Zahra Ebrahimi, Nazanin Kahvandi, Elahe Shahriari, Alireza Komaki, Seyed Asaad Karimi, Marzieh Naderishahab, Maryam Sharifi, Abdolrahman Sarihi
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons appear to be at the hub of the reward circuit. New evidence suggests that the behavioural effects of morphine substances may be significantly regulated by glutamate-mediated transmission, notably by metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. Here, we examined the hypothesis that the mGlu4 receptor within that NAc has a role in the extinction and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). The animals received bilaterally microinjections of VU0155041, a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) and partial agonist of mGlu4 receptor, into the NAc...
March 28, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Guannan Jiang, Xiang Li, Meirong Liu, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Juan Liao, Wanchun You, Qi Fang, Gang Chen
Remote Ischemic Postconditioning (RIPostC) has become a research hotspot due to its protective effect on the brain in clinical studies related to ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect of RIPostC after ischemic stroke in rats. The middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model was established by the wire embolization method. RIPostC was obtained by inducing temporary ischemia in the hind limbs of rats. First, based on the results of short-term behavioral measures and long-term neurological function experiments, RIPostC was found to have a protective effect on the MCAO/R model and to improve neurological recovery in rats...
March 27, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Xia Zhao, Nan Wang, Zhe Li, Lan Li
The development of inflammatory pain seriously affects the activities and general functions of patients in daily life. At present, the research on the mechanism of pain relief is still insufficient. This study aimed to investigate the influence of PAC1 on the progression of inflammatory pain and its molecular mechanism. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce BV2 microglia activation to establish an inflammation model, and CFA injection was used to establish a mouse inflammatory pain model. The results showed that PAC1 was highly expressed in BV2 microglia induced by LPS...
March 24, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Enes Akyuz, Züleyha Doğanyiğit, Asl Okan, Seher Yılmaz, Sümeyye Uçar, Ali Tuğrul Akın
AIMS: Demyelination affects the propogation of neuronal action potential by slowing down the progression. This process results in a neuro-impairment like Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Evidence show that MS also contributes to involvement of the autonomic system. In the molecular approach to this involvement, we aimed to observe muscarinic ACh receptor 2-3 (mAChR2-3), and inwardly rectifying potassium channel 3.1 (Kir3.1) immunoreactivities on the brainstem, vagus nerve, and heart under cuprizone model...
March 24, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Juan Chen, Lijun Xiao, Ying Chen, Wei Li, Yinan Liu, Ying Zhou, Hong Tan
In sleep deprivation (SD) models, ferroptosis is increased. SIRT1 alleviates cognitive impairment in SD, and SIRT1/NRF2/HO1 pathway depresses ferroptosis in different diseases. Moreover, YTHDC1 can regulate SIRT1 mRNA stability. Therefore, our study explored effects of the YTHDC1/SIRT1/NRF2/HO1 axis on neuronal damage and ferroptosis in SD. The SD mouse model was established through a modified multi-platform water environment method and a cell model of ferroptosis was constructed with Erastin, followed by gain- and loss-of-function assays...
March 17, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Cristopher Villablanca, René Vidal, Christian Gonzalez-Billault
Astrocytes are active participants in the performance of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in both health and disease. During aging, astrocytes are susceptible to reactive astrogliosis, a molecular state characterized by functional changes in response to pathological situations, and cellular senescence, characterized by loss of cell division, apoptosis resistance, and gain of proinflammatory functions. This results in two different states of astrocytes, which can produce proinflammatory phenotypes with harmful consequences in chronic conditions...
March 17, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Renzheng Huan, Jianhe Yue, Jinhai Lan, Jia Wang, Yuan Cheng, Jiqin Zhang, Ying Tan
Hypocretin-1 is a multifunctional neuropeptide that has been identified as a potential antitumor agent for its role in inhibiting tumor growth, including in colon cancer, neuroendocrine tumor, and prostate cancer. However, the role and mechanism of hypocretin-1 in the occurrence and development of malignant glioma have not been well studied. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hypocretin-1 on glioblastoma proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion and its mechanism. We found that the hypocretin-1 receptor was expressed in both glioma cell lines and glioma tissues...
