Debora Castro de Souza, Ana Carolina da Silva, Adriane Toledo da Silva, Clara Resende de Souza Castro, Laisa Bastos Albuquerque, Tiago Facury Moreira, Jackson Victor de Araújo, Fabio Ribeiro Braga, Filippe Elias de Freitas Soares
This study aimed to evaluate the concomitant use of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and its protease-rich crude extract for the in vitro control of Panagrellus sp., Haemonchus spp., and Trichostrongylus spp. The nematicidal tests were carried out on larvae of the free-living nematode Panagrellus sp. and infective larvae of the gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes of domestic ruminants (Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp). Five experimental groups were set: (1) one control group (G1) and (4) four treated groups -G2 - active crude extract; G3 - denatured crude extract; G4 - fungus, and G5 - fungus + active extract...
September 16, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Raj Packianathan, Andrew Hodge, Jacqueline Wright, Michael Pearce, Andrew A DeRosa
Australian producers have long used macrocyclic lactones (MLs) to successfully control cattle gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) and consequently improve production parameters. However, the trajectory of ML resistance development in cattle GINs is following that of small ruminant nematode populations, highlighting a need for novel treatment options to provide efficacy in the current environment and interrupt the long-term establishment of ML-resistant GIN populations in Australian cattle. Here, we describe three field studies conducted in Australia to evaluate the efficacy of a single administration of a novel fixed-dose combination injectable (FDCI) endectocide against naturally acquired infections of cattle GINs...
September 16, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Nichol E Ripley, Holli S Gravatte, Leah N Britton, Sarah M Davis, Grace M Perrin, Shaelin Warner, Elizabeth K Rexroat, Abigail L Vetter, Emily E S Maron, Constance A Finnerty, Victoria Stanton, Martin K Nielsen
Parascaris spp. infect foals worldwide and foals typically shed eggs in the feces from about three to six months of age, upon which natural immunity is incurred. High levels of anthelmintic resistance of Parascaris spp. are a global concern, and further understanding egg shedding patterns and fecal egg counting (FEC) data variability is of high importance. The aims of this study were to monitor Parascaris spp. egg shedding in untreated foals during 12-23 weeks of age, estimate sources of data variability, and assess precision of two ascarid FEC techniques...
September 14, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Martha Hughes, Ellie Jane Phillips, Rhys Aled Jones
Targeted Selective Treatment (TST) is a gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control strategy where anthelmintic treatment decisions are made at an individual animal level. TST has been proven to reduce anthelmintic use and subsequently slow down anthelmintic resistance development, however questions remain regarding optimal TST methods and their applicability across farms. In this study, the influence of Mineral and Vitamin (MV) supplementation on optimal energy utilisation (EU) TST thresholds was assessed on three Welsh farms...
September 11, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Nadia María López-Ureña, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Nuria González-Fernández, Radu Blaga, Bretislav Koudela, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Gema Álvarez-García
The intake of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts through raw or undercooked pork meat is one of the main infection sources for humans. Thus, surveillance is recommended to control and prevent infection in domestic pigs. However, the lack of comparative studies hampers the updating of their performance and the comparison of seroprevalence data. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate three in-house tests and accomplish a comparative analysis of the most widely used serological tests employed in pigs...
September 9, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Raj Packianathan, Andrew Hodge, Jacqueline Wright, Michael Pearce, Andrew A DeRosa
We describe a new fixed-dose combination injectable (FDCI) formulated with doramectin and levamisole hydrochloride (HCl) to target broad and overlapping spectra of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) through two distinct modes of action. Here, we demonstrate the superior efficacy of the FDCI against mixed populations of cattle GINs in two dose confirmation studies conducted in Australia using artificially induced adult (Study 1) and immature (Study 2) GIN infections. Artificial infections consisted of Cooperia spp...
September 7, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Xuan Zhou, Lidan Wang, Zhao Wang, Pengchen Zhu, Yijun Chen, Chunlin Yu, Shun Chen, Yue Xie
Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria is one of the most severe chicken diseases and imposes huge economic losses to the poultry industry globally. Multi-Eimeria species coinfections are common with the most prevalent combination being mixtures of Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. Although detrimental impacts of either E. acervulina or E. tenella on chicken health are well recognized, no information is available regarding their coinfection effects so far. This study was designed to investigate the influence of coinfection with E...
