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Brain Research Bulletin

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31102754/sirt1-improves-functional-recovery-by-regulating-autophagy-of-astrocyte-and-neuron-after-brain-injury
#1
Zhuo Zhang, Dan Li, Li Xu, Hong-Peng Li
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers neuronal death mechanisms that significantly induce neuronal loss and neurological dysfunction. Our previous study revealed that Sirt1 could improve the neuroprotective effect by reducing the astrocyte activation after TBI. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms of Sirt1 attenuating astrocyte activation still remain unclear. The following study examined whether the protection of Sirt1 in nigrostriatal pathway injury is associated with autophagy regulation. We established a nigrostriatal pathway injury in the mouse brain in order to mimic the traumatic brain injury and up-regulated Sirt1 expression by resveratrol...
May 15, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31102753/long-noncoding-rna-h19-prevents-neurogenesis-in-ischemic-stroke-through-p53-notch1-pathway
#2
Jue Wang, Bin Cao, Haiping Zhao, Yan Gao, Yumin Luo, Yuhua Chen, Juan Feng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Long non-coding RNA H19 (H19) is one of the earliest discovered long non-coding RNAs. H19 induced the onset of ischemic stroke through regulating neuronal autophagy and microglial polarization. And we aimed to study whether H19 participated the neurogenesis process after ischemic stroke. METHODS: Circulating H19 levels in ischemic stroke patients and the mRNA levels of p53 target genes were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction. H19 small interference RNA and pifithrin-α were used to inhibit H19 and p53 expression in the mice suffered middle cerebral artery occlusion, respectively...
May 15, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31102752/potential-role-of-p2x7-receptor-in-neurodegenerative-processes-in-a-murine-model-of-glaucoma
#3
María J Pérez de Lara, Marcelino Avilés-Trigueros, Ana Guzmán-Aránguez, F Javier Valiente-Soriano, Pedro de la Villa, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Jesús Pintor
Glaucoma is a common cause of visual impairment and blindness, characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. The mechanisms that trigger the development of glaucoma remain unknown and have gained significant relevance in the study of this neurodegenerative disease. P2 × 7 purinergic receptors (P2 × 7R) could be involved in the regulation of the synaptic transmission and neuronal death in the retina through different pathways. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular signals underlying glaucomatous retinal injury...
May 15, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31102751/underlying-mechanisms-of-recombinant-adeno-associated-virus-mediated-bicaudal-c-homolog-1-overexpression-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-mice-with-induced-depressive-like-behaviors
#4
Zhengchun Wang, Dongsheng Zhou, Shuting Li, Yanhua Zhang, Chuang Wang
Bicaudal C homolog 1 gene (BICC1) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD); however, less is known about the mechanisms of BICC1-induced depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes in depressive-like behaviors induced by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated overexpression of BICC1 in the mPFC of mice. A viral-mediated genetic approach was employed to explore the BICC1 overexpression-induced depressive-like behavioral and molecular changes in mice...
May 15, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31082456/high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-improves-neuronal-activity-without-affecting-astrocytes-and-microglia-density
#5
Zorzo Candela, Sara G Higarza, Méndez Marta, Juan A Martínez, Alberto M Pernía, Jorge L Arias
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique capable of producing changes in the electrical potential of neurons. Currently, the application of rTMS in clinical practice and as a neurophysiological tool is increasing. However, the exact cellular mechanisms underlying rTMS-based therapies are not completely clear. Additionally, glial cells have been studied less. Our aim was to investigate the effect of three days of high-frequency rTMS on neuronal metabolism and neuronal activation, in addition to its effect on glial cells...
