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Ghanshyam N Pandey, Hooriyah S Rizavi, Runa Bhaumik, Xinguo Ren
Overactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function has been implicated in depression and suicidal behavior. This is based on the observation of an abnormal dexamethasone (DEX) and DEX-adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test in patients with depression and suicidal behavior. Recently, some studies have also found abnormalities of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), CRF receptors (CRF-R) and CRF binding protein (CRF-BP) in depressed and suicidal patients...
April 15, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Despina Antypa, David Rodrigues Cabrita, Patrik Vuilleumier, Ulrike Rimmele
Experiencing stressful or traumatic events can result in disabling clinical symptoms of maladaptive emotional memory retrieval, which are only partly addressed by the currently proposed treatments. Cortisol modulation has been shown to affect emotional memory retrieval and potentially reconsolidation, offering an opportunity for developing more efficient treatments for disorders with an emotional memory component. Here, we investigated if cortisol suppression after reactivation of emotional memories weakens later memory thereof...
April 9, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Daria Chernego, Christiana Martin, Kristin Bernard, Rifkat Muhamedrahimov, M Kathleen Gordon, Mary Dozier
Young children living in institutional settings often show a range of deficits in social, physical, and cognitive functioning. Whereas the diurnal production of cortisol has been examined among post-institutionalized children in a number of investigations, studies of children continuing to live in institutions are limited. In this study, we assessed wake-up and bedtime cortisol among 73 children living in Russia, with 52 institutionally-reared (n = 31 at time 2), and 21 family-reared (n = 18 at time 2)...
April 9, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jesper Vestlund, Filip Bergquist, Daniel Eckernäs, Valentina Licheri, Louise Adermark, Elisabet Jerlhag
Motivation alters behaviour in a complex manner and nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell has been implied as a key structure regulating such behaviour. Recent studies show that acute ghrelin signalling enhances motivation when assessed in a simple motor task. The aim of the present study was to define the role of ghrelin signalling on motivation in a more complex motor behaviour. Rats were tested in the Montoya staircase, an animal model of skilled reach foraging assessed by the number of sucrose pellets consumed...
April 8, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
J Ottino-González, M A Jurado, I García-García, X Caldú, X Prats-Soteras, E Tor, M J Sender-Palacios, M Garolera
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Overweight is linked to inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses potentially prompting deregulations in biological systems harmful to the brain, particularly to the prefrontal cortex. This structure is crucial for executive performance, ultimately supervising behaviour. Thus, in the present work, we aimed to test the relationship between allostatic load increase, a surrogate of chronic physiological stress, and core executive functions, such as cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, and working memory...
April 8, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Michaela G Cuneo, Angela Szeto, Andrew Schrepf, Ellen M Kinner, Benjamin I Schachner, Raisa Ahmed, Premal H Thaker, Michael Goodheart, David Bender, Steve W Cole, Philip M McCabe, Anil K Sood, Susan K Lutgendorf, Armando J Mendez
BACKGROUND: Prior research demonstrates a protective role for oxytocin in ovarian cancer based on its anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, and anti-invasive effects in vitro and in vivo. However, the role of endogenous oxytocin has not been examined in ovarian cancer patients. Oxytocin also has anti-inflammatory properties that have not been examined in cancer. The purpose of this investigation was to examine relationships between endogenous oxytocin, tumor-associated inflammation (interleukin-6), and survival in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients...
April 6, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jasmin E Guevara, Kyle W Murdock
Social relationships have powerful effects on physical health. Indeed, high social strain (i.e., frequent negative interactions with friends, family, or one's partner) increases risk of morbidity and mortality. Frequent social strain leads to anxious arousal and an increased body mass index (BMI), both of which may be underlying mechanisms for the association between social strain and health given that persistent anxious arousal promotes damaging biological and behavioral conditions contributing to increased inflammation...
