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Journal of Neuroscience Research

Maxime Assous, James M Tepper
The classical view of striatal GABAergic interneuron function has been that they operate as largely independent, parallel, feedforward inhibitory elements providing inhibitory inputs to spiny projection neurons (SPNs). Much recent evidence has shown that the extrinsic innervation of striatal interneurons is not indiscriminate but rather very specific, and that striatal interneurons are themselves interconnected in a cell type-specific manner. This suggests that the ultimate effect of extrinsic inputs on striatal neuronal activity depends critically on synaptic interactions within interneuronal circuitry...
May 17, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ahsan Habib, R Douglas Shytle, Darrell Sawmiller, Selina Koilraj, Sadia Afrin Munna, David Rongo, Huayan Hou, Cesario V Borlongan, Glenn Currier, Jun Tan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive decline of cognition and associated neuropsychiatric signs including weight loss, anxiety, depression, agitation, and aggression, which is particularly pronounced in the female gender. Previously, we have shown that a novel ionic co-crystal of lithium salicylate proline (LISPRO) is an improved lithium formulation compared to the carbonate or salicylate form of lithium in terms of safety and efficacy in reducing AD pathology in Alzheimer's mice. The current study is designed to compare the prophylactic effects of LISPRO, lithium carbonate (LC), and lithium salicylate (LS) on cognitive and noncognitive impairments in female transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice...
May 17, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Clare C Rittschof, Hemendra J Vekaria, Joseph H Palmer, Patrick G Sullivan
Mitochondrial activity is highly dynamic in the healthy brain, and it can reflect both the signaling potential and the signaling history of neural circuits. Recent studies spanning invertebrates to mammals have highlighted a role for neural mitochondrial dynamics in learning and memory processes as well as behavior. In the current study, we investigate the interplay between biogenic amine signaling and neural energetics in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. In this species, aggressive behaviors are regulated by neural energetic state and biogenic amine titers, but it is unclear how these mechanisms are linked to impact behavioral expression...
May 15, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Karen Tse, Dean Hammond, Deborah Simpson, Robert J Beynon, Edward Beamer, Michael Tymianski, Michael W Salter, Graeme J Sills, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
Antiepileptogenic agents that prevent the development of epilepsy following a brain insult remain the holy grail of epilepsy therapeutics. We have employed a label-free proteomic approach that allows quantification of large numbers of brain-expressed proteins in a single analysis in the mouse (male C57BL/6J) kainate (KA) model of epileptogenesis. In addition, we have incorporated two putative antiepileptogenic drugs, postsynaptic density protein-95 blocking peptide (PSD95BP or Tat-NR2B9c) and a highly selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 1400W, to give an insight into how such agents might ameliorate epileptogenesis...
May 15, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Luis Leon Mercado, Laurent Gautron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Hao Guo, Qiaoli Xie, Jingjing Cui, Dan Xu, Cuola Deji, Yuanyuan Chen, Yunpeng Wang, Jianghua Lai
Repeated opioids abuse may produce long-lasting and complicated cognitive deficits in individuals. Naloxone is a typical mu-opioid receptor antagonist widely used in clinical treatment for opioid overdose and opioid abuse. However, it remains unclear whether naloxone affects morphine-induced cognitive deficits. Using the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), the present study investigated cognitive profiles including attention, impulsivity, compulsivity, and processing speed in repeated morphine-treated mice...
May 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Geneviève Allaire-Duquette, Michel Bélanger, Roland H Grabner, Karl Koschutnig, Steve Masson
Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that, compared with novices, science experts show increased activation in dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal brain areas associated with inhibitory control mechanisms when providing scientifically valid responses in tasks related to electricity and mechanics. However, no study thus far has explored the relationship between activation of the key brain regions involved in inhibitory control mechanisms, namely the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC), and individual differences in conceptual science competence, while controlling for scientific training...
May 11, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Elizabeth M Keithley
Presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss (ARHL), occurs in most mammals with variations in the age of onset, rate of decline, and magnitude of degeneration in the central nervous system and inner ear. The affected cochlear structures include the stria vascularis and its vasculature, spiral ligament, sensory hair cells and auditory neurons. Dysfunction of the stria vascularis results in a reduced endocochlear potential. Without this potential, the cochlear amplification provided by the electro-motility of the outer hair cells is insufficient, and a high-frequency hearing-loss results...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Gerald A Dienel
A novel mechanism involving "protected glucose trafficking" through the lumen of the astrocytic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was proposed by Müller et al. (Current Biology 28:3481, 2018) and highlighted by Pellerin (Current Biology 28:R1258, 2018) as a potential route for astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttling. In their model, glucose is taken up from blood into astrocytic endfeet, phosphorylated, and some glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6-P) is transported into the ER lumen where it is hydrolyzed by glucose-6-phosphatase-β to produce glucose...
May 3, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
María F Harman, Mauricio G Martín
Cognitive decline is a hallmark of the aging nervous system, characterized by increasing memory loss and a deterioration of mental capacity, which in turn creates a favorable context for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. One of the most detrimental alterations that occur at the molecular level in the brain during aging is the modification of the epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression. As a result of these epigenetic-driven changes in the transcriptome most of the functions of the brain including synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory decline with aging...
May 2, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
N G Harris, A Paydar, G S Smith, S Lepore
Significant progress has been made toward improving both the acquisition of clinical diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data and its analysis in the uninjured brain, through various techniques including a large number of model-based solutions that have been proposed to fit for multiple tissue compartments, and multiple fibers per voxel. While some of these techniques have been applied to clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI) research, the majority of these technological enhancements have yet to be fully implemented in the preclinical arena of TBI animal model-based research...