May 10, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31082455/mild-hypothermia-alleviates-diabetes-aggravated-cerebral-ischemic-injury-via-activating-autophagy-and-inhibiting-pyroptosis
#6
Yanling Tu, Cen Guo, Feifei Song, Yajing Huo, Yang Geng, Mingwei Guo, Haifeng Bao, Xuqing Wu, Wei Fan
Diabetic patients manifest with more severe neurological deficits than non-diabetes after ischemic stroke. It has been shown that hypothermia has neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia, but whether it is effective for cerebral ischemia in diabetic patients remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hypothermia can alleviate cerebral ischemic injury in diabetic rats and the regulation of autophagy and pyroptosis of the treatment. We introduced permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in a model of type 2 diabetic rats prepared by high-fat diet combined with intraperitoneal injection of STZ in vivo and mimicked cerebral ischemia with diabetes by employing high glucose stimulation and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) in vitro...
May 10, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31077774/losartan-inhibits-development-of-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-by-preventing-astrocyte-activation-and-attenuating-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-following-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#7
Sun Hong, He JianCheng, Wu JiaWen, Zhan ShuQin, Zhang GuiLian, Wu HaiQin, Zhang Ru, Gao Zhen, Ren HongWei
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage and astrocyte activation are important cause of recurrent epilepsy. There is experimental evidence for increased angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) expression during BBB breakdown and brain injury, and that blocking the AT1 receptor (e.g., with losartan) can improve microcirculation, attenuate inflammation and oxidative stress, and exhibit neuroprotective effects. Thus, in the present study, we examined the effects of losartan on status epilepticus-induced astrocyte activation and BBB damage in the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats...
May 8, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31075304/serotonin-1b-receptor-mediated-presynaptic-inhibition-of-proprioceptive-sensory-inputs-to-jaw-closing-motoneurons
#8
Ai Nagata, Kiyomi Nakayama, Shiro Nakamura, Ayako Mochizuki, Chikako Gemba, Risa Aoki, Masanori Dantsuji, Koutaro Maki, Tomio Inoue
The proprioceptive sensory inputs from neurons in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MesV) to masseter motoneurons (MMNs) play an important role in regulating masseter muscle activity during mastication. Several histological studies have shown that serotonin (5-HT) fibers densely innervate both the MesV and the trigeminal motor nucleus. However, the functional roles of 5-HT in the regulation of the excitatory synaptic inputs from MesV afferents to MMNs remain to be clarified. Thus, using the whole-cell recording technique in brainstem slice preparations from juvenile Wistar rats aged between postnatal days 8 and 12, we examined the effects of 5-HT on the excitatory synaptic inputs from MesV afferents to MMNs...
May 7, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31054318/assessing-drug-response-in-engineered-brain-microenvironments
#9
REVIEW
Kinsley M Tate, Jennifer M Munson
Tissue engineered systems are important models for the testing and discovery of therapeutics against a number of diseases. The use of these models in vitro can expand both our understanding of the mechanisms behind disease and allow for higher throughput and personalized modeling of therapeutic response. Over the past decade there has been an explosion of models of neurological disorders that can be used in vitro to study new therapies against devastating neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental, and neuro-oncological disease...
May 1, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31051228/wallerian-degeneration-in-experimental-focal-cortical-ischemia
#10
Meng Zuo, Hongquan Guo, Ting Wan, Nana Zhao, Haodi Cai, Mingming Zha, Yunyun Xiong, Yi Xie, Ruidong Ye, Xinfeng Liu
Wallerian degeneration (WaD), commonly secondary to cerebral infarction, is the descending damage of fiber tracts with their accompanying myelin sheaths. However, whether this sequential injury can occur in non-ischemic corpus callosum (CC) and striatum in focal cortical ischemic model has not been fully demonstrated. The present study aimed to elucidate detailed histopathologic changes in CC and striatum after acute focal cortical infarction induced by permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) in Sprague-Dawley rat...