March 15, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Yi-Ran Wang, Wen-Qiang Cui, Hong-Yun Wu, Xiang-Dong Xu, Xiang-Qing Xu
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is associated with high rates of disability and mortality, exerting a substantial impact on overall survival and health-related quality of life. Treatment of AIS remains challenging given that the underlying pathologic mechanisms remain unclear. However, recent research has demonstrated that the immune system plays a key role in the development of AIS. Numerous studies have reported infiltration of T cells into ischemic brain tissue. While some types of T cells can promote the development of inflammatory responses and aggravate ischemic damage in patients with AIS, other T cells appear to exert neuroprotective effects via immunosuppression and other mechanisms...
March 9, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Yajie Jiang, Manshu Zou, Yeqing Wang, Yuhong Wang
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most prevalent mental disorder characterized by anhedonia, loss of motivation, avolition, behavioral despair and cognitive abnormalities. Despite substantial advancements in the pathophysiology of MDD in recent years, the pathogenesis of this disorder is not fully understood. Meanwhile,the treatment of MDD with currently available antidepressants is inadequate, highlighting the urgent need for clarifying the pathophysiology of MDD and developing novel therapeutics. Extensive studies have demonstrated the involvement of nuclei such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HIP), nucleus accumbens (NAc), hypothalamus, etc...
March 6, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Shuang Sun, Xuenan Wang, Xiaoman Shi, Heyi Fang, Yue Sun, Min Li, Hongyu Han, Qin He, Xiaojun Wang, Xiao Zhang, Zhi Wei Zhu, Feiyu Chen, Min Wang
Alterations of electrophysiological activities, such as changed spike firing rates, reshaping the firing patterns, and aberrant frequency oscillations between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the primary motor cortex (M1), are thought to contribute to motor impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the alterations of electrophysiological characteristics of STN and M1 in PD are still unclear, especially under specific treadmill movement. To examine the relationship between electrophysiological activity in the STN-M1 pathway, extracellular spike trains and local field potential (LFPs) of STN and M1 were simultaneously recorded during resting and movement in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats...
March 4, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Stephanie M Muscat, Michael J Butler, Sabrina E Mackey-Alfonso, Ruth M Barrientos
Global populations are increasingly consuming diets high in saturated fats and refined carbohydrates, and such diets have been well-associated with heightened inflammation and neurological dysfunction. Notably, older individuals are particularly vulnerable to the impact of unhealthy diet on cognition, even after a single meal, and pre-clinical rodent studies have demonstrated that short-term consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) induces marked increases in neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment. Unfortunately though, to date, most studies on the topic of nutrition and cognition, especially in aging, have been performed only in male rodents...
March 2, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Dawson R Kropp, Georgia E Hodes
Depression is a heterogenous disorder with symptoms that present differently across individuals. In a subset of people depression is associated with alterations of the immune system that may contribute to disorder onset and symptomology. Women are twice as likely to develop depression and on average have a more sensitive adaptive and innate immune system when compared to men. Sex differences in pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), release of damage-associated molecular proteins (DAMPs), cell populations, and circulating cytokines play a critical role in inflammation onset...
February 28, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Grace Guzman, Karolina Pellot, Megan R Reed, Analiz Rodriguez
Tremendous success using CAR T therapy in hematological malignancies has garnered significant interest in developing such treatments for solid tumors, including brain tumors. This success, however, has yet to be mirrored in solid organ neoplasms. CAR T function has shown limited efficacy against brain tumors due to several factors including the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, blood-brain barrier, and tumor-antigen heterogeneity. Despite these considerations, CAR T-cell therapy has the potential to be implemented as a treatment modality for brain tumors...
February 23, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Jia-Rui Zhang, Shu-Yuan Yin, Zu-Qi Shen, Bing Li, Yu-Qiu Zhang, Jin Yu
Inflammatory microglia and P2X7R are involved in the development of stress-induced depression. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial damage play an important role in depression and microglial activation. Bullatine A (BLA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic effects, and can be used as a P2X7R antagonist. We found that Bullatine A can effectively inhibit the calcium overload of mitochondria and the increase of ER and mitochondrial colocalization caused by eATP (extracellular ATP) in BV2-cells...
