journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37734908/how-should-institutions-help-clinicians-to-practise-greener-anaesthesia-first-order-and-second-order-responsibilities-to-practice-sustainably
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Joshua Parker, Nathan Hodson, Paul Young, Clifford Shelton
There is a need for all industries, including healthcare, to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. In anaesthetic practice, this not only requires a reduction in resource use and waste, but also a shift away from inhaled anaesthetic gases and towards alternatives with a lower carbon footprint. As inhalational anaesthesia produces greenhouse gas emissions at the point of use, achieving sustainable anaesthetic practice involves individual practitioner behaviour change. However, changing the practice of healthcare professionals raises potential ethical issues...
September 21, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37734907/ectogenesis-rescue-case-a-reply-to-hendricks
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
William Simkulet
Hendricks set out to construct an antiabortion version of Jeff McMahan's Embryo Rescue case in which you have two choices-(1) save a woman from an unwilling pregnancy or (2) save a fetus from being killed. In his Pregnancy Rescue case, he contends we ought to choose (2), which he thinks shows abortion is immoral. However, I argue the Pregnancy Rescue case is a false dilemma because you can save both. I propose an alternative, more elegant dilemma, the Ectogenesis Rescue case with the same choices (1) and (2)...
September 21, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37734906/primary-duty-is-to-communicate-moment-in-time-nature-of-genetic-variant-interpretation
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Carolyn Riley Chapman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37734905/downgrades-a-potential-source-of-moral-tension
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Anke Jm Oerlemans, Ilse Feenstra, Helger G Yntema, Marianne Boenink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37730418/meaningful-human-control-over-ai-for-health-a-review
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Eva Maria Hille, Patrik Hummel, Matthias Braun
Artificial intelligence is currently changing many areas of society. Especially in health, where critical decisions are made, questions of control must be renegotiated: who is in control when an automated system makes clinically relevant decisions? Increasingly, the concept of meaningful human control (MHC) is being invoked for this purpose. However, it is unclear exactly how this concept is to be understood in health. Through a systematic review, we present the current state of the concept of MHC in health...
September 20, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37726162/ditching-decision-making-capacity
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Daniel Fogal, Ben Schwan
Decision-making capacity (DMC) plays an important role in clinical practice-determining, on the basis of a patient's decisional abilities, whether they are entitled to make their own medical decisions or whether a surrogate must be secured to participate in decisions on their behalf. As a result, it is critical that we get things right-that our conceptual framework be well-suited to the task of helping practitioners systematically sort through the relevant ethical considerations in a way that reliably and transparently delivers correct verdicts about who should and should not have the authority to make their own medical decisions...
September 19, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37722810/what-makes-a-medical-intervention-invasive
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gabriel De Marco, Jannieke Simons, Lisa Forsberg, Thomas Douglas
The classification of medical interventions as either invasive or non-invasive is commonly regarded to be morally important. On the most commonly endorsed account of invasiveness, a medical intervention is invasive if and only if it involves either breaking the skin ('incision') or inserting an object into the body ('insertion'). Building on recent discussions of the concept of invasiveness, we show that this standard account fails to capture three aspects of existing usage of the concept of invasiveness in relation to medical interventions-namely, (1) usage implying that invasiveness comes in degrees, (2) that the invasiveness of an intervention can depend on the characteristics of the salient alternative interventions, and (3) that medical interventions can be invasive in non-physical ways...
September 18, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37714696/revisiting-the-ought-implies-can-dictum-in-light-of-disruptive-medical-innovation
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Michiel De Proost, Seppe Segers
It is a dominant dictum in ethics that 'ought implies can' (OIC): if an agent morally ought to do an action, the agent must be capable of performing that action. Yet, with current technological developments, such as in direct-to-consumer genomics, big data analytics and wearable technologies, there may be reasons to reorient this ethical principle. It is our modest aim in this article to explore how the current wave of allegedly disruptive innovation calls for a renewed interest for this dictum. As an effect of prevention and prediction oriented technological innovation, an increased focus on assumedly controllable lifestyle risks may be anticipated...
September 15, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37714695/promoting-diagnostic-equity-specifying-genetic-similarity-rather-than-race-or-ethnicity
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Katherine Witte Saylor, Daphne Oluwaseun Martschenko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37699701/ethical-issues-arising-from-the-government-allocation-of-physicians-to-rural-areas-a-case-study-from-japan
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Masatoshi Matsumoto, Tatsuki Aikyo
The geographically inequitable distribution of physicians has long posed a serious social problem in Japan. The government tackled this problem by establishing and managing Jichi Medical University (JMU) and regional quotas (RQs) for medical schools. JMU/RQs recruit local students who hope to work as physicians in rural areas, educate them for 6 years without tuition (JMU) or with scholarship (RQs), and after graduation, assign them to their home prefectures for 9 years, including 4-6 years of rural service...