April 30, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31051227/abnormal-sympathetic-activity-after-myocardial-ischemia-involving-p2x4-in-dorsal-root-ganglia
#11
Yingxin Gong, Yanhong Zhou, Jingjian Yang, Shunhua Li, Zilin Wang, Jingan Rao, Lin Li, Huilong Yuan, Liran Shi, Runan Yang, Xiumei Xu, Shuangmei Liu, Shangdong Liang, Lifang Zou
The satellite glial cells (SGCs) of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) expressed P2X4 receptor. In this study, we investigated the abnormal sympathetic activity after myocardial ischemia (MI) involving P2X4 receptor in the cervical DRG SGC. The results showed that MI injury upregulated the P2X4 receptor mRNA and protein in DRG, and the upregulated P2X4 receptor was co-localized with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in DRG SGCs. P2X4 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) treatment decreased the expression of P2X4 receptor, counteracted the upregulation of GFAP and IL-1β and inhibited P38MAPK phosphorylation in DRG of MI rats...
April 30, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31051226/synergistic-effects-of-combined-vaccination-with-bcg-and-influenza-vaccines-on-spatial-cognition-and-hippocampal-plasticity-in-rats
#12
Qingqing Li, Aiguo Xuan, Fangfang Qi, Junhua Yang, Juntao Zou, Zhibin Yao
Previous study has demonstrated the neurobeneficial role of BCG and influenza vaccines. Based on this, our study concentrated on the synergistic effects on development of central nervous system by combined vaccination with BCG and influenza vaccines in rats. Our results displayed that pups combinedly vaccinated with BCG and influenza vaccines showed a significant enhance in spatial cognition, induction of LTP, hippocampal neurogenesis and morphology of dendritic spines compared with pups vaccinated with BCG solely...
April 30, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31051225/acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-effect-on-seizure-activity-and-gabaergic-mechanisms-involved-in-prolonged-febrile-seizure-development-in-an-animal-model
#13
Cleopatra Rakgantsho, Musa V Mabandla
Febrile seizures are a paediatric condition which affects 2-5 % of children worldwide with prolonged febrile seizures (PFS) being found to cause long-term complications and predispose patients to other neurological conditions later in life. Febrile seizures occur due to an imbalance between the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAchRs) have been found to mediate GABA release as well as its neurotransmission. In this study, α7-nAchRs were activated by using PNU-282,987 (PNU), a selective α7-nAchR agonist, in order to evaluate their effect in seizure threshold as well as GABAergic parameters in a PFS rat model...
April 30, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31047973/citalopram-attenuates-social-behavior-deficits-in-the-btbr-t-itpr3-tf-j-mouse-model-of-autism
#14
Xiaotang Fan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core symptoms: impaired social communication and the presence of repetitive, stereotyped behaviors and/or restricted interests. Alterations in serotonergic signaling are involved in the genesis of ASD. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been reported to reduce repetitive behaviors and rescue social deficits in ASD mouse models and patients. In the present study, we examined the potential of citalopram (a representative selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) on sociability and repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf /J (BTBR) mouse model of ASD...
April 29, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31034945/gaba-b-receptor-activation-attenuates-inflammatory-orofacial-pain-by-modulating-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-satellite-glial-cells-role-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-signaling-pathways
#15
Fei Liu, Yan-Yan Zhang, Ning Song, Jiu Lin, Meng-Ke Liu, Chao-Lan Huang, Cheng Zhou, Hang Wang, Min Wang, Jie-Fei Shen
Orofacial inflammation could activate satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) to produce interleukin 1β (IL-1β) which plays crucial roles in the development of inflammatory pain. Recent studies have shown that gamma-amino butyric acid-B (GABAB ) receptor could modulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in microglia and astrocytes in the spinal cord. The objective of this study was to investigate whether GABAB receptors in TG SGCs attenuate inflammatory facial pain via mediating IL-1β following inflammation and its mechanisms...
