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Veterinary Parasitology

Qing Kang, Christopher I Vahl, Huihao Fan, Thomas Geurden, Keith A Ameiss, Lucas P Taylor
Establishing the efficacy of an anti-coccidial drug in poultry begins with conducting multiple battery cage studies, where the target animals are challenged with single and mixed Eimeria species inoculum under controlled laboratory conditions. One of the primary outcomes in a battery cage study is the intestinal lesion score defined on a discrete ordinal scale of 0 to 4. So far, the statistical analysis of lesion scores has routinely employed the linear mixed model (LMM). This present work proposes to apply the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with the cumulative logit link to statistically analyze coccidial lesion scores collected from battery cage studies...
December 13, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Adriano F Vatta, Melanie R Myers, Jady J Rugg, Sara Chapin, Aleah Pullins, Vickie L King, Douglas Rugg
Two randomised, single-masked, multi-center field studies were conducted in the United States in cats presented as veterinary patients. The first study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a topically applied formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) against natural flea infestations; the second study evaluated its efficacy against natural ear mite infestations. The product was administered topically by the cats' owners at the dose range provided in the market product of 6...
December 4, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
L B Jesus, A B Santos, E E V Jesus, R G D Santos, M S Grangeiro, A Bispo-da-Silva, M R Arruda, D S Argolo, A M Pinheiro, R S El-Bachá, S L Costa, M F D Costa
Central nervous system (CNS) is the main site for encystment of Neospora caninum in different animal species. In this tissue, glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) modulate responses to aggression in order to preserve homeostasis and neuronal function. Previous data showed that when primary cultures of glial cells are infected with N. caninum, they develop gliosis and the immune response is characterized by the release of TNF and IL-10, followed by the control of parasite proliferation. In order to elucidate this control, three enzymatic systems involved in parasite-versus-host interactions were observed on a model of neuron/glia co/cultures obtained from rat brains...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Iulia Bucur, Sarah Gabriël, Inge Van Damme, Pierre Dorny, Maria Vang Johansen
This study aimed to assess in vitro the transmission potential of T. saginata eggs stored in different media at various temperatures, and to optimize recovery, hatching and activation methods. A total of 42 freshwater and 42 silt samples were spiked with 100 μl of a T. saginata egg suspension, of which half were stored at 5 °C and the other half at 20 °C. Additionally, 5 silt and 35 tap water control samples were included. Eggs were obtained from gravid proglottids passed by a human carrier following treatment...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini Tabari, Mohammad Reza Youssefi, Mojtaba Nasiri, Mojtaba Hamidi, Komeil Kiani, Shohre Alian Samakkhah, Filippo Maggi
Cystic echinococcosis is of great public health importance. Surgery is the efficient treatment for this infection. To minimize the risk of cyst intraoperative leakage, using scolicidals is crucial. To date, any efficacious scolicidal without side effect has not been introduced. Since essential oils of Pelargonium roseum and Ferula gummosa have shown several bioactivities, we evaluated their potential against protoscoleces of E. granulosus using albendazole as positive control. Furthermore, chemical composition of both essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, and their main constituents were also evaluated for scolicidal activity...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Renata Fogt-Wyrwas, Mirosława Dabert, Wojciech Jarosz, Izabela Rząd, Bogumiła Pilarczyk, Hanna Mizgajska-Wiktor
Toxascaris leonina (Ascarididae) is a cosmopolitan and polyxenical parasite whose host are canids and felids. To date, molecular phylogenetic studies included toxascarid representatives collected only from dogs or felids, therefore the intra-species differences between T. leonina collected from different host species has not been noticed. In this paper, we test the hypothesis of cryptic speciation in the T. leonina complex based on extended sequence data (ITS1, nad1, cox1) and individuals collected from dogs, felids and foxes...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Luis Fazzio, Laura Moreno, Walter Galvan, Candela Canton, Luis Alvarez, Nicolás Streitenberger, Ricardo Sánchez, Carlos Lanusse, Rodrigo Sanabria