May 1, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Desislava Doycheva, Harpreet Kaur, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
Activation of the unfolded protein response in combination with generation of reactive oxygen species, from cytochrome P450 members and NADPH-P450 reductases, are two major consequences of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress that cause oxidative damage and cell death. Herein, we reviewed the role of Bax Inhibitor-1 (BI-1), an evolutionarily conserved protein encoded by the Transmembrane Bax inhibitor Motif Containing 6 gene, in protection from ER stress. As BI-1 has multimodal properties that can target a wide array of pathophysiological consequences after injury, our main objective was to explore BI-1's protective role in ER stress and its potential signaling pathways...
May 1, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ana Francisca Soares, Jakob D Nissen, Alba M Garcia-Serrano, Sakura S Nussbaum, Helle S Waagepetersen, João M N Duarte
Diabetes impacts the central nervous system predisposing to cognitive decline. While glucose is the main source of energy fueling the adult brain, brain glycogen is necessary for adequate neuronal function, synaptic plasticity and memory. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that brain glycogen metabolism is impaired in type 2 diabetes (T2D). 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) during [1-13 C]glucose i.v. infusion was employed to detect 13 C incorporation into whole-brain glycogen in male Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a lean model of T2D, and control Wistar rats...
May 1, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Michael Fritz, Anna M Klawonn, Natalie M Zahr
This article provides an overview of recent advances in understanding the effects of alcohol use disorders (AUD) on the brain from the perspective of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research in preclinical models and clinical studies. As a noninvasive investigational tool permitting assessment of morphological, metabolic, and hemodynamic changes over time, MRI offers insight into the dynamic course of alcoholism beginning with initial exposure through periods of binge drinking and escalation, sobriety, and relapse and has been useful in differential diagnosis of neurological diseases associated with AUD...
April 22, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Yan Zhang, Zongjian Liu, Wenxiu Zhang, Qichao Wu, Yanjun Zhang, Yadong Liu, Yun Guan, Xueming Chen
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological disorder, but few drugs have proven to be effective for its treatment. Neuroinflammation exaggerates the secondary injury subsequent to trauma. Emerging evidence suggests that melatonin may help protect neural tissue against secondary injury after SCI, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Microglial/macrophages polarization plays an important role in regulating immune responses. To examine whether melatonin exerts neuroprotective effects after acute SCI by regulating microglial/macrophages polarization in the spinal cord, we administered intraperitoneal injections of melatonin (50 mg/kg) in female rats immediately after SCI and then daily for seven consecutive days (n = 6)...
April 22, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Moeko Saito, Kentaro Ishizuka, Takao Hoshino, Sono Toi, Kazuo Kitagawa
Leptomeningeal anastomosis is a key factor for determining early ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in human stroke. However, few studies have validated this relationship in an experimental model. This study sought to clarify the involvement of leptomeningeal anastomosis in early ischemic lesions using a murine model. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to unilateral common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion or sham surgery. Seven or 14 days later, the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded for 45 min...
April 21, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Vidya Saravanapandian, Erin M Sparck, Karen Y Cheng, Fei Yu, Courtney Yaeger, Terry Hu, Nanthia Suthana, Rafael Romero-Calderón, Cristina A Ghiani, Christopher J Evans, Ellen M Carpenter, Weihong Ge
Lack of resources and exposure to neuroscience in K-12 education has resulted in a limited number of K-12 students pursuing higher education in the field. Meanwhile, the rapid expansion of the field of neuroscience has encouraged many higher educational institutes to offer neuroscience majors. This has opened up the opportunity to engage faculty, as well as graduate and undergraduate students in bringing the most needed knowledge and awareness about neuroscience into K-12 classrooms. However, undergraduate neuroscience curricula have limited formal opportunities to engage in outreach, and few existing programs have assessments to determine their effectiveness...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Myrna A R Dent, Armando Aranda-Anzaldo
Cancer is a major concern for contemporary societies. However, the incidence of cancer is unevenly distributed among tissues and cell types. In particular, the evidence indicates that neurons are absolutely resistant to cancer and this is commonly explained on the basis of the known postmitotic state of neurons. The dominant paradigm on cancer understands this problem as a disease caused by mutations in cellular genes that result in unrestrained cell proliferation and eventually in tissue invasion and metastasis...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ezgi Gür, Emre Fertan, Kindree Alkins, Aimée A Wong, Richard E Brown, Fuat Balcı
Temporal information processing in the seconds-to-minutes range is disrupted in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the timing behavior of the 5xFAD mouse model of AD in the peak interval (PI) procedure. Nine-month-old female mice were trained with sucrose solution reinforcement for their first response after a fixed-interval (FI) and tested in the inter-mixed non-reinforced PI trials that lasted longer than FI. Timing performance indices were estimated from steady-state timed anticipatory nose-poking responses in the PI trials...
April 11, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ken Berglund, Alejandra M Fernandez, Claire-Anne N Gutekunst, Ute Hochgeschwender, Robert E Gross
Although molecular tools for controlling neuronal activity by light have vastly expanded, there are still unmet needs which require development and refinement. For example, light delivery into the brain is still a major practical challenge that hinders potential translation of optogenetics in human patients. In addition, it would be advantageous to manipulate neuronal activity acutely and precisely as well as chronically and non-invasively, using the same genetic construct in animal models. We have previously addressed these challenges by employing bioluminescence and have created a new line of opto-chemogenetic probes termed luminopsins by fusing light-sensing opsins with light-emitting luciferases...
April 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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