Qiaoguang Chen, Yuming Zhang, Jie Rong, Chen Chen, Shuang Wang, Jiege Wang, Zaifan Li, Zhaofeng Hou, Dandan Liu, Jianping Tao, Jinjun Xu
Histomonas meleagridis, an anaerobic intercellular parasite, is known to infect gallinaceous birds, particularly turkeys and chickens. The resurgence of histomonosis in recent times has resulted in significant financial setbacks due to the prohibition of drugs used for disease treatment. Currently, research on about H. meleagridis primarily concentrate on the examination of its virulence, gene expression analysis, and the innate immunity response of the host organism. However, there is a lack of research on differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) related to liver infection induced by H...
May 11, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Filip Janjić, Kristina Spariosu, Milena Radaković, Jelena Francuski Andrić, Anđelo Beletić, Milica Kovačević Filipović
We tested the hypothesis that age, breed, and sex are related to hematology, biochemistry, acute phase proteins (APPs), seroreactivity and level of parasitemia in dogs with an acute phase response (APR) due to Babesia canis infection. The study enrolled 61 privately owned dogs that naturally acquired B. canis infection. Groups were formed according to the age: young dogs less than one year, and adult dogs more than one year old. Moreover, the group of males was compared to females and purebred to mixed breed dogs...
May 10, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Eduarda S Lima, Aglaete de Araújo Pinheiro, Cláudia Quintino da Rocha, Carolina Rocha E Silva, Livio Martins Costa-Junior, Luciana Magalhães Rebêlo Alencar, Alexandra Martins Santos Soares
The nematode Haemonchus contortus is, as a parasite, responsible for most mortality of small ruminants, causing significant economic losses. Numerous plant-derived compounds have exhibited promising anthelmintic activities against this nematode. Notably, the Annona genus stands out for demonstrated anthelmintic effects by extracts from several of its species against different nematodes. This study aimed to assess the effect of an Annona tomentosa fraction, rich in alkaloids, on H. contortus. This fraction, named Alk...
May 7, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Simona Gabrielli, Giovanni Luigi Milardi, Ludovica Scarinci, Caterina Fanì, Michele Trotta
Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis or G. lamblia) is a parasitic protozoan that infects the upper intestinal tract of a broad range of hosts, including humans and domestic animals. Thus, it has raised concerns about the public health risk due to companion animals. Recently, with the improvement of living standards and increasing contacts between pets and humans, the zoonotic transmission of Giardia has dramatically increased. From a genetic point of view, G. duodenalis should be viewed as a complex species that includes eight different species-specific genetic assemblages...
May 4, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Li'nan Yang, Yanyang Yuan, Lei Xiong, Qingyu Zhao, Ming Yang, Xun Suo, Zhihui Hao
To investigate the therapeutic effect of toosendanin (TSN) against Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) in chicks. In this experiment, a chick model of artificially induced E. tenella infection was established. The anti-coccidial effect was investigated by treating different doses of TSN. A preliminary mechanism of action was conducted, using cecal cell apoptosis as a starting point. TSN at the concentration of 5 mg/kg BW showed the best effect against E. tenella with the ACI value of 164.35. In addition, TSN reduced pathological damage to cecal tissue, increased the secretion of glycogen and mucus in cecal mucosa, and enhanced the mucosal protective effect...
May 3, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Zhenxing Gong, Zigang Qu, Jianping Cai
In prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes, 2-methylcitrate cycle (2-MCC) is the main pathway for propionate decomposition and transformation, but little is known about the 2-MCC pathway of Eimeria tenella. The analysis of genomic data found that the coding gene of 2- methylcitrate synthase (EC, PrpC) exists in E. tenella, which is a key enzyme of 2-MCC pathway. Through the search analysis of the database (ToxoDB), it was found that ETH_ 00026655 contains the complete putative sequence of EtprpC. In this study, we amplified the ORF sequence of EtprpC based on putative sequence...
May 3, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Karina Araújo Dos Anjos, Fernanda Calvo Duarte, Luciana Morita Katiki, Rodrigo Giglioti, Bruna Gonçalves Santos, Márcia Cristina Mendes
Small ruminants (sheep and goats) constantly suffer from endoparasitoses caused by gastrointestinal nematodes. Among these, the species Haemonchus contortus (Rudolphi, 1803) is considered to be the one of greatest importance within sheep farming. This nematode is difficult to control due to its resistance to most commercial anthelmintics. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential of macrochelid mites as macrobiological agents for controlling endoparasitoses of sheep caused by the nematode, H...
