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Applied and Environmental Microbiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770408/key-physiology-of-a-nitrite-dependent-methane-oxidizing-enrichment-culture
#1
Simon Guerrero-Cruz, Karin Stultiens, Maartje A H J van Kessel, Wouter Versantvoort, Mike S M Jetten, Huub J M Op den Camp, Boran Kartal
Nitrite-dependent methane-oxidizing bacteria couple the reduction of nitrite to the oxidation of methane via a unique oxygen-producing pathway. This process is carried out by genus Methylomirabilis bacteria that belong to the NC10 phylum. Contrary to other known anaerobic methane oxidizers, they do not employ the reverse methanogenesis pathway for methane activation, but a canonical particulate methane monooxygenase similar to those used by aerobic methanotrophs. Methylomirabilis -like bacteria are detected in many natural and manmade ecosystems, but their physiology is not well understood...
February 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770407/structure-function-analysis-indicates-that-an-active-site-water-participates-in-dimethylsulfoniopropionate-cleavage-by-dddk
#2
Ming Peng, Xiu-Lan Chen, Dian Zhang, Xiu-Juan Wang, Ning Wang, Peng Wang, Jonathan D Todd, Yu-Zhong Zhang, Chun-Yang Li
The osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is produced in petagram quantities in marine environments and has important roles in global sulfur and carbon cycling. Many marine microorganisms catabolize DMSP via DMSP lyases generating the climate-active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). DMS oxidation products participate in forming cloud condensation nuclei, and thus may influence weather and climate. SAR11 bacteria are the most abundant marine heterotrophic bacteria, many of which contain the DMSP lyase DddK and whose dddK transcripts are relatively abundant in seawater...
February 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770406/antimicrobial-particle-based-novel-sanitizer-for-enhanced-decontamination-of-fresh-produce
#3
Kang Huang, Nitin Nitin
Microbial food safety of raw or minimally processed fresh produce is a significant challenge. The current sanitation processes are effective for inactivation of bacteria in wash water but have limited efficacy (less than 2 log/g reduction) for inactivation of microbes on the surface of fresh produce. This study demonstrates a novel concept to enhance effectiveness of chlorine using a particle based sanitizer to improve decontamination of fresh produce. In this concept, enhanced effectiveness is achieved by localized high concentration of chlorine bound to the surface of silica particles and improved surface contact of microparticles with the produce surface using mechanical shear during a washing process...
February 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770405/disruption-of-quorum-sensing-and-virulence-in-burkholderia-cenocepacia-by-a-structural-analogue-of-the-cis-2-dodecenoic-acid-signal
#4
Chaoyu Cui, Shihao Song, Chunxi Yang, Xiuyun Sun, Yutong Huang, Kang Li, Shuo Zhao, Yongliang Zhang, Yinyue Deng
Quorum sensing (QS) signals are widely used by bacterial pathogens to control biological functions and virulence in response to changes in cell population densities. Burkholderia cenocepacia employs a molecular mechanism in which the cis -2-dodecenoic acid (named <u>B</u> urkholderia <u> d </u> iffusible <u> s </u> ignal <u> f </u> actor, abbreviated as BDSF) QS system regulates N -acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signal production and virulence by modulating intracellular levels of cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP)...
February 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770404/multilocus-sequence-analysis-reveals-three-distinct-populations-of-candidatus-phytoplasma-palmicola-with-a-specific-geographical-distribution-on-the-african-continent
#5
Fabian Pilet, Robert Nketsia Quaicoe, Isaac Jesuorobo Osagie, Marcos Freire, Xavier Foissac
To sustain epidemiological studies on coconut lethal yellowing disease (CLYD), a devastating disease in Africa caused by a phytoplasma, we developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for ' Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola' based on 8 housekeeping genes. At the continental level, eight different sequence types were identified among 132 ' Ca. Phytoplasma palmicola-' infected coconuts collected in Ghana, Nigeria and Mozambique where CLYD epidemics are still very active.' Ca. Phytoplasma palmicola' appeared to be a bacterium submitted to strong bottlenecks, reducing the fixation of positively selected beneficial mutations into the bacterial population...