April 26, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31034944/acute-restraint-stress-alters-food-foraging-behavior-in-rats-taking-the-easier-way-while-suffered
#16
Tu Bo-Xuan, Lai-Fa Wang, Xiao-Lin Zhong, Hu Zhao-Lan, Wen-Yu Cao, Yan-Hui Cui, Song-Ji Li, Guang-Jing Zou, Yu Liu, Shi-Fen Zhou, Wen-Juan Zhang, Su Jing-Zhi, Xiao-Xin Yan, Fang Li, Chang-Qi Li
Stress can influence decision-making in humans from many cognitive perspectives, while the underlying neurobiological mechanism remains incompletely understood. Food-foraging is a rodent behavior involving strategic possessing of nutritional supply in social context; experimental model of this behavior could help explore the effect of stress on decision-making and the brain mechanism thereof. In the present study, the influence of stress on food-foraging behavior was assessed in rats using an open field choosing paradigm wherein food collection (standard food or sweet food) were associated with social competition (with or without a rat in the cage)...
April 26, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31029599/the-effect-of-lithium-chloride-on-the-attenuation-of-cognitive-impairment-in-experimental-hypoglycemic-rats
#17
Yuzhen Xu, Qian Wang, Zhenghua Wu, Kaili Lu, Xiaojuan Cheng, Weilin Jin, Yuwu Zhao
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is the most common complication in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Accumulating evidence indicated that severe hypoglycemia could induce cognitive impairment. However, the molecular mechanism of regulating this progress is largely unknown. METHODS: We established a model of insulin-induced recurrent hypoglycemia in adult male Wistar rats (n = 40). Lithium chloride was injected after hypoglycemia once a day for consecutive 30 days...
April 25, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31029598/the-effects-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-on-the-attentional-set-shifting-task-performance-of-alcohol-dependent-rats
#18
Xianqiang Zhang, Lin Sun, Li Wang, Mengting Wang, Guohua Lu, Yanyu Wang, Qi Li, Changjiang Li, Jin Zhou, Huimin Ma, Hongwei Sun
OBJECTIVES: Alcohol dependence causes extensive damage to the central nervous system, resulting in impaired brain structure and behavioral changes. Moreover, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors restrain the activity of HDAC and cause increased histone acetylation, which may be related to alcohol dependence. METHODS: Ethanol dependence was modelled in animals by persistent alcohol exposure and tested in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. To induce CPP, the alcohol-treated rats were given orally gradient concentration (3%, 6%, and 9% v/v) alcohol administration for 20 consecutive days...
April 25, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31022436/the-role-of-gonadal-hormones-in-the-hypoglossal-discharge-activity-of-rats-exposed-to-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#19
Tang Si, Xiufang Zhou, Hu Ke, Pei Liu, Mengqing Xiong, Huimin Li
OBJECTIVE: The role of gonadal hormones in chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-evoked hypoglossal nerve (XII) neuroplasticity has not been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to reveal the effects of gonadal hormone concentration variations on the XII discharge activity of rats exposed to CIH and the corresponding relationship with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). METHODS: This study employed five groups of female rats and six groups of male rats. Gonadal hormone levels were modified through gonadal resection and daily supplementation with gonadal hormones in rats of both sexes...
April 22, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31009699/interaction-between-microfilament-and-microtubule-dependent-tensions-and-ischemia-hypoxic-induced-alteration-of-structural-tension-in-neuronal-cells
#20
GuangMing Li, TingTing Chen, YuXuan Wang, JiaRui Zhang, Jun Guo, Wu Huiwen
Intracellular mechanical tension plays a vital role in maintaining neuronal function and is generated steerablely by motor proteins along microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs). To explore the interaction between these subcellular tensions and elucidate their underlying mechanisms, we constructed MF- and MT-dependent tension probes using the Förster resonance energy transfer technique. Hypotonic stress activated MF and MT tensions in calcium-dependent manner, which antagonized outward expansion of cells synergistically; conversely, hypertonic stress attenuated MF and MT tensions in a calcium-independent manner and their interaction is antagonistical...
April 19, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
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