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Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

Caroline J W Smith, Brett T DiBenedictis, Alexa H Veenema
Vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) regulate social behavior by binding to their canonical receptors, the vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR) and oxytocin receptor (OTR), respectively. Recent studies suggest that these neuropeptides may also signal via each other's receptors. The extent to which such cross-system signaling occurs likely depends on anatomical overlap between AVP/OXT fibers and V1aR/OTR expression. By comparing AVP/OXT fiber densities with V1aR/OTR binding densities throughout the rat social behavior neural network (SBNN), we propose the potential for cross-system signaling in four regions: the medial amygdala (MeA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp), medial preoptic area, and periaqueductal grey...
February 9, 2019: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Laura M Glynn, Tallie Z Baram
Mental illnesses originate early in life, governed by environmental and genetic factors. Because parents are a dominant source of signals to the developing child, parental signals - beginning with maternal signals in utero - are primary contributors to children's mental health. Existing literature on maternal signals has focused almost exclusively on their quality and valence (e.g. maternal depression, sensitivity). Here we identify a novel dimension of maternal signals: their patterns and especially their predictability/unpredictability, as an important determinant of children's neurodevelopment...
January 31, 2019: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Stefanie M Klampfl, Oliver J Bosch
Mothers are the primary caregivers in mammals, ensuring the survival of their offspring. This strongly depends on the adequate expression of maternal behavior, which is the result of a concerted action of "pro-maternal" versus "anti-maternal" neuromodulators such as the oxytocin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems, respectively. When essential peripartum adaptations fail, the CRF system activity has negative physiological, emotional and behavioral consequences for both mother and offspring often resulting in maternal neglect...
January 23, 2019: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Aleksandrina Skvortsova, Dieuwke S Veldhuijzen, Iris E M Kloosterman, Onno C Meijer, Henriët van Middendorp, Gustavo Pacheco-Lopez, Andrea W M Evers
In contrast to classical conditioning of physiological responses such as immune responses and drug effects, only a limited number of studies investigated classical conditioning of endocrine responses. The present paper is the first systematic review that integrates evidence from animal and human trials regarding the possibility to condition the endocrine responses. Twenty-six animal and eight human studies were included in the review. We demonstrated that there is accumulating evidence that classical conditioning processes are able to influence specific endocrine responses, such as cortocosterone/cortisol and insulin, while more limited evidence exists for other hormones...
December 25, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Harry G Potter, David G Ashbrook, Reinmar Hager
Parental care is found widely across animal taxa and is manifest in a range of behaviours from basic provisioning in cockroaches to highly complex behaviours seen in mammals. The evolution of parental care is viewed as the outcome of an evolutionary cost/benefit trade-off between investing in current and future offspring, leading to the selection of traits in offspring that influence parental behaviour. Thus, level and quality of parental care are affected by both parental and offspring genetic differences that directly and indirectly influence parental care behaviour...
December 18, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Hdj Creeth, G I McNamara, A R Isles, R M John
In mammals successful rearing imposes a cost on later reproductive fitness specifically on the mother creating the potential for parental conflict. Loss of function of three imprinted genes in the dam result in deficits in maternal care suggesting that, like maternal nutrients, maternal care is a resource over which the parental genomes are in conflict. However, the induction of maternal care is a complex and highly regulated process. Unsurprisingly many gene disruptions, as well as adverse environmental exposures in pregnancy, result in maternal care deficits...
December 13, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Jennifer L Payne, Jamie Maguire
This review aims to summarize the diverse proposed pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to postpartum depression, highlighting both clinical and basic science research findings. The risk factors for developing postpartum depression are discussed, which may provide insight into potential neurobiological underpinnings. The evidence supporting a role for neuroendocrine changes, neuroinflammation, neurotransmitter alterations, circuit dysfunction, and the involvement of genetics and epigenetics in the pathophysiology of postpartum depression are discussed...
December 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Arpád Dobolyi, András H Lékó
Our knowledge on the bioavailability and actions of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has markedly expanded in recent years as novel mechanisms were discovered on IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and their ability to release IGF-1. The new discoveries allowed a better understanding of the endogenous physiological actions of IGF-1 and also its applicability in therapeutics. The focus of the present review is to summarize novel findings on the neuronal, neuroendocrine and neuroplastic actions of IGF-1 in the adult brain...
