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Addictive Behaviors

Jafar Bakhshaie, Andrew H Rogers, Brooke Y Kauffman, Nhan Tran, Julia D Buckner, Joseph W Ditre, Michael J Zvolensky
The non-medical use of prescription opioids is an area of increasing public health concern, particularly among young college-age adults (ages 18-25) who demonstrate an increased risk of opioid-related problems. Negative mood states are consistently associated with more severe non-medical use of opioid. Emotion dysregulation defined an impaired ability to understand, evaluate, and differentiate one's emotions, and access strategies to regulate them could play an explanatory role in this association. The present study examined the potential explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relationship between negative affectivity and non-medical use of prescription opioid among a racially/ethnically diverse young adult sample (N = 2080, 78...
March 8, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Neal Doran, Mark G Myers, John Correa, David R Strong, Lyric Tully, Kim Pulvers
Recent data regarding growth in concurrent use of nicotine and marijuana have raised concern that reductions in legal restrictions on marijuana use may increase risk for tobacco-related harms. Previous studies have shown cross-sectional links between use of both substances, but less is known about associations over time. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there is a bidirectional relationship between use of marijuana and use of tobacco products over time, such that increasing use of either substance would predict increasing use of the other...
March 7, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Manas Ranjan Pradhan, Surendra Kumar Patel
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco cessation is crucial to reduce tobacco-related diseases and premature deaths. Quitting efforts can be enhanced through brief routine interventions at health facilities because healthcare providers are highly trusted, resulting in stronger adherence to their advice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used data on tobacco users aged 15-49 years (n = 93,522) collected as part of the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2015-16...
March 7, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Lisa S Meredith, Rachana Seelam, Bradley D Stein, Layla Parast, William G Shadel, Elizabeth J D'Amico
PURPOSE: Adolescents who report having mental health problems, including depression and anxiety, are at greater risk of alcohol use. We examined the longitudinal association between mental health and alcohol use six months later in a diverse adolescent sample attending a primary care appointment. The primary care setting provides a unique opportunity to reach this younger age group and address risk factors, including mental health problems and substance use. METHODS: Adolescents aged 12-18 (n = 668) recruited from waiting rooms at four primary care clinics in Los Angeles, California and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania completed a baseline web-based survey (April 2013 to November 2015) and another survey six months later...
March 7, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Erin A Vogel, Gary L Humfleet, Meredith Meacham, Judith J Prochaska, Danielle E Ramo
INTRODUCTION: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) young adults have higher smoking prevalence than their non-SGM peers. Less is known about differences in smoking characteristics within the SGM community. METHODS: Participants were SGM young adult smokers age 18-25 (N = 165, M age = 21.8) enrolled in a clinical trial of the Put It Out Project, a Facebook smoking cessation intervention for SGM young adults. Analyses tested differences between 1) sexual orientation groups, and 2) gender identity groups, on the following smoking characteristics: cigarettes/day, daily smoker (yes/no), social smoker (yes/no), years of smoking, number of close friends who smoke (out of 5), age of initiation, age began smoking regularly, time to first cigarette (30 min or less/>30 min), lifetime quit attempts, past-year quit attempts, and stage of change for quitting smoking (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation)...
March 5, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Francesca Martino, Gabriele Caselli, Elena Fiabane, Federica Felicetti, Cecilia Trevisani, Marco Menchetti, Clarice Mezzaluna, Sandra Sassaroli, Ian P Albery, Marcantonio M Spada
Research has indicated that craving is one of the strongest predictors of treatment outcome and relapse in Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) but there is little consensus on the factors that may influence its activation and escalation. Research has also shown that desire thinking is an important cognitive process which may exacerbate craving in problem drinkers. The aim of present study was to explore, for the first time, the role of desire thinking in prospectively predicting relapse, craving and binge drinking in patients receiving treatment for AUD...