April 5, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Magdalena K Wekenborg, Bernadette von Dawans, LaBarron K Hill, Julian F Thayer, Marlene Penz, Clemens Kirschbaum
INTRODUCTION: Burnout symptomatology is associated with various negative health consequences; however, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. One potential pathway involves alterations in the acute stress response. The aims of the present study were to examine burnout-associated alterations in stress-reactivity patterns, during a standardized social stressor compared to a control condition, as well as to examine whether effects associated with greater burnout symptomatology were distinct from other, conceptually overlapping indicators of chronic stress (i...
April 4, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Waylon J Hastings, Idan Shalev, Daniel W Belsky
BACKGROUND: Biological processes of aging are thought to be modifiable causes of many different chronic diseases. Measures of biological aging could provide sensitive endpoints for studies of risk factors hypothesized to shorten healthy lifespan and/or interventions that extend it. But uncertainty remains about how to measure biological aging and if proposed measures assess the same thing. METHOD: We tested four proposed measures of biological aging that could be quantified with available data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), Klemera-Doubal method (KDM) Biological Age, homeostatic dysregulation, Levine Method (LM) Biological Age, and leukocyte telomere length...
April 4, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Youri R Berends, Joke H M Tulen, André I Wierdsma, Johannes van Pelt, Ruth Feldman, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Yolanda B de Rijke, Steven A Kushner, Hjalmar J C van Marle
Aggression and distrust are often challenging problems in mental health treatment. Converging evidence reveals that oxytocin increases trust in social interactions and decreases fear of social betrayal. However, oxytocin has also been associated with protective behavior and, as such, might increase defensive aggressive reactions. In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effects of intranasal oxytocin (32IU) on task-related aggressive responses were measured using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP)...
April 4, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Stephana J Cherak, Mary E Malebranche, Katherine Wynne-Edwards, Tyler Williamson, Gerald F Giesbrecht
BACKGROUND: Heightened concentration of maternal cortisol is a frequently proposed mechanism linking adverse maternal environments with poor birth outcomes, including birth weight. It is commonly hypothesized that prenatal exposures have sexually dimorphic effects on fetal development, however few studies have assessed the effects of fetal sex on the relationship between maternal cortisol and birth outcomes. METHODS: In a previous systematic review and meta-analysis we obtained data from authors of included studies to calculate trimester-specific correlations between maternal prenatal salivary cortisol and newborn birth weight...
April 4, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jessica A Chaiton, Sarah J Wong, Liisa Am Galea
Letrozole, a third-generation aromatase inhibitor, prevents the production of estrogens in the final step in conversion from androgens. Due to its efficacy at suppressing estrogens, letrozole has recently taken favor as a first-line adjuvant treatment for hormone-responsive breast cancer in middle-aged women. Though patient response to letrozole has generally been positive, there is conflicting evidence surrounding its effects on the development of depression. It is possible that the potential adverse effects of letrozole on mood are a result of the impact of hormonal fluctuations on neurogenesis in the hippocampus...
April 4, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Grant S Shields, Andrew M McCullough, Maureen Ritchey, Charan Ranganath, Andrew P Yonelinas
When acute stress is experienced immediately after memory encoding (i.e., post-encoding stress) it can significantly impact subsequent memory for that event. For example, recent work has suggested that post-encoding stress occurring in a different context from encoding impairs memory. However, the neural processes underlying these effects are poorly understood. We aimed to expand this understanding by conducting an analysis of resting functional connectivity in the period following post-encoding stress that occurred in a different context than encoding, using seed regions in the medial temporal lobes known for their roles in memory...
April 3, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
James Gardner Gregory, Emily R Hawken, Staci Angelis, Jean-Francois Bouchard, Éric C Dumont
17ß-Estradiol (E2) is a potent neuromodulator capable of producing changes in inhibitory synaptic transmission by either changing pre-synaptic GABA release or post-synaptic GABAA receptor function. Physiologically, E2 is important for energy homeostasis, influencing food consumption, body weight, adipose tissue metabolism and energy expenditure. E2 may influence energy homeostasis through estrogen receptor-rich regions such as the oval bed nucleus of the stria-terminalis (ovBNST). However, the neurophysiological effects of estradiol within the ovBNST remain largely unknown...
