Christopher E Hopkins
A variety of technologies are emerging to help clinicians provide patient-specific diagnosis and therapies. This special edition of the Molecular Aspects of Medicine is a collection of mini reviews covering a broad range of topics, from systems to model patient variants and discover therapies (Microphysiological systems with patient derived tissue and CRISPR-humanized animal models), to new modalities in diagnostics and therapeutics (Extracellular Vesicles, RNA therapeutics, microbiome and molecular dynamics)...
February 16, 2023: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Cesar G Fraga, Patricia I Oteiza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2023: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Ghazaleh Eskandari-Sedighi, Jaesoo Jung, Matthew S Macauley
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease and is considered the main cause of dementia worldwide. Genome-wide association studies combined with integrated analysis of functional datasets support a critical role for microglia in AD pathogenesis, identifying them as important potential therapeutic targets. The ability of immunomodulatory receptors on microglia to control the response to pathogenic amyloid-β aggregates has gained significant interest. Siglec-3, also known as CD33, is one of these immunomodulatory receptors expressed on microglia that has been identified as an AD susceptibility factor...
April 2023: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Marissa N Russo, Lauren A Whaley, Emily S Norton, Natanael Zarco, Hugo Guerrero-Cázares
Glioblastoma (GBM), is the most malignant form of gliomas and the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults. Conventional cancer treatments have limited to no efficacy on GBM. GBM cells respond and adapt to the surrounding brain parenchyma known as tumor microenvironment (TME) to promote tumor preservation. Among specific TME, there are 3 of particular interest for GBM biology: the perivascular niche, the subventricular zone neurogenic niche, and the immune microenvironment. GBM cells and TME cells present a reciprocal feedback which results in tumor maintenance...
December 26, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
César G Fraga, Andrés Trostchansky, Barbara S Rocha, João Laranjinha, Homero Rubbo, Monica Galleano
Nitric oxide (• NO) is an essential molecule able to control and regulate many biological functions. Additionally, • NO bears a potential toxicity or damaging effects under conditions of uncontrolled production, and because of its participation in redox-sensitive pathways and oxidizing reactions. Several plant (poly)phenols present in the diet are able to regulate the enzymes producing • NO (NOSs). In addition, (poly)phenols are implicated in defining • NO bioavailability, especially by regulating NADPH oxidases (NOXs), and the subsequent generation of superoxide and • NO depletion...
December 12, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Boris Turk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Taťána Majerová, Jan Konvalinka
Some medically important viruses-including retroviruses, flaviviruses, coronaviruses, and herpesviruses-code for a protease, which is indispensable for viral maturation and pathogenesis. Viral protease inhibitors have become an important class of antiviral drugs. Development of the first-in-class viral protease inhibitor saquinavir, which targets HIV protease, started a new era in the treatment of chronic viral diseases. Combining several drugs that target different steps of the viral life cycle enables use of lower doses of individual drugs (and thereby reduction of potential side effects, which frequently occur during long term therapy) and reduces drug-resistance development...
December 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Jasper Weinberg, Mohita Gaur, Anand Swaroop, Allen Taylor
Vision impairment has devastating consequences for the quality of human life. The cells and tissues associated with the visual process must function throughout one's life span and maintain homeostasis despite exposure to a variety of insults. Maintenance of the proteome is termed proteostasis, and is vital for normal cellular functions, especially at an advanced age. Here we describe basic aspects of proteostasis, from protein synthesis and folding to degradation, and discuss the current status of the field with a particular focus on major age-related eye diseases: age-related macular degeneration, cataract, and glaucoma...
November 29, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Danielle J Beetler, Damian N Di Florio, Katelyn A Bruno, Tsuneya Ikezu, Keith L March, Leslie T Cooper, Joy Wolfram, DeLisa Fairweather
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from all cells in the body, forming an important intercellular communication network that contributes to health and disease. The contents of EVs are cell source-specific, inducing distinct signaling responses in recipient cells. The specificity of EVs and their accumulation in fluid spaces that are accessible for liquid biopsies make them highly attractive as potential biomarkers and therapies for disease. The duality of EVs as favorable (therapeutic) or unfavorable (pathological) messengers is context dependent and remains to be fully determined in homeostasis and various disease states...
November 28, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Christopher E Hopkins, Trisha Brock, Thomas R Caulfield, Matthew Bainbridge
Precision medicine strives for highly individualized treatments for disease under the notion that each individual's unique genetic makeup and environmental exposures imprints upon them not only a disposition to illness, but also an optimal therapeutic approach. In the realm of rare disorders, genetic predisposition is often the predominant mechanism driving disease presentation. For such, mostly, monogenic disorders, a causal gene to phenotype association is likely. As a result, it becomes important to query the patient's genome for the presence of pathogenic variations that are likely to cause the disease...
November 18, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Patricia I Oteiza, Eleonora Cremonini, Cesar G Fraga
Anthocyanins (AC) are flavonoids abundant in the human diet, which consumption has been associated to several health benefits, including the mitigation of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and neurological disorders. It is widely recognized that the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is not only central for food digestion but actively participates in the regulation of whole body physiology. Given that AC, and their metabolites reach high concentrations in the intestinal lumen after food consumption, their biological actions at the GI tract can in part explain their proposed local and systemic health benefits...
