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Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Christopher M Jones, Elinore F McCance-Katz
BACKGROUND: Co-occurring substance use and mental disorders among people with opioid use disorder (OUD) increase risk for morbidity and mortality. Addressing these co-occurring conditions is critical for improving treatment and health outcomes. There is limited recent research on the prevalence of co-occurring disorders, demographic characteristics associated with co-occurring disorders, and receipt of mental health and substance use treatment services among those with OUD. This limits the development of targeted and resourced policies and clinical interventions...
February 14, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
N Baldwin, R Gray, A Goel, E Wood, J Buxton, L Rieb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Katrine Melby, Rolf W Gråwe, Trond O Aamo, Øyvind Salvesen, Olav Spigset
BACKGROUND: In a pilot study, intranasal oxytocin was demonstrated to reduce the benzodiazepine dose needed to relieve withdrawal symptoms during alcohol detoxification. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of oxytocin and placebo during a three-day period of alcohol detoxification at an addiction treatment center in Norway. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 40 patients fulfilling criteria for ICD-10 diagnosis of alcohol dependence (F10...
February 13, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Allison R Bechard, Lori A Knackstedt
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorder is a significant public health problem and currently no medications are FDA-approved to reduce cocaine relapse. Drug-associated cues are reported to elicit craving and cocaine-seeking in humans. Repeated, non-reinforced presentations of drug-associated cues (cue extinction) have been proposed to reduce the ability of such cues to prompt drug-seeking. In rodent models of cocaine relapse, cue extinction reduces cocaine relapse when such extinction occurs in the same context as cocaine self-administration, which is not akin to the manner in which treatment would occur in humans...
February 13, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kathleen R Elliott, Emily Jones
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown the frequency of drug misuse is important in the development of a substance use disorder, but little is known about this relationship in the context of opioid misuse and opioid use disorder and withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: Our study included 2694 civilian respondents from the United States 12 years and older who had misused prescription opioids in the past year from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Logistic regression was used to model the association between frequency of prescription opioid misuse and opioid use disorder and withdrawal symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income level...
February 13, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Cecilia L Bergeria, Sarah H Heil, Danielle R Davis, Joanna M Streck, Stacey C Sigmon, Janice Y Bunn, Jennifer W Tidey, Chris A Arger, Derek D Reed, Thomas Gallagher, John R Hughes, Diann E Gaalema, Maxine L Stitzer, Stephen T Higgins
BACKGROUND: Nicotine is the addictive component in cigarettes that maintain cigarette smoking that subsequently leads to morbidity and mortality. Methods for assessing the abuse liability of cigarettes are essential to inform new tobacco product standards. This secondary analysis evaluated the utility of one subjective effects measure, the modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire (mCEQ), and one behavioral economic task, the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT), for predicting acute relative reinforcing efficacy measured by concurrent choice Self-Administration (SA)...
February 13, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
William C Goedel, Traci C Green, Samara Viner-Brown, Josiah D Rich, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: The timing of social service benefit issuance is thought to be associated with increased drug overdose fatalities. However, the extent to which this excess mortality is concentrated in communities with higher levels of benefit receipt has not been studied. We sought to examine if benefit receipt at the neighborhood level was associated with spatiotemporal patterns of overdose fatalities. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all accidental overdose deaths recorded in Rhode Island from 2014 to 2016 (n = 838)...
February 12, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Deepika Anand, Catherine Paquette, Anna Bartuska, Stacey B Daughters
BACKGROUND: Research examining directionality of the relationship between depressive symptoms and substance use following treatment entry is limited. Furthermore, substances differ in their neurobiological effects on mood. The relationship between depression and substance use following treatment entry may be moderated by dependence on specific substances. The study tested (a) lagged effects between depressive symptoms and substance use frequency following substance use treatment entry through a 1-year post-treatment follow-up and (b) if substance dependence type moderates these effects...
February 5, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Claire Benny, Jodi M Gatley, Marcos Sanches, Russell C Callaghan
BACKGROUND/AIM: Given that alcohol-related victimization is highly prevalent among young adults, the current study aimed to assess the potential impacts of Minimum Legal Drinking Age (MLDA) laws on police-reported violent victimization events among young people. DESIGN: A regression-discontinuity (RD) approach was applied to victimization data from the Canadian Uniform Crime Reporting 2 (UCR2) Incident-based survey from 2009-2013. Participants/cases: All police-reported violent victimization events (females: n = 178,566; males: n = 156,803) among youth aged 14-22 years in Canada...
February 5, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Laurence J Howe, Gemma C Sharp, Gibran Hemani, Luisa Zuccolo, Stephen Richmond, Sarah J Lewis
BACKGROUND: High levels of prenatal alcohol exposure are known to cause an array of adverse outcomes including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); however, the effects of low to moderate exposure are less-well characterized. Previous findings suggest that differences in normal-range facial morphology may be a marker for alcohol exposure and related adverse effects. METHODS: In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we tested for an association between maternal alcohol consumption and six FAS-related facial phenotypes in their offspring, using both self-report questionnaires and the maternal genotype at rs1229984 in ADH1B as measures of maternal alcohol consumption...