April 28, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Lisa Lucie Le Dortz, Clotilde Rouxel, Bruno Polack, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Anne-Claire Lagrée, Pierre Lucien Deshuillers, Nadia Haddad
In Europe, tick-borne diseases (TBDs) cause significant morbidity and mortality, affecting both human and animal health. Ticks can transmit a wide variety of pathogens (bacteria, viruses, and parasites) and feed on many vertebrate hosts. The incidence and public health burden of TBDs are tending to intensify in Europe due to various factors, mainly anthropogenic and often combined. Early detection of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), preventive measures and treatment are of great importance to control TBDs and their expansion...
April 26, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Jesús M Pérez, Emiliano N Jesser, Jorge O Werdin, Colin Berry, Mohamed A Gebely, Raquel Crespo-Ginés, José E Granados, Antonio J López-Montoya
In this study we analysed the effect of the temperature, diverse strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus and nanoformulations with essential plant oils (EONP) on the survival of Sarcoptes scabiei mites derived from naturally-infested Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). In general, mites maintained at 12ºC survived more than those maintained at 35ºC (40.7 hr and 31.2 hr, respectively). Mites with no treatment survived 27.6 h on average. Mites treated with B. thuringiensis serovar...
April 23, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
D J Burden, D J Bartley, R B Besier, E Claerebout, T P Elliott, J Höglund, S Rehbein, J F J Torres-Acosta, J A Van Wyk, T Yazwinski
This guideline is aimed at those who are involved in the assessment of anthelmintic efficacy in ruminant livestock species (bovine, ovine and caprine). The intent is to provide a framework that can be adopted worldwide for the testing of anthelmintics in ruminants, such that studies carried out in different countries can be compared and thereby unnecessary duplication can be reduced. Recommendations are made for the selection, housing and feeding of study animals, the type of studies required, the method used to conduct those studies, the assessment of results and the standards for defining anthelmintic efficacy...
April 18, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Dina Rešetar Maslov, Ivana Rubić, Vladimir Farkaš, Josipa Kuleš, Blanka Beer Ljubić, Anđelo Beletić, Marko Samardžija, Mislav Kovačić, Gabrijela Jurkić Krsteska, Vladimir Mrljak
Canine babesiosis is a rapidly spreading tick-borne disease in Europe, which entails protozoan parasites invading red blood cells. Small extracellular vesicles (EVs) (< 200 nm) were isolated from the serum of 15 healthy and 15 by Babesia canis naturally infected dogs aimed to distinguish EV characteristics and protein profiles. There were no significant differences (P = 0.05) observed in the mean sizes and concentrations of serum EVs between the healthy and canine babesiosis groups. Despite a higher number of Canis lupus proteins detected in EVs from serum of diseased dogs, there were no statistically significant differences (P < 0...
April 17, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Huang-Liang Chen, You-Si Chen
Lagomorpha coccidiosis, caused by coccidia, is a prevalent disease affecting rabbits, hares and pikas. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of coccidia infection in lagomorphs and identify potential risk factors. A systematic search of six databases yielded 102 studies published between 1981 and 2023. The pooled prevalence of Eimeriidae, Sarcocystidae and Cryptosporidiidae in lagomorphs was 76.4%, 6.2% and 3.9%, respectively. Rabbits had the highest prevalence of Eimeriidae (76.8%) and Sarcocystidae (7...
April 16, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Gozde Nur Akkus, Kader Yildiz
Neutrophils, a crucial element of the host defense system, develop extracellular traps against helminth parasites. Neutrophils accumulate around the larvae of Toxocara canis (T. canis) in the tissues of the organism. This study aimed to determine the reaction in canine neutrophils after incubation with infective stage T. canis larvae (L3) in vitro. Most L3 were still active and moved between the extracellular traps (NETs) after 60-min incubation. NETs were not disintegrated by L3 movement. The L3 was only immobilized by NETs, entrapped larvae were still motile between the traps at the 24 h incubation...