March 5, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Dale S Mantey, Onyinye Omega-Njemnobi, LaTrice Montgomery
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the relationships between flavored tobacco use and single, dual, and poly tobacco product use, among adolescents. Given the increased use of flavored tobacco products, it is vital to understand if flavored products are associated with dual and poly tobacco product use. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2017 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were 2042 adolescent past 30-day tobacco users. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between flavored tobacco use and past 30-day single, dual, and poly (three or more) tobacco product use...
March 4, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Maria Testa, Weijun Wang, Jaye L Derrick, Whitney C Brown, R Lorraine Collins
Several theories posit that cannabis and other substances are used to reduce negative affect. This daily report study considered whether variations in positive and negative affect, reported each morning, contributed to the likelihood of cannabis use later that day. We also explored whether levels of positive and negative affect reported immediately after cannabis use improved, relative to that day's morning levels. The sample included 183 men and 183 women representing heterosexual, cannabis-using couples from the community...
March 3, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Mir M Ali, Rachel Mosher Henke, Ryan Mutter, Peggy L O'Brien, Eli Cutler, Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Jesse M Pines
It is recognized that family members are a major source of diverted opioids. Yet it is not known how family member opioid prescriptions predict the development of an opioid use disorder (OUD).We conducted an observational study using commercial health care claims to investigate the association between a family member opioid prescription and an individual having an OUD-related claim in a large sample of patients with commercial insurance. We found that individuals had higher odds of having an OUD when a family member had an opioid prescription...
February 28, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Aurélien Cornil, Jiang Long, Stéphane Rothen, José C Perales, Philippe de Timary, Joël Billieux
Both research and clinical practice acknowledge the importance of craving as a maintenance and relapse factor in gambling disorder. The elaborated intrusion theory (EIT; Kavanagh et al., 2005) of desire has been extensively investigated in relation to psychoactive substance or food cravings but, to date, has scarcely been studied in relation to gambling. In such a context, developing an assessment tool of gambling craving based on the EIT is warranted. To fill this gap in the literature, we aimed to develop and test the psychometric properties of a gambling-adapted version of the Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ; May et al...
February 27, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Yan Sun, Hongxia Wang, Siyu Bo
The results of some neuroimaging studies have revealed that people with internet addiction (IA) exhibit structural and functional changes in specific brain areas and connections. However, the understanding about global topological organization of IA may also require a more integrative and holistic view of brain function. In the present study, we used synchronization likelihood combined with graph theory analysis to investigate the functional connectivity (FC) and topological differences between 25 participants with IA and 27 healthy controls (HCs) based on their spontaneous EEG activities in the eye-closed resting state...
February 26, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Michael J Mason, Aaron Brown, Matthew Moore
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the complex influence of peers on young adult substance use is an important component of intervention research and is challenging methodologically. The false consensus theory suggests that individuals falsely attribute their own substance use behaviors onto others, producing biased data. METHODS: We tested this theory with 39 young adults who had a cannabis use disorder and a mean age of 20. Participants (egos) recruited three of their close friends (alters)...
February 23, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Lynne Dawkins, Allison Ford, Linda Bauld, Sema Balaban, Allan Tyler, Sharon Cox
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a key contributor to health and social inequalities and homeless smoking prevalence rates are 4 times higher than the general population. Research on homelessness and smoking to date has been concentrated predominantly in the US and Australia. This study aimed to describe smoking and quitting behaviour in homeless adult smokers in Great Britain. Data on perceptions of, and willingness to try, e-cigarettes were also gathered. METHODS: Cross sectional survey of 283 adult smokers accessing homeless support services in Kent, the Midlands, London and Edinburgh...
February 22, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Jessica L Bourdon, Linda C Hancock
PURPOSE: The use of e-cigarette devices, specifically JUUL, is on the rise on college campuses. Traditional means of collecting and analyzing research may not be fast enough for health professionals to effectively assess, plan, and implement effective prevention/intervention strategies. PROCEDURES: In August 2018, during incoming student orientation sessions at seven different college campuses, data was collected on a specific e-cigarette, JUUL. Data on use and knowledge of JUUL, as well as traditional cigarette use, was collected via immediate electronic audience response devices...