February 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770403/the-edwardsiella-piscicida-type-iii-translocon-protein-esec-inhibits-biofilm-formation-through-sequestering-esee
#6
Ying Li Liu, Tian Tian He, Lu Yi Liu, Jia Yi, Pin Nie, Hong Bing Yu, Hai Xia Xie
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is one of the most important virulence factors of the fish pathogen Edwardsiella piscicida It contains three translocon proteins, EseB, EseC and EseD, required for translocation of effector proteins into host cells. We have previously shown that EseB forms filamentous appendages on E. piscicida 's surface, and these filamentous structures mediate bacterial cell-cell interactions promoting autoaggregation and biofilm formation. In the present study, we show that EseC, but not EseD, inhibits E...
February 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737353/the-bhlh-transcription-factor-devr-significantly-affects-polysaccharide-metabolism-in-aspergillus-oryzae
#7
Miao Zhuang, Zhi-Min Zhang, Long Jin, Bao-Teng Wang, Yasuji Koyama, Feng-Jie Jin
basic-region helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that are often involved in the control of growth and differentiation. Recently, it has been reported that the bHLH transcription factor DevR is involved in both asexual and sexual development in A. nidulans and regulates the conidial melanin production in A. fumigatus In this study, we identified and characterized an A. oryzae gene, which showed high similarity with devR of A. nidulans and A. fumigatus In the AodevR -disrupted strain, growth was delayed and the number of conidia was decreased on CD minimal agar plates, but the conidiation could be partially recovered by adding 0...
February 8, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737352/historical-nitrogen-deposition-and-straw-addition-facilitate-the-resistance-of-soil-multifunctionality-to-drying-wetting-cycles
#8
Gongwen Luo, Tingting Wang, Kaisong Li, Ling Li, Junwei Zhang, Shiwei Guo, Ning Ling, Qirong Shen
Climate change is predicted to alter precipitation and drought patterns, which has become a global concern as evidence accumulates that it will affect ecosystem services. Disentangling the ability of soil multiple-functions to withstand this stress (multifunctionality resistance) is a crucial topic for assessing the stability and adaptability of agroecosystems. Presently, we explored the effects of nutrient-addition on multifunctionality resistance to drying-wetting cycles, and evaluated the importance of microbial functional capacity (characterized by the abundances of genes involved in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles) for this resistance...
February 8, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737351/phosphorothioated-dna-is-shielded-from-oxidative-damage
#9
Tianning Pu, Jingdan Liang, Zhiling Mei, Yan Yang, Jialiang Wang, Wei Zhang, Wei-Jun Liang, Xiufen Zhou, Zixin Deng, Zhijun Wang
DNA is the carrier of genetic information. DNA modifications play a central role in essential physiological processes. Phosphorothioation (PT) modification involves the replacement of an oxygen atom on the DNA backbone with a sulfur atom. PT modification can cause genomic instability in Salmonella enterica under hypochlorous acid stress. This modification restores hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) resistance in the catalase deficiency strain Escherichia coli Hpx- Here, we report biochemical characterization results for purified PT modification protein complex (DndCDE) from S...
February 8, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737350/artificial-fusion-of-mcherry-enhanced-solubility-and-stability-of-trehalose-transferase
#10
Luuk Mestrom, Stefan R Marsden, Marit Dieters, Puck Achterberg, Lysanne Stolk, Isabel Bento, Ulf Hanefeld, Peter-Leon Hagedoorn
LeLoir glycosyltransferases are important biocatalysts for the production of glycosidic bonds in natural products, chiral building blocks, and pharmaceuticals. Trehalose transferase (TreT) is of particular interest since it catalyzes the stereo- and enantioselective α,α-(1→1)-coupling of a nucleotide sugar donor and monosaccharide acceptor for the synthesis of disaccharide derivatives. Heterologously expressed thermophilic trehalose transferases were found to be intrinsically aggregation-prone and are mainly expressed as catalytically active inclusion bodies in E...