April 3, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hsin-An Chang, Wen-Hui Fang, Fang-Jung Wan, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Yia-Ping Liu, Jia-Fwu Shyu, San-Yuan Huang, Tieh-Ching Chang, Chuan-Chia Chang
The functional Val158 Met polymorphism (rs4680) of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been implicated in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); however, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unexamined. Recent evidence reveals that low resting parasympathetic (vagal) control is an endophenotypic predictor of anxiety, while the effect of COMT rs4680 differs at different ages. Thus, we examined whether the COMT Val158 Met variant could increase the risk of GAD through decreased resting parasympathetic nervous control in an age-specific manner...
March 30, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Nina Alexander, Sabrina Illius, Tobias Stalder, Matthis Wankerl, Markus Muehlhan, Clemens Kirschbaum
Epigenetic signatures, such as DNA methylation (DNAM ), have been implicated in long-term dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and related health risks. Based on a wealth of neuroendocrine studies on genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), this locus constitutes a key candidate to explore associations of DNAM patterns and HPA-axis functioning. The few studies addressing this link so far exclusively relied on spot measurements of HPA-axis activity, which may not adequately reflect cortisol output over prolonged periods of time...
March 29, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Wei Gao, Marlene Penz, Magdalena Wekenborg, Andreas Walther, Clemens Kirschbaum
Thyroid hormones (THs) play a key role within the endocrine system. Incorporated biomarkers in hair can reflect endogenous excretion patterns over several months. We present an online solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (online SPE-LC-MS/MS) method for quantification of THs in human hair and test it in the volunteers suffering from different severity of burnout symptom. THs were extracted from 7.5 mg hair by methanol incubation. Extracts were analyzed with LC-MS/MS in positive electrospray ionization mode...
March 29, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hüfner Katharina, Fuchs Dietmar, Blauth Michael, Sperner-Unterweger Barbara
Patients with somatic diseases are more likely to develop depression than physically healthy individuals, and comorbid depression has been shown to incrementally worsen patients´ health. Physical conditions are known to influence neurotransmitter precursor amino acids, changes in which are associated with depressive symptoms. In this prospective study we investigated neurotransmitter precursor amino acids levels in patients with acute and chronic physical disease and evaluated their association with depressive symptoms...
March 29, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Thomas Grund, Yan Tang, Diego Benusiglio, Ferdinand Althammer, Sophia Probst, Lena Oppenländer, Inga D Neumann, Valery Grinevich
Chemogenetics provides cell type-specific remote control of neuronal activity. Here, we describe the application of chemogenetics used to specifically activate oxytocin (OT) neurons as representatives of a unique class of neuroendocrine cells. We injected recombinant adeno-associated vectors, driving the stimulatory subunit hM3Dq of a modified human muscarinic receptor into the rat hypothalamus to achieve cell type-specific expression in OT neurons. As chemogenetic activation of OT neurons has not been reported, we provide systematic analysis of the temporal dynamics of OT neuronal responses in vivo by monitoring calcium fluctuations in OT neurons, and intracerebral as well as peripheral release of OT...
March 29, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Stefanie Bader, Luisa Wolf, Vladimir M Milenkovic, Michael Gruber, Caroline Nothdurfter, Rainer Rupprecht, Christian H Wetzel
The translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), initially characterized as peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is a conserved outer mitochondrial membrane protein, implicated in cholesterol transport thereby affecting steroid hormone biosynthesis, as well as in general mitochondrial function related to bioenergetics, oxidative stress, and Ca2+ homeostasis. TSPO is highly expressed in steroidogenic tissues such as adrenal glands, but shows low expression in the central nervous system. During various disease states such as inflammation, neurodegeneration or cancer, the expression of mitochondrial TSPO in affected tissues is upregulated...
March 29, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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