February 21, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Lorra Garey, Kara Manning, Danielle E McCarthy, Matthew W Gallagher, Justin M Shepherd, Michael F Orr, Norman B Schmidt, Blaz Rodic, Michael J Zvolensky
OBJECTIVE: Tobacco dependence treatment is recognized as a dynamic, chronic process comprised of several specific phases. Of these phases, the Cessation phase is the most critical as it has demonstrated the strongest relation to quit success. Yet, little is understood about smoking trajectories during this period. The current study aimed to address gaps in the smoking research literature and advance understanding of the dynamic quit process unique to completing an integrated smoking treatment by evaluating quit behavior during the Cessation phase...
February 21, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Hasmeena Kathuria, Ryan G Seibert, Vinson Cobb, Nicole Herbst, Zoe M Weinstein, Minda Gowarty, Reha Jhunjhunwala, Eric D Helm, Renda Soylemez Wiener
AIMS: Smoking cessation may promote long-term recovery in patients with substance use disorders (SUD). Yet smoking rates remain alarmingly high in this population. Using a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach, we examined smoking rates among hospitalized patients with SUD at a large safety-net hospital, and then characterized factors associated with smoking behaviors both quantitatively and qualitatively. METHOD: We abstracted data from all hospital admissions (7/2016-6/2017) and determined demographics, substance use type, and other characteristics associated with cigarette use among those with SUD...
February 18, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Holly P O'Rourke, Edwin Vazquez
Mediating mechanisms are important components of substance use research, as many substance use interventions work by targeting mediating variables. One issue that is common in substance use research is the presence of many responses of zero in a count variable that is the primary outcome of interest, such as number of drinks per week or number of substances used in the past month. The goal of this paper is to highlight the unique challenges that substance use researchers face when conducting mediation analysis with a zero-inflated count outcome...
February 18, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Nicole R Schultz, Drew T Bassett, Bryan G Messina, Christopher J Correia
OBJECTIVE: Cannabis use is common among college students and is associated with a variety of negative consequences. The Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test Revised (CUDIT-R) is an 8-item screening instrument designed to identify potentially problematic or harmful recent cannabis use. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the internal consistency and validity of the CUDIT-R in a sample of college students who reported recent cannabis use (past 30 day). METHODS: Participants (n = 229) completed the CUDIT-R and measures of smoking behavior (Daily Smoking Questionnaire; DSQ), cannabis related consequences (Marijuana Problem Index; MPI), and problematic cannabis use (self-reported DSM-5 Cannabis Use Disorder Criteria)...
February 18, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Marie Chesaniuk, Alexander W Sokolovsky, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Kristina M Jackson, Robin Mermelstein
INTRODUCTION: Nicotine dependence contributes to changes in tobacco use among young adults. However, research examining salient dependence motives in young adult users of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) is limited. This study examined the association of dependence motives with ENDS use or lifetime quit attempt, and tests sex moderation in these relationships. METHODS: Young adults (N = 304; age 18-24) self-identifying as regular ENDS users and self-reporting vaping within a week of data collection completed an online survey...
February 15, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Mauro Pettorruso, Daniela Di Giuda, Giovanni Martinotti, Fabrizio Cocciolillo, Luisa De Risio, Chiara Montemitro, Giovanni Camardese, Marco Di Nicola, Luigi Janiri, Massimo di Giannantonio
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) shows the potential to modulate local brain activity, thus resulting in a modulatory action on neurocircuitries implicated in the pathophysiology of Gambling Disorder (GD). We report the case of a GD patient treated with two weeks of high frequency (15 Hz) rTMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). At baseline and after rTMS treatment the patient underwent a SPECT examination with (123)I-FP-CIT tracer, to test changes in dopamine transporter (DAT) availability...
February 14, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
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