Aleya Soliman Marzouk, Asmaa Ali Baioumy Ali
Argas persicus is an important ectoparasite of domestic fowl that causes heavy economic losses to the poultry industry. The present study was carried out to compare and assess the effects induced by spraying the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae separately, on the mobility and viability of semifed adult A. persicus, also to follow the histopathological effect induced by a selected concentration of 1010 conidia/ml of B. bassiana on the integument. Biological studies revealed a more or less similar pattern of response in adults treated with either of the two fungi (Increasing concentration resulting in more death along with examined period)...
March 11, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Sirapat Nak-On, Thanawan Tejangkura, Thapana Chontananarth
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been applied for the detection of various parasites, and its application in lateral flow dipstick (LFD) can improve the convenience of point-of-care diagnosis. A novel PAR-LAMP probe and primers were designed by manual selection from a region of low variation in the ITS-2 DNA sequence. Up to six species of rumen fluke were detected by LAMP and LAMP-LFD in this study. Target specificity and sensitivity were tested, revealing a high target specificity (accuracy) and a low limit of detection (sensitivity)...
March 8, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Nicola Walshe, Alison Burrell, Ursula Kenny, Grace Mulcahy, Vivienne Duggan, Aine Regan
In view of the rising threat of anthelmintic resistance in parasite populations and the planned change of classification of anthelmintics in Ireland for food animals to prescription-only medicines, there is a need for increased focus on parasite control strategies for horses. Effective parasite control programs (PCPs) are complex, necessitating the application of risk-assessment based on host immune status, infection pressure, type of parasite and seasonality to determine the requirement for anthelmintic administration and an understanding of parasite biology to employ effective, non- therapeutic, parasite control measures...
March 5, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Xinru Cao, Mao Huang, Yazhen Ma, Xingju Song, Dandan Hu
Coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, results in huge economic losses to the animal industry. Dinitolmide, a veterinary-approved coccidiostat, has a wide anticoccidial spectrum with no effect on host immunity. However, the mechanism of its anticoccidial effects remains unclear. Here, we used an in vitro culture system of T. gondii to explore the anti-Toxoplasma effect of dinitolmide and its underlying mechanism against coccidia. We show that dinitolmide has potent in vitro anti-Toxoplasma activity with the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 3...
March 2, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Lucas Fiamoncini de Souza, Márcio Holsbach Costa, Beatriz Riet-Correa
Livestock is an important part of many countries gross domestic product, and sanitary control impacts herd management costs. To contribute to incorporating new technologies into this economic chain, this work presents a mobile application for decision assistance to treatment against parasitic infection by Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. Based on the Android system, the proposed software is a semi-automated computer-aided procedure to assist Famacha© pre-trained farmers in applying anthelmintic treatment...
February 28, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Siju Susan Jacob, Pinaki Prasad Sengupta, Bandakote Sreeramareddy Pavithra, Atru Gnana Surya Chandu, Opinder Krishen Raina
Bovine tropical fasciolosis, caused by Fasciola gigantica, is a major parasitic disease in tropical countries responsible for significant production losses in animal husbandry practices. The disease is transmitted by the Radix sp. snails. In the early developmental stage of the parasite, the juveniles and immature flukes cause considerable damage to the liver parenchyma of the bovine host while migrating through the liver. The cathepsin (cat) B5 is a cysteine protease that is present in the excretory-secretory product of the fluke both in immature and adult stages...
February 26, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Niclas Högberg, Anna Hessle, Lena Lidfors, Johan Höglund
The effects of mixed gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections on animal growth and post-weaning activity patterns were investigated in grazing intact ram lambs when naturally exposed to two different infection levels and weaned at different ages. Ewes and their twin-born lambs were turned-out to graze in two permanent pasture enclosures naturally contaminated with GIN the previous year. Ewes and lambs in the low parasite exposure group (LP) were drenched before turn-out and at weaning, respectively, with 0...
February 23, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Caixia Dong, Ziye Liu, Xiaolin Li
Our Giardia chemiluminescence assay (GCA) detected Giardia antigens in a dose-dependent manner with a limit of detection at 0.46 ng/mL and a signal-to-baseline ratio at 475. In a study of 30 clinic collected canine stool samples, samples were identified as Giardia positive or negative by a standard Giardia II ELISA (TechLab), the GCA had sensitivity of 93.8 % and specificity of 92.9 %. Study on the set of 16 Giardia positive samples showed that all samples displayed higher signal-to-baseline ratio in GCA than they did in a colorimetric ELISA...
