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Neuroscience Letters

Mark Zurbruegg, Man-Ying Chan, Per Svenningsson
Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene are a common genetic risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease. The reasons why glucocerebrosidase mutations cause an increased life-time risk of developing Parkinson's disease are not fully understood. Here, we aimed to verify whether glucocerebrosidase activity has an effect on total α-synuclein levels. We use SH-SY5Y and primary cortical cells and expose them to either Conduritol-β-epoxide or siRNA targeting GBA 1. Unexpectedly, RNA interference towards GBA 1 and catalytic inhibition produce different effects on α-synuclein levels in cellular models...
May 15, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Jinhua Zheng, Qiuling Zang, Fengyun Hu, Hongen Wei, Jianjun Ma, Yanming Xu
BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SNCA gene encoding alpha-synuclein have been shown to affect the PD phenotype. However, whether such polymorphisms can influence risk of dementia in PD remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible associations between SNCA gene polymorphisms and dementia in patients with PD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 291 PD patients with dementia (n = 45, 15.5%) or without it (n = 246, 84...
May 15, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Shabnam Behrangrad, Maryam Zoghi, Dawson Kidgell, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Numerous studies have indicated that non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) of the cerebellum could modulate corticospinal excitability (CSE) in young healthy individuals. However, there is no systematic review and meta-analysis that clarifies the effects of cerebellar NIBS on CSE. The aim of this study was to provide a meta-analytic summary of the effects of cerebellar NIBS on CSE. Seven search engines were used to identify any trial evaluating CSE before and after one session of cerebellar NIBS in healthy individuals up to June 2018...
May 15, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Yuqiang Liu, Han Yang, Chengsan Sun, Zhi Wang, Zhiheng Liu
Sevoflurane is a widely used inhalational anesthetic that can induce developmental neurotoxicity, leading to cognitive dysfunction. In this study, we assessed the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in mediating sevoflurane activation and whether the TRPV1 antagonist could prevent anesthesia-induced cell death. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of TRPV1 was increased after sevoflurane treatment, and pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist SB366791 could attenuate the effect of sevoflurane on TRPV1 expression...
May 15, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Konstantinos Kalafatakis, Nikolaos Giannakeas, Stafford L Lightman, Ioannis Charalampopoulos, Georgina M Russell, Markos Tsipouras, Alexandros Tzallas
Glucocorticoid neurodynamics are the most crucial determinant of the hormonal effects in the mammalian brain, and depend on multiple parallel receptor and enzymatic systems, responsible for effectively binding with the hormone (and mediating its downstream molecular effects) and altering the local glucocorticoid content (by adding, removing or degrading glucocorticoids), respectively. In this study, we combined different computational tools to extract, process and visualize the gene expression data of 25 genes across 96 regions of the adult C57Bl/6 J mouse brain, implicated in glucocorticoid neurodynamics...
May 14, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Gina Hadley, Daniel J Beard, Zoi Alexopoulou, Brad A Sutherland, Alastair M Buchan
INTRODUCTION: Hamartin, a component of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) that actively inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), may mediate the endogenous resistance of Cornu Ammonis 3 (CA3) hippocampal neurons following global cerebral ischemia. Pharmacological compounds that selectively inhibit mTOR may afford neuroprotection following ischemic stroke. We hypothesize that AZD2014, a novel mTORC1/2 inhibitor, may protect neurons following oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)...
May 14, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Luciana Cadore Stefani, Fabricio M Leite, Maria da Graça L Tarragó, Simone A Zanette, Andressa de Souza, Stela M Castro, Wolnei Caumo
Central sensitivity syndrome (CSS) consists of adaptive pathophysiological changes associated with neuroplasticity in some chronic pain disorders. It could be grouped in two main conceptual conditions: one includes those chronic pain patients without overt structural pathology such as fibromyalgia, and the other subgroup includes conditions with recognizable structural abnormalities, both somatic (osteoarthritis) and visceral (endometriosis). In order to understand the role of neuromodulators in CCS we aim to determine whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100B are associated to specific chronic pain disorders...
