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Clinical Neuropharmacology

Chanoch Miodownik, Vladimir Lerner, Natalie Kudkaeva, Paul P Lerner, Artashez Pashinian, Yuly Bersudsky, Ronen Eliyahu, Anatoly Kreinin, Joseph Bergman
BACKGROUND: Introduction of old and new generations of antipsychotics leads to significant improvements in the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, negative symptoms remain refractory to conventional trials of antipsychotic therapy. Recently, there were several open clinical human trials with curcumin. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol, which has a variety of pharmacological activities, including antioxidative and neuroprotective effects. The studies showed that curcumin improved the negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
April 30, 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Yoshikuni Mizuno, Nobutaka Hattori, Tomoyoshi Kondo, Masahiro Nomoto, Hideki Origasa, Ryosuke Takahashi, Mitsutoshi Yamamoto, Nobuo Yanagisawa
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this open-label study was to investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of selegiline as monotherapy in Japanese patients with early Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: We conducted a 56-week prospective study in patients with early PD (N = 134) who had previously completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial of selegiline monotherapy for 12 weeks. In the present study, dosing was titrated from 2.5 to 10 mg/d in increments of 2...
April 30, 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
John Jeffrey Miller, William L Whiting, Glenn Catalano, Deborah L Sanchez
The tricyclic antidepressants have long been a tool in the physician's armament for numerous indications, the most prominent of which being depression. Although their efficacy and side effects have been well documented, less known is their abuse. Prior literature has discussed this more for the tertiary amines such as amitriptyline, but currently, there are no documented cases of abuse with the secondary amine nortriptyline. This article reviews the prior literature in regard to tricyclic antidepressants and anticholinergics as substances of abuse, the proposed mechanisms of this, and susceptible populations, as well as a case review of a patient who admitted to using nortriptyline for its "buzz...
March 26, 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Nihal Olgac Dundar, Dilek Cavusoglu, Yusuf Cem Kaplan, Mehmet Oytun Hasturk
Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is an infrequent neurological disorder characterized by recurrent transient attacks of hemiplegia that last minutes to days and impress either side of the body, dystonic or tonic attacks, and nystagmus. Cognitive or neurological deficits with progressive course are another findings. Epileptic seizures may occur in some patients. We report the medical treatment in a case of AHC in a-12-year-old male patient with convulsions. The patient did not respond to available therapies for AHC, except for aripiprazole...
March 19, 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Nuran Ekinci, Serkan Güneş, Merve Kalinli, Özalp Ekinci
Amenorrhea is one of the clinical consequences of hyperprolactinemia. Although symptomatic hyperprolactinemia is among the well-described adverse reactions of antipsychotic agents, it may also be reported with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Hereby, we present a case of sertraline-related hyperprolactinemic amenorrhea in an adolescent. Amenorrhea occurred 2 months after starting sertraline, and menstrual cycle restored after stopping the treatment.
March 7, 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Ho Sang Yoo, Yong Wook Kim, Na Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Among the neuropsychiatric complications commonly induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI), behavioral disorders, such as agitation and aggression, can hinder neurological recovery and deteriorate rehabilitation outcomes. Pharmacological treatment for behavioral disorders might be beneficial but could lead to drug-induced parkinsonism. We report a case of a patient with drug-induced parkinsonism manifested as freezing of gait after TBI, which improved with the cessation of the offending drugs and comprehensive rehabilitation...
March 7, 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Jamir Pitton Rissardo, Ana Letícia Fornari Caprara
INTRODUCTION: Gabapentin (GBP) is an analog of γ-aminobutyric acid and was originally designed as an anticonvulsant. Because its mechanism of action is unclear, assumed to have no abuse potential, and apparent lack of toxicity, GBP is used widely off-label to treat an array of disorders, including essential tremor. CASE REPORT: We present a case of an elderly woman diagnosed with essential tremor, in which GBP was initiated. In the following day, she complained of urinary incontinence with the absence of dysuria and urgency...
