised the possibility that this compound may modulate central nervous system functions, including seizure activity. The aim of our study was to investigate the activity of PTE in the larval zebrafish pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure assay and three acute seizure tests in mice, i.e., in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST), 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizure threshold and intravenous (iv) PTZ tests...
January 28, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Guadalupe Pulido, Samuel Treviño, Eduardo Brambila, Ruben Vazquez-Roque, Albino Moreno-Rodriguez, Ulises Peña Rosas, Jose Luis Moran-Perales, Anhabella Handal Silva, Jorge Guevara, Gonzalo Flores, Alfonso Diaz
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal and classified as a carcinogen whose exposure could affect the function of the central nervous system. There are studies that suggest that Cd promotes neurodegeneration in different regions of the brain, particularly in the hippocampus. It is proposed that its mechanism of toxicity maybe by an oxidative stress pathway, which modifies neuronal morphology and causes the death of neurons and consequently affecting cognitive tasks. However, this mechanism is not yet clear. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of Cd administration on recognition memory for 2, 3 and 4 months, neuronal morphology and immunoreactivity for caspase-3 and 9 in rat hippocampi...
January 23, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Siyu Chen, Xiangchang Zeng, Wenjing Zong, Xintong Wang, Lulu Chen, Luping Zhou, Chaopeng Li, Qi Huang, Xinyi Huang, Guirong Zeng, Kai Hu, Dong-Sheng Ouyang
Neuroinflammation and imbalance of neurotransmitters play pivotal roles in seizures and epileptogenesis. Aucubin (AU) is an iridoid glycoside derived from Eucommia ulmoides that possesses anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the anti-seizure effects of AU have not been reported so far. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of AU on pilocarpine (PILO) induced seizures and its role in the regulation of neuroinflammation and neurotransmission. We found that AU reduced seizure intensity and prolonged the latency of seizures...
January 21, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Nina Klimova, Tibor Kristian
Dysfunctions in NAD+ metabolism are associated with neurodegenerative diseases, acute brain injury, diabetes, and aging. Loss of NAD+ levels results in impairment of mitochondria function, which leads to failure of essential metabolic processes. Strategies to replenish depleted NAD+ pools can offer significant improvements of pathologic states. NAD+ levels are maintained by two opposing enzymatic reactions, one is the consumption of NAD+ while the other is the re-synthesis of NAD+ . Inhibition of NAD+ degrading enzymes, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) and ectoenzyme CD38, following brain ischemic insult can provide neuroprotection...
January 19, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Zhenzhen Chen, Quan Hu, Qingfeng Xie, Shamin Wu, Qiongyi Pang, Meixia Liu, Yun Zhao, Fengxia Tu, Chan Liu, Xiang Chen
Exercise has been regarded as an effective rehabilitation strategy to facilitate motor and cognitive functional recovery after stroke, even though the complex effects associated with exercise-induced repair of cerebral ischemic injury are not fully elucidated. The enhancement of angiogenesis and neurogenesis, and the improvement of synaptic plasticity following moderate exercise are conducive to functional recovery after ischemic damage. Our previous studies have confirmed the angiogenesis and neurogenesis through the caveolin-1/VEGF pathway in MCAO rats...
January 19, 2019: Neurochemical Research
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