August 30, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Monique Taveira Medeiros, Diefrey Ribeiro Campos, Eduardo Fellipe Melo Santos Soares, Jéssica D 'avilla de Assis, Gabriela Ferreira de Oliveira, Larissa de Oliveira Santos, Taynara Monsores E Silva, Mathias Pittizer da Silva, Yara Peluso Cid, Fabio Barbour Scott, Katherina Comendouros
Cochliomyia hominivorax, from the family Calliphoridae, is responsible for causing most myiases in domesticated animals in Brazil. As alternatives to conventional treatments, essential oils (EOs) could possibly be used as natural control of ectoparasites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of EOs from Salvia sclarea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lavandula hybrida Reverchon, Citrus bergamia Risso, Citrus paradisi L., Juniperus virginiana L., Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Illicium verum Hook f...
August 29, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Jing-Zhi Gong, Yi-Min Fan, Wanzhe Yuan, Ming Pan, Dandan Liu, Jian-Ping Tao, Si-Yang Huang
Fasciolosis is a widely distributed zoonosis reported over 81 countries around the world. Good and early diagnostic method is critical in controlling this disease and prevention of injury to the liver and bile ducts. In this study, we identified a novel member (cathepsin L7) of cathepsin family from Fasciola spp.. Firstly, the biological character of CL7 was analyzed according to the information of cathepsin L family, and then rCL7 was expressed and purified, a new iELISA based on CL7 was developed. The results exhibited CL7 iELISA had 100% sensitivity 100% specificity in sheep (cut-off 1...
August 29, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Milan Rajković, Uroš Glavinić, Danica Bogunović, Branislav Vejnović, Darko Davitkov, Ninoslav Đelić, Zoran Stanimirović
Parasitic diseases are considered to be a cause of oxidative stress which leads to oxidative damage of various molecules including DNA. This can result in mutations, replication errors, and genome instability. Therefore, aim of this study was to measure DNA damage induced by Dirofilaria immitis in the single cells such as dogs' leukocytes using the comet assay. Also, we monitored the effects of antiparasitic treatment on mitigation of sensitivity to DNA damage in leukocytes treated with H2 O2 using the in vivo and ex vivo comet assay...
August 25, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Andrew A DeRosa, Aleah Pullins, Jezaniah Kira Tena, Susan Holzmer, Raj Packianathan
Unmanaged tick and sucking lice infestations negatively impact the health and production potential of cattle. Described herein are two non-interference dose confirmation studies evaluating the efficacy of a single administration of a new fixed-dose combination injectable (FDCI) endectocide consisting of 0.2 mg/kg doramectin + 6.0 mg/kg levamisole hydrochloride, against either laboratory-induced Rhipicephalus microplus infestations in Australia or naturally acquired sucking lice (Linognathus vituli) infestations in the US...
August 25, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Seyed Mostafa Razavi, Mohammad Sajjad Soltan, Kiarash Abbasian, Ali Karami, Saeed Nazifi
Piroplasmida is an order of economically important blood parasites, including Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon, transmitted to mammals by ticks. Oxidative stress is a state in which the balance between oxidants and antioxidants is disturbed so that antioxidants cannot compensate for the harmful effects of oxidants. Due to the high concentration of oxygen and hemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs), these are among the first cells exposed to oxidative damage. When RBCs are exposed to oxidative stress, their hemoglobin is oxidized, and lipid peroxidation leads to membrane instability, deformation, hemolysis, and anemia...
August 23, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Oluwayomi Adeyemi, Alexandra Quill, Margeen Morikone, Laura Evans, Claire Formoy, Emmanuel T Idowu, Bamidele Akinsanya, Isa D Jatau, Damer P Blake
Eimeria, protozoan parasites that can cause the disease coccidiosis, pose a persistent challenge to poultry production and welfare. Control is commonly achieved using good husbandry supplemented with routine chemoprophylaxis and/or live parasite vaccination, although widespread drug resistance and challenges to vaccine supply or cost can prove limiting. Extensive effort has been applied to develop subunit anticoccidial vaccines as scalable, cost-effective alternatives, but translation to the field will require a robust understanding of parasite diversity...