We evaluated the comparative plasma disposition kinetics and efficacy of moxidectin (MXD), administered by the intraruminal (IR) or subcutaneous (SC) route at two different dosage levels (0.2 and 1 mg/kg) in feedlot calves. Additionally, the efficacy was compared to an ivermectin (IVM, SC administration) treated group. This study was divided into two separate studies, the "Pharmacokinetic (PK) study" and the "Efficacy study". The "PK study" involved 24 calves free of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), which were allocated into 4 groups (n = 6) and treated with MXD by either the SC or the IR route at the therapeutic (MXDSC0...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Sofia-Afroditi Termatzidou, Konstantinos Arsenopoulos, Nektarios Siachos, Panagiota Kazana, Elias Papadopoulos, Damien Achard, Hamadi Karembe, Georgios Bramis, Georgios Arsenos
The anthelmintic activity of an injectable eprinomectin formulation (Eprecis® 20 mg/mL) was evaluated in 150 naturally infected dairy sheep raised in 3 semi-intensive flocks. All ewes were at the same stage of lactation and grazed on natural pastures. Ewes did not receive any anthelmintic treatment for at least 4 months prior to the experiment. In each flock, 50 ewes were selected and randomly allocated to control (C) or treatment (T) groups (n = 25 per group). Groups were balanced according to the ewes' bodyweight (BW) and fecal egg count (FEC) measured seven days before eprinomectin administration (day-7)...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Maria Christine Rizzon Cintra, Rüdiger Daniel Ollhoff, Saulo Henrique Weber, Cristina Santos Sotomaior
Targeted selective treatment (TST) aims to aid in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants, identifying animals that require treatment with the purpose of preserving the Refugia population and delaying the buildup of anthelmintic (AH) resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of both productive and clinical indicators in the selective treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in growing lambs. Two experiments were carried out between 2015 and 2016. Experiment 1: lambs (n = 70) exclusively raised on pasture were evaluated from the ages of 60 days to 180 days old...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
P P Sengupta, G R Rudramurthy, M Ligi, S S Jacob, H Rahman, P Roy
Trypanosoma evansi, a haemo-flagellated protozoan parasite causes chronic wasting disease in a wide range of animals. For its diagnosis, blood smear examination is useful in clinical cases for direct identification of the parasite but in latent infection the carrier animals are difficult to screen out by conventional blood smear test. Harboring low level of parasites and showing no symptom, the carrier animals for surra can act as a source of infection. The level of parasitaemia fluctuates, especially during latent infection; moreover the antibodies which are not found early in the infection may persist even after recovery or chemotherapy...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Wuren Ma, Yunpeng Fan, Zengyuan Liu, Yuanjie Hao, Yuan Mou, Yingqiu Liu, Weimin Zhang, Xiaoping Song
In this study, the acaricidal effect of eugenol was measured and its mechanism of action investigated. The results showed that eugenol possessed the effect of killing Psoroptes cuniculi, and could regulate the mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catechinic acid (Ca) and thioredoxin (Trx). PPAR, NF-kappa B, TNF, Rap 1 and Ras signaling pathways might be the main pathways that involved into the process of killing mites. These findings suggested that eugenol could be developed into a new kind of acaricide, and further expand current knowledge on the mechanisms of eugenol for killing Psoroptes cuniculi of eugenol...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Jitender P Dubey, David S Lindsay
Until 1970, coccidian parasites of dogs were considered to have a direct fecal-oral life cycle like Eimeria in poultry. They were thought to be non-host specific and infect both dogs and cats. Studies conducted in the 1970s revealed that dog coccidia were host-specific and had transport or paratenic hosts that were infected with an encysted stage containing a single organism, the monozoic tissue cyst. There are still considerable confusion and uncertainties concerning the life cycles and pathogenicity of coccidian parasites of dogs...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Emily Katharina Gueldner, Urs Gilli, Christina Strube, Manuela Schnyder
The metastrongyloid nematode Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is a worldwide occurring feline lungworm. The spectrum of clinical signs in infected cats ranges from mild (e.g. nasal discharge or cough) to severe respiratory distress. The aim of this seroepidemiological study was to define prevalence and risk factors for A. abstrusus infections in Swiss cats, to assess the biogeographic distribution and to investigate the influence of temperature and altitude on the occurrence of this parasite. Sera of 4067 domestic cats were collected from all over Switzerland, tested for the presence of antibodies against A...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Ahmed Thabet, Ronald Schmäschke, Jasmin Fertey, Berit Bangoura, Jessy Schönfelder, Matthias Lendner, Sebastian Ulbert, Arwid Daugschies