February 22, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Pascal Levesque, Charles Desmeules, Laurent Béchard, Maxime Huot-Lavoie, Marie-France Demers, Marc-André Roy, Jessica Deslauriers
Altered immune function in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may play a role in the disorder pathophysiology and onset. Women are more likely to develop PTSD, suggesting potential sex-specific inflammatory mechanisms underlying the dichotomous prevalence and risk of PTSD in men and women. In this review we examine the available literature to better assess the state of knowledge in the field. In humans, increased systemic inflammation is found in both men and women with PTSD, but seems to be at a greater extend in women...
February 21, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Ana Luiza Machado Wunderlich, Andressa Busetti Martins, Camila Franciele de Souza, Larissa Rugila S Stopa, Érica Cristina A M Monteiro, Danielly D Aguiar, Rhauany P Guergolette, Cássia Thaïs B V Zaia, Ernane Torres Uchôa
Metabolic programming may be induced by reduction or enhancement of litter size, which lead to neonatal over or undernutrition, respectively. Changes in neonatal nutrition can challenge some regulatory processes in adulthood, such as the hypophagic effect of cholecystokinin (CCK). In order to investigate the effects of nutritional programming on the anorexigenic function of CCK in adulthood, pups were raised in small (SL, 3 pups per dam), normal (NL, 10 pups per dam), or large litters (LL, 16 pups per dam), and on postnatal day 60, male rats were treated with vehicle or CCK (10µg/Kg) for the evaluation of food intake and c-Fos expression in the area postrema (AP), nucleus of solitary tract (NTS), and paraventricular (PVN), arcuate (ARC), ventromedial (VMH), and dorsomedial (DMH) nuclei of the hypothalamus...
February 20, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Ying Guo, Teng Guan, Xin Jiao, Xiaofei Tian, Chunting Jin, Guohui Zhang, Jiming Kong
Preconditioning with inhalative carbon monoxide (CO) at low concentrations provides protection against hypoxic and ischemic insults in the brain and heart. The present study aims to test a hypothesis that activation of mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) is a mechanism underlying the protective effect of CO preconditioning. Here we show that CO preconditioning induced mild oxidative stress and activated massive production of MDVs. Short exposure to a low concentration of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2), a donor of carbon monoxide, prevented oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) from subsequent death induced by high doses of CO, and protected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death...
February 17, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Xi Wang, Han Song, Yuru Du, Ye Zhao, Yaling Fu, Qian Meng, Yuan Gao, Miao Gong, Li Song, Sheng Wang, Fang Yuan, Yun Shi, Haishui Shi
Circular RNA (circRNA) plays an important role in diverse stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders like depression, anxiety and cognitive disorders. Here, using a circRNA microarray, we found that circSYNDIG1, an unreported circRNA, was significantly downregulated in the hippocampus of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mice and further validated this finding in corticosterone (CORT) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mice by qRT-PCR, and it was negatively correlated with depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors of these three stressed mice...
February 17, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Satoshi Kida
Memory retrieval is not a passive process. When a memory is retrieved, it returns to a labile state and undergoes reconsolidation to be re-stored. The discovery of this memory reconsolidation has had a major impact on memory consolidation theory. In other words, it suggested that memory is more dynamic than expected and can be modified through reconsolidation. Conversely, a conditioned fear memory undergoes memory extinction after retrieval, and it is thought that extinction does not reflect its erasure, but rather new inhibitory learning of the original conditioned memory...
February 16, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
Sarah R Ocañas, Victor A Ansere, Collyn M Kellogg, Jose V V Isola, Ana J Chucair-Elliott, Willard M Freeman
Biological sex contributes to phenotypic sex effects through genetic (sex chromosomal) and hormonal (gonadal) mechanisms. There are profound sex differences in the prevalence and progression of age-related brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Inflammation of neural tissue is one of the most consistent age-related phenotypes seen with healthy aging and disease. The pro-inflammatory environment of the aging brain has primarily been attributed to microglial reactivity and adoption of heterogeneous reactive states dependent upon intrinsic (i...
February 15, 2023: Brain Research Bulletin
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