May 14, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Ke-Yong Tian, Hui-Min Chang, Jie Wang, Mei-Hao Qi, Wei-Long Wang, Yang Qiu, Kun Liang, Fu-Quan Chen, Ding-Jun Zha, Jian-Hua Qiu
Hearing loss is a common sensory disorder that affects more than 360 million people worldwide, and is primarily caused by the loss of hair cells (HCs). Ototoxic drugs, viral infections, genetic predisposition, aging or noise all damage HCs. 3β-hydroxysteroid-Δ24 reductase (DHCR24), one enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, is involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and neuroprotection. However, researchers have not determined whether DHCR24 is present in the cochlea and the mechanism by which it exerts its regulatory effect on HC loss...
May 12, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Emily N Blanke, Salvatore L Stella, Victor Ruiz-Velasco, Gregory M Holmes
The nodose ganglion (NG) is the main parasympathetic ganglion conveying sensory signals to the CNS from numerous visceral organs including digestive signals such as gastric distension or the release the gastrointestinal peptides. The response characteristics of NG neurons to ATP and ADP and pharmacological interrogation of purinergic receptor subtypes have been previously investigated but often in NG cells of undetermined visceral origin. In this study, we confirmed the presence of P2 × 3 and P2Y1 receptors and characterized P2X and P2Y responses in gastric-innervating NG neurons...
May 11, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Fanni A Boros, Rita Török, Evelin Vágvölgyi-Sümegi, Zsófia Pesei, Péter Klivényi, László Vécsei
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Lifestyle, environmental effects and several genetic factors have been proposed to contribute to its development. Though the majority of PD cases do not have a family history of disease, genetic alterations are proposed to be present in 60 percent of the more common sporadic cases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency of PD related specific risk variants of LRRK2, MAPT, SNCA and PARK10 genes in the Hungarian population...
May 11, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Jun Hu, Chaoyong Xiao, Dawei Gong, Chang Qiu, Weiguo Liu, Wenbin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Regional homogeneity (ReHo) differences in encephalic regions of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of different subtypes were investigated to analyze its clinical significance during disease occurrence. METHODS: 39 PD patients were evaluated in this study, which included 14 cases with the tremor dominant (TD) PD subtype and 23 cases with the postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) PD subtype, along with 28 healthy individuals, who were included as the control group...
May 11, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Matthew S Tenan, Andrew J Tweedell, Courtney A Haynes, Antony D Passaro
Imperceptible vibratory Gaussian noise stimulation to the periphery is frequently being applied to humans to enhance motor performance. It is commonly theorized that this stimulation creates a Stochastic Resonance-like effect across both sensory and motor systems, but this idea has no empirical support. In contrast, there is substantial work showing that tendon vibration can be both excitatory and inhibitory on the lower motor neuron output. In this work, we demonstrate that delivery of imperceptible vibratory Gaussian noise stimulation to the wrist flexor tendons results in a 27% increase in excitability of the lower motor neuron pool in the median nerve, as evidenced by changes in the Hoffmann reflex...
May 11, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Ying Zhang, Yi Gao, Chong-Yang Li, Wei Dong, Meng-Nan Li, Ya-Nan Liu, Yan Dong, Shi-Lian Xu
Galanin and galanin receptors (GalRs) play important roles in the transmission and modulation of nociceptive information. Our previous research has shown that the expression of GalR1 is upregulated and that GalR1 activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats with neuropathic pain has an antinociceptive effect. However, the antinociceptive role of NAc galanin in neuralgia remains unclear. The present study aimed to explore the antinociceptive effect induced by galanin in rats with neuropathic pain and the underlying mechanism...
May 11, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Graham Campbell, Simon Licht-Mayer, Don Mahad
Inflammatory demyelinating processes target the neuron, particularly axons and synapses, in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a gathering body of evidence indicating molecular changes which converge on mitochondria within neurons in progressive forms of MS. The most reproducible changes are the increase in mitochondrial content within demyelinated axons and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiency in neurons, which compromises the capacity to generate ATP. The resulting lack of ATP and the likely energy failure state and its coupling with an increase in demand for energy by the demyelinated axon, are particularly relevant to the long tracts such as corticospinal tracts with long projection axons...