August 20, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Ylva Hedberg Alm, Eva Osterman-Lind, Frida Martin, Rebecca Lindfors, Nina Roepstorff, Ulf Hedenström, Isabelle Fredriksson, Peter Halvarsson, Eva Tydén
Cyathostominae are ubiquitous to grazing horses and regarded the most prevalent internal parasite in the horse. Unfortunately, decades of indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs have resulted in the development of resistance in cyathostomins to all currently available drug groups, the most recent being a documented lack of efficacy to the macrocyclic lactones (ML). In vivo determination of anthelmintic resistance in horses most often utilises the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Further, a shortened egg reappearance period (ERP) can indicate a change in response to the applied treatment and suggest an upcoming reduction of efficacy...
August 14, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
David McBean, Adam Hayward, Keith Ballingall, Frank Jackson, Tom McNeilly
This study aimed to further investigate the mechanisms responsible for inhibition of gastrointestinal nematode egg production in a line of Scottish Cashmere Goat selected for low faecal egg count. Animals were chosen as the lowest egg producers from a line selected for low egg output (selected group) with a second group from the wider herd based on high faecal egg count as controls. All animals were artificially infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus vitrinus, then treated with anthelmintic and challenge infected prior to euthanasia and post mortem sampling...
August 14, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Everson Reili de Souza Teles, Juliana de Araujo Portes, Wanderley de Souza
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan of worldwide distribution. It is effective in the infection of various homoeothermic animals of economic importance. The process of T. gondii invasion of host cells occurs in less than 20 s by the active mechanism of penetration. First, a mobile junction is formed due to the association between the apical end of the parasite and the host cell surface. Then, the secretion of invasive and docking proteins allows the formation of the mobile junction before the complete internalization of the parasite...
August 10, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Josh S Davy, Larry C Forero, Shane Strickler, Joe Gillespie, Gabriele U Maier
While anthelmintic treatment in young calves at first vaccination has not proven repeatedly effective in improving weight gain, there is evidence that treatment 90 day prior to weaning can enhance weight gain. This is difficult in most California cow/calf operations as after initial vaccination, calves are not again handled until preconditioning just prior to weaning. In an attempt to increase weight gain without the need for anthelmintic retreatment prior to preconditioning, 130 cow/calf pairs were stratified and assigned to three treatments of eprinomectin extended release injection (150 d efficacy), doramectin conventional injection, and an untreated control...
August 9, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Asiya Khan, Muhammad Afzal, Khadija Rasool, Muhammad Ameen, Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi
Coccidiosis is an acute gastrointestinal parasitic disease and causes approximately $2.80 to $3.27 per m2 loss in a broiler farm of a 33-day-old flock. In this study, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were green synthesized using the aqueous leaf extract of Ficus racemosa as a reducing and capping agent to reduce the emerging resistance in coccidia spores against conventional treatments and boost the immune level in broilers. These IONPs were evaluated for their impacts on the growth performance, biochemistry, blood profile, and histology in the coccidiodized broiler chicken with Emeria tenella under in vivo conditions...
August 2, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Feiyan Wang, Zhuang Ye, Yue Liu, Lele Wang, Shijie Su, Zhaofeng Hou, Jinjun Xu, Jianping Tao, Dandan Liu
Eimeria species are intracellular obligate parasites, among the most common pathogens affecting the intensive poultry industry. Oxidoreductases are members of a class of proteins with redox activity and are widely found in apicomplexan protozoans. However, there have been few reports related to Eimeria species. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the gametocytes of E. necatrix Yangzhou strain to amplify the EnOXIO1 gene using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. After cloning and sequence analysis, the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+)-EnOXIO1 was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), and the recombinant protein rEnOXIO1 was expressed by induction with isopropyl ß-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside...
August 1, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Alexandre Borges, Ivan Pires de Oliveira, Caroline Honaiser Lescano, Renato Luis Tame Parreira, Renato Pereira Orenha, Rosangela da Silva de Laurentiz
In vitro larvicidal assays carried out previously by our research group with cubebin, dihydrocubebin and hinokinin, lignans extracted from the fruits of Piper cubeba, against Haemonchus contortus larvae showed strong action larvicidal these compounds. Hinokinin was the most active (EC50 = 0.34 µg/mL) with strong action on the cuticle of the larvae as observed by scanning electron microscopy of the L3 stage. Therefore, to understand the mechanism of action of these compounds in silico studies were carried out using the enzyme phosphomethyltransferase of Haemonchus contortus that contain PMT-1 and PMT-2 di-domains responsible for phosphocholine synthesis, which is one of the main lipids in nematodes...
August 1, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
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