September 12, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37673670/reassessing-the-vaxtax
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nathan Petrovic
To counter the imbalance in vaccine distribution during the COVID-19 pandemic, Albertsen and more recently Germani et al have suggested a new system of taxation coined as 'VaxTax' that would force higher-income countries to fund the access of low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) to new vaccines in times of pandemic. I will argue that this idea faces numerous challenges of ethical, sociopolitical and economical nature that may hinder any effort to solve the numerous health challenges that LMICs face...
September 6, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37673669/genetic-research-and-the-collective-good-participants-as-leaders-to-reconcile-individual-and-public-interests
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ilaria Galasso, Susi Geiger
This paper problematises the notions of public or common good as weighed against individual sovereignty in the context of medical research by focusing on genetic research. We propose the notion of collective good as the good of the particular collective in which the research was conducted. We conducted documentary and interview-based research with participant representatives and research leaders concerned with participant involvement in leading genetic research projects and around two recent genetic data controversies: the case of the UK Wellcome Sanger Institute, accused of planning unauthorised commercialisation of African DNA samples, and the case of the company Genuity Science, which planned genetic research on brain tumour samples in Ireland with no explicit patient consent...
September 6, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37673668/defending-deference-author-s-response-to-commentaries
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nicholas Makins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37673667/autonomy-requires-more-curiosity-less-deference-to-risk
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Johnna Wellesley, Emma Tumilty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37673666/four-problems-for-the-pregnancy-rescue-case
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alex Gillham
The pregnancy rescue case (PRC) is supposed to show that when forced between preventing a fetus from being killed and preventing someone from remaining unwillingly pregnant, we are morally required to do the former. If this is true, then Hendricks argues that the typical abortion is morally wrong. I pose four problems for PRC and how Hendricks uses it here. First, one might simply deny the intuition Hendricks takes PRC to pump for reasons having to do with the moral status of the fetus. Second, even if it is true that we should prevent the fetus from being killed in PRC, this might not tell us much about the moral permissibility of abortion in typical cases because there are important differences between PRC and the typical abortion...
September 6, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37657921/academic-freedom-under-siege
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nancy S Jecker, Marcel Verweij, Vardit Ravitsky, Tenzin Wangmo, Mohammed Ghaly
This paper describes a global pattern of declining academic freedom, often driven by powerful political interference with core functions of academic communities. It argues that countering threats to academic freedom requires doubling down on ethics, specifically standards of justice and fairness in pursuing knowledge and assigning warrant to beliefs. Using the example of the selection of a Qatari university to host the 2024 World Congress of Bioethics, the authors urge fairness towards diverse groups over time and efforts to counter injustices that conferences generate...
September 1, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37640535/exemplarist-medical-ethics
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Daniel Daly
The field of medical ethics, such as the discipline of ethics in general, has traditionally focused on moral dilemmas and quandaries at the expense of 'everyday' moral issues. The methodologies, norms and principles of the field reflect this. Although the principle of double effect works well in adjudicating the provision of life-shortening medications to relieve pain, it fails to guide the vast majority of mundane moral decisions that providers make daily.This article contends that exemplarist medical ethics provides action guidance on everyday medical ethical issues...
August 28, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37640534/who-should-provide-the-uterus-the-ethics-of-live-donor-recruitment-for-uterus-transplantation
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
J Y Lee
Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an experimental surgery likely to face the issue of organ shortage. In my article, I explore how this issue might be addressed by changing the prevailing practices around live uterus donor recruitment. Currently, women with children - often the mothers of recipients - tend to be overrepresented as donors. Yet, other potentially eligible groups who may have an interest in providing their uterus - such as transgender men, or cisgender women who do not wish to gestate or to have children - tend to be excluded as potential donors...
August 28, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37620137/setting-a-human-rights-and-legal-framework-around-the-ethics-of-consent-during-labour-and-birth-episiotomies
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Bashi Kumar-Hazard, Hannah Grace Dahlen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37620136/a-proposal-for-formal-fairness-requirements-in-triage-emergency-departments-publicity-accessibility-relevance-standardisability-and-accountability
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Davide Battisti, Silvia Camporesi
This paper puts forward a wish list of requirements for formal fairness in the specific context of triage in emergency departments (EDs) and maps the empirical and conceptual research questions that need to be addressed in this context in the near future. The pandemic has brought to the fore the necessity for public debate about how to allocate resources fairly in a situation of great shortage. However, issues of fairness arise also outside of pandemics: decisions about how to allocate resources are structurally unavoidable in healthcare systems, as value judgements underlie every allocative decision, although they are not always easily identifiable...
August 24, 2023: Journal of Medical Ethics
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