February 5, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Katelijne van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Ellen Vedel, Floor J Kramer, Matthijs Blankers, Jack J M Dekker, Wim van den Brink, Robert A Schoevers
BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with Substance Use Disorders (SUDs). Standard ADHD pharmacotherapies are not effective in patients with this comorbidity and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has not been tested in this population. This RCT aimed to compare the efficacy of Integrated CBT (CBT/Integrated) directed at adult ADHD and SUD with CBT directed at SUD only (CBT/SUD) in patients with SUD and ADHD (SUD + ADHD). METHODS: Randomized clinical trial among 119 SUD + ADHD patients in a SUD treatment center...
February 5, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Noah R Gubner, Denise D Williams, Thao Le, Wayne Garcia, Maya Vijayaraghavan, Joseph Guydish
BACKGROUND: This study examined the impact of a tobacco-free grounds (TFG) policy and the California $2.00/pack tobacco tax increase on tobacco use among individuals in residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. METHODS: We conducted three cross-sectional surveys of clients enrolled in three residential SUD treatment programs. Wave 1 (Pre-TFG) included 190 clients, wave 2 (post-TFG and pre-tax increase) included 200 clients, and wave 3 (post-tax increase) included 201 clients...
February 5, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Julia Cen Chen-Sankey, Kelvin Choi, Thomas R Kirchner, Robert H Feldman, James Butler, Erin L Mead
BACKGROUND: Flavored cigar sales have increased in recent years in the U.S. African American young adults (AAYAs) have high prevalence of smoking flavored cigars and dual use with cigarettes, but the predictors of use are unclear. We examined the predictors of flavored cigar smoking among AAYA dual users. METHODS: We analyzed data from an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study that captured near real-time affect, smoking cues, and tobacco smoking from eight text-messaging surveys per day over two weeks...
January 31, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, Christopher S Tallarida, Shu Su, Slava Rom, Mia N Watson, Allen B Reitz, Raghava Potula, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Purinergic P2X7 receptors are present on neurons, astrocytes and microglia and activated by extracellular ATP. Since P2X7 receptor activation releases endogenous substrates (e.g., pro-inflammatory cytokines, dopamine, and glutamate) that facilitate psychostimulant reward and reinforcement, we investigated the hypothesis that the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) produces rewarding effects that are dependent on active P2X7 receptors. METHODS: Reward function was measured in male mice using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS)...
January 31, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Saul Shiffman, Sarah M Scholl, Jason M Mao
BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration is considering reductions in the nicotine content of cigarettes to reduce smoking and tobacco dependence. A randomized study showed that even non-daily, intermittent smokers (ITS) reduced their cigarette consumption when switched to very-low-nicotine-content cigarettes (VLNCCs). This paper assesses whether switching ITS to VLNCCs results in decreased dependence and whether subsequent cigarette consumption is mediated by decreased dependence...
January 31, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Joseph El Khoury, Paul Noufi, Amanda Ahmad, Elie Akl, Samer El Hayek
BACKGROUND: Substance use has a tremendous impact on the burden of disease. This is particularly true in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR), where many countries serve as suppliers of drugs. As risk perception and frequency of use are inversely correlated, targeting perception during adolescence becomes essential for prevention. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature on attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of substance use amongst youth in the EMR. METHODS: We reviewed quantitative articles addressing attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of youth aged between 13 and 25 years towards substance use in the EMR...
January 22, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Joseph J Palamar, Caroline Rutherford, Katherine M Keyes
BACKGROUND: Use of synthetic cathinones, commonly referred to as "bath salts", has been associated with tens of thousands of emergency department visits in the US; however, few national studies have estimated prevalence of use and we know very little about use among adolescents. In this study we estimate prevalence and correlates of use of "Flakka" (alpha-PVP), a highly-potent "bath salt" associated with at least 80 deaths in the US. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2016/2017 Monitoring the Future study, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of high school seniors in the US (n = 3786)...
January 22, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Stephen R Baldassarri, David A Fiellin, Mary Ellen Savage, Lynn M Madden, Mark Beitel, Lara K Dhingra, Lisa Fucito, Deepa Camenga, Pooja Bollampally, Declan T Barry
BACKGROUND: Although smoking is prevalent among populations with opioid use disorder (OUD), few studies have examined electronic cigarette (EC) use in individuals seeking opioid agonist therapy (OAT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of EC use among individuals seeking OAT. METHODS: 782 patients seeking OAT for OUD completed surveys assessing current and past EC use, reasons for use, current and past cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence, psychiatric distress, trauma, and pain...
January 17, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Anne-Sophie Schwarz, Bent Nielsen, Jes Søgaard, Anette Søgaard Nielsen
AIM: To investigate if more patients in the intervention group attended specialized alcohol treatment compared with a treatment-as-usual group (TAU). METHODS: Pragmatic randomized controlled trial where consecutive patients, admitted to somatic hospitals, filled out a lifestyle questionnaire with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) embedded. Patients scoring 8+ on AUDIT were included in the study. Included patients were randomized to either a Danish screening brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) called the Relay model or TAU depending on date of admission...
January 17, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Matthew B Feldman, Kelsey L Kepler, Mary K Irvine, Jacinthe A Thomas
BACKGROUND: Drug use (DU) represents a significant barrier to maintaining physical health among people living with HIV (PLWH). Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between DU over time and HIV treatment outcomes. Such studies are needed because an individual's risk of poor health outcomes may vary with their DU behaviors. We examined associations between DU patterns over time and unsuppressed viral load (VL). METHODS: The sample included 7896 PLWH in New York City who completed ≥3 substance use assessments over a 24-month period...
January 15, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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