March 4, 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Akihito Suzuki, Koichi Otani
BACKGROUND: We report on the serotonin syndrome after an alcohol intake in a patient with major depressive disorder treated with escitalopram and clomipramine. CASE: A 26-year-old male patient with major depressive disorder had been stable on the treatment with escitalopram (20 mg/d) and clomipramine (50 mg/d) for 4 months. He had rarely taken alcohol, especially never with medication. One night after taking these drugs with a can of beer, he developed agitation, disorientation, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, tremor, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and hypertension, fulfilling the criteria for the serotonin syndrome...
March 4, 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Nuran Ekinci, Serkan Güneş, Özalp Ekinci, Merve Kalinli, Çetin Okuyaz, Meltem Çobanoğullari Direk
Levetiracetam is an antiepileptic agent that is used for partial and generalized epilepsy. Although it is well tolerated in most cases, behavioral and nonbehavioral adverse effects may be observed. Among behavioral symptoms, depression, hostility, and agitation have been frequently reported. However, mania or mania-like symptoms are relatively rare, especially in children and adolescents. Hereby, we report mania-like symptoms with levetiracetam use in a 15-year-old boy. Mania-like symptoms emerged 3 weeks after starting levetiracetam and disappeared after adding risperidone to ongoing levetiracetam treatment...
March 1, 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Verena Rozanski, Gerd Laux, Johannes Schwarz
Drug-induced Parkinsonism (DIP) represents the second most-frequent etiology of Parkinson syndromes after neurodegenerative disorders. It has been described mainly for antipsychotics, Ca-channel blockers, antiemetics, and gastrointestinal prokinetics. In this article, we present a clinical case series of 10 patients, retrieved within our movement disorders hospital, with DIP under intake of opipramol. Symptoms completely resolved after drug withdrawal, and associated risk factors were old age, high doses, and presence of cortical atrophy...
March 1, 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Na Young Kim, Sang Chul Lee, Yong Wook Kim
OBJECTIVES: Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is the neuropathic pain in areas of the body corresponding to stroke lesions. It is often refractory to treatment, reduces quality of life, and impedes rehabilitation. The pharmacological treatment of CPSP is challenging. Duloxetine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is known to be effective against neuropathic pain. The current study describes the efficacy of duloxetine in reducing pain severity in CPSP patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: For the purpose of this study, CPSP was defined as spontaneous pain within an area of the body corresponding to the brain lesion that emerged at or after stroke onset...
May 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Hui-Yi Chen, Chia-Hao Ma, Chen-Chung Liu
OBJECTIVES: Pathological gambling can be potentiated by treatment with dopamine agonists. Aripiprazole, bearing a partial agonist activity at dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, has also been linked to such a behavioral aberration, usually on subjects predisposed with tendency of impulsive or addictive behaviors. METHODS: Review of patient's medical records and literature review. RESULTS: Two young patients' pathological gambling emerged simply due to exposure to aripiprazole, neither related to manic or psychotic symptoms nor with history of addictive or impulsive behaviors...
May 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Nevin F W Zaki, Maha Yousif, Ahmed S BaHammam, David Warren Spence, Vijay K Bharti, Perumal Subramanian, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal
This review describes the characteristics of a number of pathologies, which are considered from the point of view of chronobiology, that is, the way in which biological processes are expressed throughout the 24-hour day. This perspective is a relatively new way of thinking about disease and additionally about how to treat diseases. It has called attention to the importance of not only the quantity of a drug that is administered but also when it is administered. In addition, the review presents an overview of the emerging clinical strategies known as chronotherapeutics, that is, the effects of the daily scheduling of drug administration and the consequences of the activity and efficacy of therapies that are applied in this manner...