May 10, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Keita Ashida, Taiki Kato, Kohji Hotta, Kotaro Oka
Food exploration is an essential survival behavior in organisms. To find food efficiently, many organisms use a foraging strategy called area-restricted search (ARS) wherein individuals first turn more frequently, restricting their search to one area, then turn less frequently, moving along a straight path to widen the search area. Previous research suggests that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans shows ARS behavior by changing turn frequency, and that dopamine is a crucial determinant. However, the effects of dopamine on multiple behavioral parameters have remained unknown...
May 10, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Jordan Follett, Jesse D Fox, Emil K Gustavsson, Chelsie Kadgien, Lise N Munsie, Li Ping Cao, Igor Tatarnikov, Austen J Milnerwood, Matthew J Farrer
DNAJC13 (RME-8) is a core co-chaperone that facilitates membrane recycling and cargo sorting of endocytosed proteins. DNAJ/Hsp40 (heat shock protein 40) proteins are highly conserved throughout evolution and mediate the folding of nascent proteins, and the unfolding, refolding or degradation of misfolded proteins, while assisting in associated-membrane translocation. DNAJC13 is one of five DNAJ 'C' class chaperone variants implicated in monogenic parkinsonism. Here we examine the effect of the DNAJC13 disease-linked mutation (p...
May 10, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Arunibha Ghosh, Tamal Sadhukhan, Subhajit Giri, Arindam Biswas, Shyamal Kumar Das, Kunal Ray, Jharna Ray
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the debilitating movement disorder, distinguished by dopaminergic and norepinephrinergic neurodegeneration. Apart from candidate gene mutations, several modifier loci have been reported to be associated with the disease manifestation. The Dopamine β-Hydroxylase (DBH) maintains cellular dopamine content and regulates dopamine turn over in neurons. Genetic polymorphisms ofDBH are associated with PD and are found to alter plasma DBH activity in patients compared to healthy controls...
May 10, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Bonnie Robinson, Qiang Gu, Syed F Ali, Melanie Dumas, Jyotshna Kanungo
Ketamine, an anesthetic, is a non-competitive antagonist of the calcium-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. High concentrations of ketamine have been implicated in cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Often, these toxicities are thought to be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, findings to the contrary showing ketamine reducing ROS in mammalian cells and neurons in vitro, are emerging. Here, we determined the effects of ketamine on ROS levels in zebrafish larvae in vivo. Based on our earlier studies demonstrating reduction in ATP levels by ketamine, we hypothesized that as a calcium antagonist, ketamine would also prevent ROS generation, which is a by-product of ATP synthesis...
May 9, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Ivan S Raginov, Vladislav I Egorov, Lenar R Valiullin, Daichi Watanabe, Konstantin V Balakin, Yurii I Murinov
Two novel pyrimidine derivatives, RG2 and RG6, were studied using a rat's model of peripheral nerve injury. Toe-spreading reflex and skin sensitivity to pinch in the foot were monitored to follow recovery of motor and sensory functions in the treated animals. The remyelation rate in the distal segment of the damaged nerve was also studied using morphological analysis of cross-sections of the nerve stained with methylene blue. The obtained data demonstrate a high stimulating effect of RG2 and RG6 on the restoration of motor and sensory functions of the sciatic nerve, as well as on the post-traumatic regeneration of myelin fibers...
May 9, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Hans E Anderson, Kristin L Schaller, John H Caldwell, Richard F Weir
Adenoassociated viral vectors provide a safe and robust method for expression of transgenes in nondividing cells such as neurons. Intravenous injections of these vectors provide a means of transducing motoneurons of peripheral nerves. Previous research has demonstrated that serotypes 1, rh10 and PHP.B can transduce motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord, but has not quantified expression in the peripheral nerve axon. Axonal labeling is crucial for optogenetic stimulation and detection of action potentials in peripheral nerve...
May 9, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
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