February 13, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Candela Canton, Sebastián Muchiut, María Paula Dominguez, Carlos Lanusse, Luis Ignacio Alvarez, Adrián Lifschitz
Psoroptic mange causes relevant losses of productivity in cattle. Macrocyclic lactones are one of the main pharmacological tools recommended for controlling it. The aim of the current work was to compare the relationship between the pharmacokinetic behavior and the effectiveness of both ivermectin (IVM) and doramectin (DRM) following their administration as either the traditional (1 %) or long-acting (3.15-3.5 %) injectable formulations to cattle naturally infected with Psoroptes ovis. The overall work involved three trials (1, 2 and 3) carried out on commercial beef cattle farms (grazing systems)...
February 4, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
María Eugenia Abdala, María Belén Rivero, Melchor Emilio Luque, David Di Lullo, Bruno Elías Luna, Pedro Gabriel Carranza, Bibiana J Volta, Fernando David Rivero
Bovine trichomonosis (BT), a disease of the bovine urogenital tract, is caused by the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus (Tf). Tf causes endometritis, infertility, and premature death of the embryo, which generates considerable economic losses. The proteins released can mediate fundamental interactions between the pathogen and the host, triggering factors associated with the symptomatology, immune evasion and pathogenesis characteristic of the species. However, little is known about the profile of the proteins released by Tf...
February 2, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Raquel Vallejo, Julio Benavides, Noive Arteche-Villasol, Roberto Sánchez-Sánchez, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Ma Carmen Ferreras, Miguel Criado, Valentín Pérez, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Daniel Gutiérrez-Expósito
Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of reproductive failure in small ruminants. Genotypic diversity of T. gondii strains has been associated with variations in phenotypic traits in in vitro and murine models. However, whether such diversity could influence the outcome of infection in small ruminants remains mostly unexplored. Here, we investigate the outcome of oral challenge in sheep at mid-pregnancy with 10 sporulated oocysts from three different T. gondii isolates belonging to archetypal II and III and selected according to their genetic and phenotypic variations shown in previous studies...
February 2, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Yimin Yang, Chenqian Yao, Xueqiu Chen, Kaiyin Sheng, Mingxiu Zhao, Chaoqun Yao, Yi Yang, Guangxu Ma, Aifang Du
The apicoplast, which is the result of secondary endosymbiosis, is a distinctive subcellular organelle and a crucial therapeutic target for apicomplexan parasites. The majority of apicoplast-resident proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and target the apicoplast via bipartite targeting signals consisting of a signal peptide and a transit peptide. The properties and functions of these peptides are poorly understood, which hinders the identification of apicoplast proteins and the study for plastid evolution...
January 22, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Julia Rivero, Cristina Cutillas, Rocío Callejón
With a global population of around 35 million in 47 countries, camels play a crucial role in the economy of many marginal and desert areas of the world where they survive in harsh conditions. Nonetheless, there is insufficient knowledge regarding camels' parasite fauna which can reduce their milk and meat production. A molecular study for the Trichuris population of Camelus bactrianus from Spain is presented based on sequences of mitochondrial (cox1, cob, rrnL) and ribosomal (ITS1 and ITS2) DNA regions. Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods were used to infer phylogenies for (i) each gene separately, (ii) the combined mitochondrial data, and (iii) the combined mitochondrial and ribosomal dataset...
January 21, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Murilo Antônio Fernandes, Thiago Francisco Ventoso Bompadre, Elisabete Aparecida De Nadai Fernandes, Luciana M Katiki, Tsai Sui Mui, Adibe Luiz Abdalla, Helder Louvandini
Phosphorus (P) is one of the main minerals present in the animal body and exerts crucial functions in the organism. P is present at all cell membranes and integrates the structure of bones, being necessary its supplementation in ruminants due to the deficiency of this mineral in the pastures. One of the principal factors that compromise its metabolization are gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Thus, the objective of this study was evaluate the performance and metabolism of P through its distribution in the animal body, density of bones and muscles, dynamic fluxes, biological availability and half live of P, concentration of P in tissues and bones of lambs simultaneously infected with the most prevalent GIN to sheep, in tropical or subtropical areas, (Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis) using the isotopic dilution technique with 32 P radioisotope...