May 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Joseph M Cusimano, Sarah Welch, Silvia Perez-Protto, Simon Lam
OBJECTIVES: Intensive care unit (ICU) delirium is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome that confers significant morbidity and mortality. Melatonin is an endogenous neurohormone involved with regulating sleep-wake cycles and has been found to be disturbed in ICU delirium. We hypothesized that there are independent factors that predict delirium in a cohort of patients on melatonin in the surgical ICU (SICU). METHODS: A retrospective, observational case-cohort analysis of adult SICU patients was conducted...
May 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Rukiye Çolak Sivri, Burçin Çolak
Skin picking disorder includes behaviors such as picking, scratching, and squeezing of the normal skin in an impulsive, repetitive manner despite the fact that no dermatological condition is detected. Skin picking disorder may also be comorbid in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and vice versa. There is a great deal of data regarding the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment of ADHD. In this article, we report the cessation of skin picking behaviors in a 10-year-old girl diagnosed as having skin picking disorder and ADHD after modified-release MPH treatment...
May 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Jianan Cheng, Hua Yang, Jiangtao Zhang
PURPOSE: Donepezil is known to increase cholinergic synaptic transmission in Alzheimer disease (AD), although how it affects cortical brain activity and how it consequently affects brain functions need further clarification. To investigate the therapeutic mechanism of donepezil underlying its effect on brain function, regional homogeneity (ReHo) technology was used in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 11 mild-to-moderate AD patients who completed 24 weeks of donepezil treatment and 11 matched healthy controls...
March 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Yuhao Zhu, Naixing Zhang, Decheng Ren, Yan Bi, Fei Xu, Weibo Niu, Qianqian Sun, Zhenming Guo, Ruixue Yuan, Fan Yuan, Xi Wu, Yanfei Cao, Fengping Yang, Lu Wang, Li Du, Weidong Li, Yifeng Xu, Xingwang Li, Liping Zhu, Lin He, Lei Shi, Guang He, Tao Yu
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental disorder. Venlafaxine (VEN) is used to treat patients with MDD as an antidepressant of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. In addition, current reports reveal that CYP enzymes mediate its metabolism, thereby affecting the treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to test whether the genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A2 are associated with remission after VEN treatment for MDD. A total of 175 Han Chinese depressed patients have been recruited to accept a 6-week treatment with VEN...
March 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Narges Shams-Alizadeh, Azad Maroufi, Akbar Qanbarzadeh Chelan Sofla, Ebrahim Ghaderi, Kambiz Hassanzadeh
OBJECTIVES: Despite the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a wide range of psychiatric disorders, the role of memory-enhancing agents in post-ECT cognitive disturbances has remained controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of donepezil on improving the cognitive performance of patients undergoing ECT. METHODS: In a psychiatry hospital, patients who were admitted for ECT underwent a triple-blind randomized controlled trial. After randomizing the participants into 2 groups, 1 group received ECT with placebo, whereas the other group received ECT plus 5 mg/d donepezil during the ECT period...
March 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Nicki Niemann, Joseph Jankovic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review our "real-world" experience with the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitors tetrabenazine (TBZ), deutetrabenazine (DTBZ), and valbenazine (VBZ) for treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorders. Access and adherence to VMAT2 inhibitors may be limited by insurance and regulatory issues, inexperience with their use by the prescribing physician, lack of efficacy, or side effects. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review, supplemented with a questionnaire, of all our patients treated with a VMAT2 inhibitor between January 1, 2017, and August 30, 2018...
March 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Yojiro Umezaki, Trang T H Tu, Akira Toriihara, Yusuke Sato, Toru Naito, Akira Toyofuku
BACKGROUND: "Phantom bite syndrome," a persistent complaint of an uncomfortable bite sensation with no obvious occlusal abnormal finding, recently was suggested to be related with central nervous system dysfunction. Here, we report a case of phantom bite syndrome in which the occlusal discomfort was improved with mirtazapine and aripiprazole combination parallel with regional cerebral blood flow change. CASE REPORT: A 60-year-old-female patient came to our clinic with the chief complaint of a "loosely bite" after dental treatment and various uncomfortable sensations of body sites...
March 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
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