November 12, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Vincenzo Lauriola, Adam M Brickman, Richard P Sloan, Scott A Small
Considerable evidence has established the importance of specific nutrients that have been found vital for the developing brain. We hypothesize that in a similar manner there should be nutrients vital to the aging brain and that based on aging's distinct pathophysiology they should be different than those essential to development. Specific brain networks that govern cognition are particularly vulnerable to the aging process, resulting in what is referred to as 'cognitive aging'. Common late-life disorders, however, such as Alzheimer's disease also target these same brain networks...
November 10, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Simone Nüssing, Vivien R Sutton, Joseph A Trapani, Ian A Parish
Granzymes are a family of small (∼32 kDa) serine proteases with a range of substrate specificities that are stored in, and released from, the cytoplasmic secretory vesicles ('granules') of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Granzymes are not digestive proteases but finely tuned processing enzymes that target their substrates in specific ways to activate various signalling pathways, or to inactivate viral proteins and other targets. Great emphasis has been placed on studying the pro-apoptotic functions of granzymes, which largely depend on their synergy with the pore-forming protein perforin, on which they rely for penetration into the target cell cytosol to access their substrates...
November 8, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Yash Gupta, Oleksandr V Savytskyi, Matt Coban, Amoghavarsha Venugopal, Vasili Pleqi, Caleb A Weber, Rohit Chitale, Ravi Durvasula, Christopher Hopkins, Prakasha Kempaiah, Thomas R Caulfield
With more than 5 million fatalities and close to 300 million reported cases, COVID-19 is the first documented pandemic due to a coronavirus that continues to be a major health challenge. Despite being rapid, uncontrollable, and highly infectious in its spread, it also created incentives for technology development and redefined public health needs and research agendas to fast-track innovations to be translated. Breakthroughs in computational biology peaked during the pandemic with renewed attention to making all cutting-edge technology deliver agents to combat the disease...
October 28, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Monika Biasizzo, Urban Javoršek, Eva Vidak, Miki Zarić, Boris Turk
Biomedical research often focuses on properties that differentiate between diseased and healthy tissue; one of the current focuses is elevated expression and altered localisation of proteases. Among these proteases, dysregulation of cysteine cathepsins can frequently be observed in inflammation-associated diseases, which tips the functional balance from normal physiological to pathological manifestations. Their overexpression and secretion regularly exhibit a strong correlation with the development and progression of such diseases, making them attractive pharmacological targets...
October 22, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Noelle D Germain, Wendy K Chung, Patrick D Sarmiere
Advances in genome sequencing have greatly facilitated the identification of genomic variants underlying rare neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Understanding the fundamental causes of rare monogenic disorders has made gene therapy a possible treatment approach for these conditions. RNA interference (RNAi) technologies such as small interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and other oligonucleotide-based modalities such as antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are being developed as potential therapeutic approaches for manipulating expression of the genes that cause a variety of neurological diseases...
October 15, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Bartosz Bagrowski
Certain genetic variants underlie the proper functioning of the nervous system. They affect the nervous system in all aspects - molecular, systemic, cognitive, computational and sensorimotor. The greatest changes in the nervous system take place in the process of its maturation in the period of psychomotor development, as well as during neurorehabilitation, the task of which is to rebuild damaged neuronal pathways, e.g. by facilitating movement or training cognitive functions. Certain genetic polymorphisms affect the effectiveness of the processes of reconstruction or restoration of neural structures, which is clearly reflected in the effects of neurorehabilitation...
October 14, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Shoib Sarwar Siddiqui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Giuseppe Di Pede, Pedro Mena, Letizia Bresciani, Mariem Achour, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós, Ramon Estruch, Rikard Landberg, Sabine E Kulling, David Wishart, Ana Rodriguez-Mateos, Alan Crozier, Claudine Manach, Daniele Del Rio
This systematic review summarizes findings from human studies investigating the different routes of absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion (ADME) of dietary flavan-3-ols and their circulating metabolites in healthy subjects. Literature searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus and the Web of Science. Human intervention studies using single and/or multiple intake of flavan-3-ols from food, extracts, and pure compounds were included. Forty-nine human intervention studies met inclusion criteria. Up to 180 metabolites were quantified from blood and urine samples following intake of flavan-3-ols, mainly as phase 2 conjugates of microbial catabolites (n = 97), with phenyl-γ-valerolactones being the most representative ones (n = 34)...
October 4, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Natalia Ćwilichowska, Karolina W Świderska, Agnieszka Dobrzyń, Marcin Drąg, Marcin Poręba
Proteases are enzymes that hydrolyze peptide bonds in proteins and peptides; thus, they control virtually all biological processes. Our understanding of protease function has advanced considerably from nonselective digestive enzymes to highly specialized molecular scissors that orchestrate complex signaling networks through a limited proteolysis. The catalytic activity of proteases is tightly regulated at several levels, ranging from gene expression through trafficking and maturation to posttranslational modifications...
September 26, 2022: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
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