April 14, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Cindy Goretti Marin-Tun, Juan Felipe de Jesús Torres-Acosta, Concepción Manuela Capetillo-Leal, Carlos Alfredo Sandoval-Castro, Hervé Hoste, Rocío Borges-Argáez, María Gabriela Mancilla-Montelongo
This study applied the in vitro rumen exsheathment test (IVRET) to evaluate the exsheathment kinetics of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3 ) incubated in ruminal liquor (RL) containing acetone:water extracts of Acacia pennatula (AP), Gymnopodium floribundum (GF), Havardia albicans (HA) or Lysiloma latisiliquum (LL). The role of polyphenols in the biological activity of the evaluated extracts was also determined. Larvae were incubated in RL either alone or added with a different plant extract (AP, GF, HA, or LL) at 1200 μg/mL...
April 10, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Shuxiao Su, Shuaiyang Zhao, Junlong Liu, Chuhan Zhang, Haohan Zhu, Guiquan Guan, Hong Yin, Jianxun Luo
Tropical theileriosis is a tick-borne disease that caused by Theileria annulata, and leads to substantial economic impact in endemic area. Distinguishes to other piroplasms, Theileria is the only eukaryotic parasite could transform mammalian leukocytes. At present, buparvaquone is the most effective drug used for treatment of Theileria infection. However, frequently reported of failure treatment with buparvaquone for some T. annulata isolates. Mutation of TaPIN1 was reported to be the direct reason for failure of buparvaquone treatment...
April 9, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Huifang Bai, Jing Ding, Saining Wang, Shuyan Zhang, Ning Jiang, Xiaoxia Wu, Guoliang Chen, Qianqian Dang, Mingyuan Liu, Bin Tang, Xuelin Wang
As an intracellular parasitic nematode, Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) can induce the formation of nurse cells (NC) in host muscles and keep it to survive within the NC for an extended period. The formation of NC is similar to muscle cell injury and repair which lead to the arrest of satellite cells in the G2/M phase and build a suitable parasitic environment for the muscle larvae of T. spiralis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle repair through skeletal muscle satellite cells (SMSC) and the host immune response during T...
April 6, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Merve Nenni, Mustafa Çelebier, Salih Maçin, Serra Örsten, Samiye Yabanoğlu-Çiftçi, İpek Baysal
The Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato species complex is responsible for the neglected zoonotic disease known as cystic echinococcosis (CE). Humans and livestock are infected via fecal-oral transmission. CE remains prevalent in Western China, Central Asia, South America, Eastern Africa, and the Mediterranean. Approximately one million individuals worldwide are affected, influencing veterinary and public health, as well as social and economic matters. The infection causes slow-growing cysts, predominantly in the liver and lungs, but can also develop in other organs...
April 5, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
M K Nielsen, C A Finnerty, N E Ripley, A E Page, M E McClendon, A A Adams
Anthelmintic performance against equine cyathostomins can be evaluated by two different non-terminal measures; the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT) and the Egg Reappearance Period (ERP). Most available FECRT and ERP data have been determined in populations of young horses, and very little information is available from mature and senior horses. Furthermore, it is unknown how commonly occurring equine endocrine disorders such as Insulin dysregulation (ID) and Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) may interfere with these measurements, but it has been suggested that horses with these conditions could be more susceptible to parasitic infections...
April 5, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Jacob W Thorne, Reid Redden, Scott A Bowdridge, Gabrielle M Becker, Sarem F Khilji, Shangqian Xie, Kelsey L Bentley, Brenda M Murdoch
Infection by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, can be detrimental to sheep health and performance. Genetic susceptibility to GIN varies between breeds, with those lacking high levels of natural resistance often requiring frequent anthelmintic treatment when facing parasitic challenge. Genetic technology can serve as a tool to decrease GIN susceptibility via selection for sheep with reduced fecal egg count (FEC) estimated breeding values (EBVs). However, the physiological changes that result from implementation of this strategy are not well described...
April 3, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
Sohini Kumar, Hua Che, Rafael Chiummo, Lea Heuer, Carolin Schneider, Margaret Werr, Frank Guerino, Elias Papadopolous, Anastasia Diakou, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Donato Traversa, Angela Di Cesare, Thavy Long, Roger K Prichard
Dirofilaria immitis is a parasitic nematode that causes cardiovascular dirofilariosis ("heartworm disease") primarily in canids. The principal approach for mitigating heartworm infection involves the use of macrocyclic lactone (ML) for prophylaxis. Recent research has substantiated the emergence of D. immitis displaying resistance to MLs in the USA. Numerous factors, such as the mobility of companion animals and competent vectors could impact the spread of drug resistance. Genomic analysis has unveiled that isolates resistant to ML exhibit unique genetic profiles when compared to their wild-type (susceptible) counterparts...
April 3, 2024: Veterinary Parasitology
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