February 8, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737349/the-detection-of-natural-products-and-their-producers-in-ocean-sediments
#11
Robert N Tuttle, Alyssa M Demko, Nastassia Patin, Clifford A Kapono, Mohamed S Donia, Pieter Dorrestein, Paul R Jensen
Thousands of natural products have been identified from cultured microorganisms yet evidence of their production in the environment has proven elusive. Technological advances in mass spectrometry combined with public databases now make it possible to address this disparity by detecting compounds directly from environmental samples. Here we used adsorbent resins, tandem mass spectrometry, and next generation sequencing to assess the metabolome of marine sediments and its relationship to bacterial community structure...
February 8, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737348/-clostridium-scindens-atcc-35704-integration-of-nutritional-requirements-the-complete-genome-sequence-and-global-transcriptional-responses-to-bile-acids
#12
Saravanan Devendran, Rachana Shrestha, João M P Alves, Patricia G Wolf, Lindsey Ly, Alvaro G Hernandez, Celia Méndez-García, Ashley Inboden, Jnai Wiley, Oindrila Paul, Avery Allen, Emily Springer, Chris L Wright, Christopher J Fields, Steven L Daniel, Jason M Ridlon
In the human gut, Clostridium scindens ATCC 35704 is a predominant bacterium and one of the major bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating anaerobes. While this organism is well-studied relative to bile acid metabolism, little is known about the basic nutrition and physiology of C. scindens ATCC 35704. To determine the amino acid and vitamin requirements of C. scindens , the "leave one [lsqb]amino acid group or vitamin[rsqb] out" technique was used to eliminate the non-essential amino acids and vitamins. With this approach, the amino acid tryptophan and three vitamins (riboflavin, pantothenate, and pyridoxal) were found to be required for the growth of C...
February 8, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737347/unveiling-genomic-diversity-among-members-of-the-bifidobacterium-pseudolongum-species-a-widely-distributed-gut-commensal-of-the-animal-kingdom
#13
Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Sabrina Duranti, Korin Albert, Leonardo Mancabelli, Stefania Napoli, Alice Viappiani, Rosaria Anzalone, Giulia Longhi, Christian Milani, Francesca Turroni, Giulia Alessandri, David A Sela, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Bifidobacteria are commensals of the animal gut, and are commonly found in mammals, birds, and social insects. Specifically, strains of Bifidobacterium adolescentis , Bifidobacterium bifidum , Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum are widely distributed in the mammalian gut. In this context, we investigated the genetic variability and metabolic abilities of the B. pseudolongum taxon, whose genomic characterization has so far not received much attention. Phylogenomic analysis of genome sequences of 60 B...
February 8, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737346/characterizing-the-key-agents-in-a-disease-suppressed-soil-managed-by-reductive-soil-disinfestation
#14
Liangliang Liu, Xinqi Huang, Jun Zhao, Jinbo Zhang, Zucong Cai
Many agricultural soil management strategies have been shown to be effective in preventing soil-borne diseases. However, their underlying mechanisms of action remain unknown. Here, we used reductive soil disinfestation (RSD), also named anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and biological soil disinfestation (BSD), as a representative method for disease management and cucumber damping-off diseased soil as a model system to identify the disease suppressive agents in artificially managed soil. The results showed that RSD created a soil environment that was different from that of the diseased soil, where the pH level and the carbon content were greater...
February 8, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737345/the-algicidal-bacterium-kordia-algicida-shapes-a-natural-plankton-community
#15
Arite Bigalke, Nils Meyer, Lydia Papanikolopoulou, Karen Helen Wiltshire, Georg Pohnert
Plankton communities consist of complex microbial consortia which change over time with. These fluctuations can only be partially explained by limiting resources. Biotic factors such as herbivores and pathogens also contribute to the control of algal blooms. Here we address the effect of algicidal bacteria on a natural plankton community in an indoor enclosure experiment. The algicidal bacteria, introduced into plankton taken directly from the North Sea during a diatom bloom, caused the rapid decline of the bloom forming Chaetoceros socialis within only one day...