In vitro and in vivo studies were performed to assess whether Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) oocysts, exposed to low energy electron irradiation (LEEI), might be considered potential vaccine candidates against cecal coccidiosis. Sporulated oocysts were exposed to LEEI of 0.1 kGy to 10.0 kGy. Reproduction inhibition assays (RIA) were performed in MDBK cells to assess infectivity of sporozoites excysted from irradiated and non-irradiated oocysts. LEEI of 0.1 kGy or 0.5 kGy resulted in 73.2% and 86.5% inhibition of in vitro reproduction (%IRIA ), respectively...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Maira N Meggiolaro, Florian Roeber, Victoria Kobylski, Damien P Higgins, Jan Šlapeta
Giardia intestinalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are frequent enteric protozoan parasites of the gastrointestinal track of domestic cats. Because of different treatment options for the parasites, confirmation of presence of one or both pathogens is necessary. The PCR based assays are suitable for differential diagnosis. We evaluated the performance of Small Animal Diarrhoea panel, a multiplexed-tandem real-time PCR (MT-PCR) assay, that detects DNA of both G. intestinalis and T. foetus. The sensitivity and specificity were compared to reference real-time PCR assays using 105 faecal samples, 39...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Kristýna Hrazdilová, Izabella Myśliwy, Joanna Hildebrand, Katarzyna Buńkowska-Gawlik, Bartłomiej Janaczyk, Agnieszka Perec-Matysiak, David Modrý
Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis sensu stricto became an emerging disease of dogs across Europe calling for attention also in countries where it was an only rare imported disease. An easy accessibility of molecular methods and the growing amount of sequencing data led to the description of intraspecific variability in 18S rDNA sequences designated as "genotypes". Using material from a homogenous cohort of dogs with microscopically confirmed canine babesiosis caused by B. canis, we evaluated Babesia intraspecific variability and amplification sensitivity of three different genes (18S rDNA, COI, Cytb) to assess their potential as diagnostic or phylogenetic markers...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Perla María Del Carmen Acevedo-Ramírez, Claudia Hallal-Calleros, Iván Flores-Pérez, Fernando Alba-Hurtado, María Berenit Mendoza-Garfías, Nohemí Castro Del Campo, Rubén Barajas
Haemonchus contortus constitutes a severe problem for ruminant's production, it is the most frequent nematode parasite both in template and tropical regions, induces economical losses, and shows increasing resistance to currently available anthelmintics. Tannins are secondary metabolites that naturally fulfill defense functions in plants, representing a non-conventional, natural alternative in the treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep. The objective of this work was to explore the in vitro anthelmintic activity of hydrolysable tannins on adult stage of Haemonchus contortus...
February 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Mohammed H Rashid, Mark A Stevenson, Angus J D Campbell, Jane L Vaughan, Ian Beveridge, Abdul Jabbar
This study aimed to assess current worm control practices used by Australian alpaca farmers with an online questionnaire survey. The questionnaire contained questions about farm demography and general husbandry practices, farmers' knowledge about gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) and their importance, the use of worm control strategies and anthelmintics, and grazing management. A link for the questionnaire survey was sent to all (n = 954) registered members of the Australian Alpaca Association in July 2015...
January 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Brian Lassen, Peter Geldhof, Outi Hälli, Johnny Vlaminck, Claudio Oliviero, Toomas Orro, Mari Heinonen
During their migration through the pig's body, Ascaris suum larvae cause significant damage to the lungs. Little is known about the actual impact of this tissue damage on the occurrence and severity of respiratory problems in industrial pig fattening farms. In this study, we evaluated the link between the serological response to two different A. suum antigen preparations and respiratory or meat inspection outcomes. Two different serological tests were used that measure antibodies against either the A. suum haemoglobin molecule or complete homogenate of the 3rd stage larva that migrate through the lungs...
January 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Yao-Wu Fu, Bin Wang, Qi-Zhong Zhang, De-Hai Xu, Yan-Meng Liu, Ting-Long Hou, Shu-Quan Guo
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliate parasite of freshwater fish with a global distribution and results in severe economic losses in aquaculture. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy and antiparasitic mechanism of active compounds isolated from Zingiber officinale against I. multifiliis. Three compounds were isolated from the Z. officinale extract and identified as 10-gingerol, 6-dehydroshogaol, and 6-dehydro-10-gingerol. 10-gingerol demonstrated the greatest antiparasitic efficacy in vitro...
January 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
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