January 20, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Mustafa Alsarraf, Gad Baneth, Anna Bogucka-Kocka, Lavinia Ciuca, Dorota Dwużnik-Szarek, Hans-Peter Fuehrer, Agnieszka Kloch, Przemysław Kołodziej, Viktoria Levytska, Ewa Julia Mierzejewska, Andrei D Mihalca, Angela Monica Ionică, Andrii Mushynskyi, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Mohammed Alsarraf, Anna Bajer
Subcutaneous dirofilariosis is a fast-spreading infection of dogs, and occasionally of other carnivores and humans. Several factors contribute to its spread, including climate change, which facilitates development and survival of Dirofilaria repens in the mosquito vector. Movement/relocation of infected definitive hosts (dogs) from endemic regions to non-endemic regions is another possible cause of local emergence and the presence of a wide variety of wild reservoirs of the parasite may also contribute to its spread...
January 20, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Richard J Shaw, Mary Wheeler, Dave M Leathwick
The genetics of indicator traits for resistance of Angora goats to gastrointestinal nematode parasite infections, and their relationships with productivity traits, were investigated on a commercial mixed-enterprise farm in the eastern North Island of New Zealand. Faecal egg counts (FEC), specific Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titres against carbohydrate larval antigen (CarLA) in saliva, live weight and fleece weights were recorded from 278 goats of 19-20 months of age, run as four separate mobs (breeding bucks, castrated males (wethers), or 2 groups of breeding does)...
January 20, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Daniel Yasur-Landau, Or Genad, Harold Salant, Eran Dvir, Monica L Mazuz, Gad Baneth
Echinococcosis and taeniasis are important helminth diseases that carry considerable impact on human and animal health. Domestic dogs and other canids are definitive hosts for several parasites of this group, including Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia multiceps, T. ovis, T. hydatigena and E. multilocularis. Detection of infection in dog populations is imperative for estimating the risk to susceptible humans and animals, and for its mitigation through prevention measures in dogs, other animals and humans. To date, identification of taeniid eggs, antigens or DNA in fecal samples are the most practical diagnostic modalities available for canine definitive hosts...
January 20, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Mackenzie Tietjen, Alex P Arp, Kimberly H Lohmeyer
The New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, causes myiasis in livestock, humans, and other warm-blooded animals in much of South America and the Caribbean. It has been eradicated from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique and a biological barrier is currently maintained at the Panama - Colombian border. However, C. hominivorax is still a threat to eradicated areas as outbreaks can and do occur. In order to identify the origin of a fly involved in an outbreak scenario, diagnostic tools would be beneficial...
January 18, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Ke Zhang, Zhongrui Ju, Yu Zhang, Chen Wang, Shalitanati Mubalake, Dini Hu, Dong Zhang, Kai Li, Hongjun Chu
The genus Gasterophilus (Diptera, Gastrophilidae) is an obligate parasite of the equine family that causes widespread myiasis in desert steppe. Based on four common naturally excreted Gasterophilus larvae collected systematically in the Karamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve from March to September 2021, this paper studies the population dynamics and ontogenetic laws of horse flies, and discuss the coexistence pattern and population dynamics prediction of horse flies. The results showed that the Gasterophilus larvae had obvious concentrated development period, and the time of population peaks was different, the earliest was G...
January 6, 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
Abdul Ghafar, Ghazanfar Abbas, Anne Beasley, Jenni Bauquier, Edwina J A Wilkes, Caroline Jacobson, Emma McConnell, Charles El-Hage, Peter Carrigan, Lucy Cudmore, Brett Tennent-Brown, John Hurley, Martin K Nielsen, Charles G Gauci, Ian Beveridge, Kristopher J Hughes, Abdul Jabbar
This review is aimed to (i) appraise the literature on the use of molecular techniques for the detection, quantification and differentiation of gastrointestinal helminths (GIH) of equids, (ii) identify the knowledge gaps and, (iii) discuss diagnostic prospects in equine parasitology. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews, we retrieved 54 studies (horses: 50/54; donkeys and zebras: 4/54) from four databases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed in all of the studies whereas PCR amplicons were sequenced in only 18 of them...
January 2023: Veterinary Parasitology
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