February 8, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737344/environmental-sources-of-bacteria-and-genetic-variation-in-behavior-influence-host-associated-microbiota
#16
Alexandra A Mushegian, Roberto Arbore, Jean-Claude Walser, Dieter Ebert
In many organisms, host-associated microbial communities are acquired horizontally after birth. This process is believed to be shaped by a combination of environmental and host genetic factors. We examined whether genetic variation in animal behavior could affect the composition of the animal's microbiota in different environments. The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna is primarily planktonic, but exhibits variation in the degree to which it browses in benthic sediments. We performed an experiment with clonal lines of D...
February 8, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737343/mitochondrial-citrate-transporters-ctpa-and-yhma-are-required-for-extracellular-citric-acid-accumulation-and-contribute-to-cytosolic-acetyl-coa-generation-in-aspergillus-luchuensis-mut-kawachii
#17
Chihiro Kadooka, Kosuke Izumitsu, Masahira Onoue, Kayu Okutsu, Yumiko Yoshizaki, Kazunori Takamine, Masatoshi Goto, Hisanori Tamaki, Taiki Futagami
Aspergillus luchuensis mut . kawachii produces a large amount of citric acid during the process of fermenting shochu, a traditional Japanese distilled spirit. In this study, we characterized A. kawachii CtpA and YhmA, which are homologous to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial citrate transporters Ctp1 and Yhm2, respectively. CtpA and YhmA were purified from A. kawachii and reconstituted into liposomes. The proteoliposomes exhibited only counter-exchange transport activity; CtpA transported citrate using counter substrates especially for cis -aconitate and malate, whereas YhmA transported citrate using a wider variety of counter substrates, including citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate, cis -aconitate, and succinate...
February 8, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709828/axenic-biofilm-formation-and-aggregation-by-synechocystis-pcc-6803-is-induced-by-changes-in-nutrient-concentration-and-requires-cell-surface-structures
#18
Rey Allen, Bruce E Rittmann, Roy Curtiss
Phototrophic biofilms are key to nutrient cycling in natural environments and bioremediation technologies, but few studies describe biofilm formation by pure (axenic) cultures of a phototrophic microbe. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis ) is a model micro-organism for the study of oxygenic photosynthesis and biofuel production. We report here that wild-type (WT) Synechocystis caused extensive biofilm formation in a 2000 liter outdoor non-axenic photobioreactor under conditions attributed to nutrient limitation...
February 1, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709827/primer-design-for-an-accurate-view-of-picocyanobacterial-community-structure-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#19
Paula Huber, Francisco M Cornejo-Castillo, Isabel Ferrera, Pablo Sánchez, Ramiro Logares, Sebastián Metz, Vanessa Balagué, Silvia G Acinas, Josep M Gasol, Fernando Unrein
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the 16S rRNA gene has been used successfully to describe the structure and dynamics of microbial communities. Picocyanobacteria are important members of bacterioplankton communities, and so far, they have predominantly been targeted using universal bacterial primers providing a limited resolution of the picocyanobacterial community structure and dynamics. To increase such resolution, the study of a particular target group is best approached with the use of specific primers...
February 1, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709826/interspecies-chemical-signaling-in-a-methane-oxidizing-bacterial-community
#20
Aaron W Puri, Darren Liu, Amy L Schaefer, Zheng Yu, Mitchell W Pesesky, E Peter Greenberg, Mary E Lidstrom
Multiple species of bacteria oxidize methane in the environment after it is produced by anaerobic ecosystems. These organisms provide reduced carbon substrates for species that cannot oxidize methane themselves, thereby serving a key role in these niches while also sequestering this potent greenhouse gas before it enters the atmosphere. Deciphering the molecular details of how methane-oxidizing bacteria interact in the environment enables us to understand an important aspect that shapes the structure and function of these communities...
February 1, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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