December 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Alessandro Villa, Sara Della Torre, Adriana Maggi
Sex plays a role in the incidence and outcome of neurological illnesses, also influencing the response to treatments. Despite sexual differentiation of the brain has been extensively investigated, the study of sex differences in microglia, the brain's resident immune cells, has been largely neglected until recently. To fulfill this gap, our laboratory developed several tools, including cellular and animal models, which bolstered in-depth studies on sexual differentiation of microglia and its impact on brain physiology, as well as on the onset and progression of neurological disorders...
November 24, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Sinha Engel, Hannah Klusmann, Beate Ditzen, Christine Knaevelsrud, Sarah Schumacher
Oxytocin affects physiological and psychological functions that are often expressed sex-specifically, suggesting interactions between oxytocin and sex hormones. As female sex hormone concentrations change during the menstrual cycle, oxytocin might fluctuate, too. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated endogenous oxytocin concentrations across menstrual cycle phases in healthy women. Data from 13 studies (120 women) showed a significant increase of oxytocin concentrations from the early follicular phase to ovulation (g = 0...
January 2019: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Eleonore Fröhlich, Richard Wahl
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) causes a variety of thyroidal and non-thyroidal effects, the best known being the feedback regulation of thyroid hormone levels. This was employed in the TRH stimulation test, which is currently little used. The role of TRH as a cancer biomarker is minor, but exaggerated responses to TSH and prolactin levels in breast cancer led to the hypothesis of a potential role for TRH in the pathogenesis of this disease. TRH is a rapidly degraded peptide with multiple targets, limiting its suitability as a biomarker and drug candidate...
January 2019: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Pedro Marques, Márta Korbonits
Individuals with acromegaloid physical appearance or tall stature may be referred to endocrinologists to exclude growth hormone (GH) excess. While some of these subjects could be healthy individuals with normal variants of growth or physical traits, others will have acromegaly or pituitary gigantism, which are, in general, straightforward diagnoses upon assessment of the GH/IGF-1 axis. However, some patients with physical features resembling acromegaly - usually affecting the face and extremities -, or gigantism - accelerated growth/tall stature - will have no abnormalities in the GH axis...
November 15, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Jessica Rosenberg, Nazim Lechea, Gael N Pentang, Nadim J Shah
Due to its increasing prevalence, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a major health challenge for modern society. Despite it being of fundamental interest, only a few MRI studies have conducted statistical analyses to draw scientifically valid conclusions about the complex interplay of T2DM and its associated clinical, structural, functional, metabolite, as well as cognitive distortions. Therefore, a systematic review of 68 manuscripts, following the PRISMA guidelines, was conducted. Notably, although the associations between imaging, clinical, and cognitive variables are not fully homogeneous, findings show a clear trend towards a link between altered brain structure and a decline in cognitive processing ability...
October 27, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Janelle A Skinner, Erin J Campbell, Christopher V Dayas, Manohar L Garg, Tracy L Burrows
The neuropeptide oxytocin has been associated with food intake and feeding behaviour. This systematic review aimed to investigate the impact of oxytocin on dietary intake and feeding behaviour in rodent studies. Six electronic databases were searched to identify published studies to April 2018. Preclinical studies in mice and rats were included if they reported: (1) a dietary measure (i.e. food or nutrient and/or behaviour (2) an oxytocin measure, and (3) relationship between the two measures. A total of 75 articles (n = 246 experiments) were included, and study quality appraised...
October 10, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Laura A Grafe, Seema Bhatnagar
The neuropeptides orexins are important in regulating the neurobiological systems that respond to stressful stimuli. Furthermore, orexins are known to play a role many of the phenotypes associated with stress-related mental illness such as changes in cognition, sleep-wake states, and appetite. Interestingly, orexins are altered in stress-related psychiatric disorders such as Major Depressive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders. Thus, orexins may be a potential target for treatment of these disorders. In this review, we will focus on what is known about the role of orexins in acute and repeated stress, in stress-induced phenotypes relevant to psychiatric illness in preclinical models, and in stress-related psychiatric illness in humans...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Cristal M Hill, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Heike Münzberg, Christopher D Morrison
Restriction of dietary protein intake increases food intake and energy expenditure, reduces growth, and alters amino acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. While these responses suggest that animals 'sense' variations in amino acid consumption, the basic physiological mechanism mediating the adaptive response to protein restriction has been largely undescribed. In this review we make the case that the liver-derived metabolic hormone FGF21 is the key signal which communicates and coordinates the homeostatic response to dietary protein restriction...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Martin J Kelly, Jian Qiu, Oline K Rønnekleiv
All of the canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPC) with the exception of TRPC 2 are expressed in hypothalamic neurons and are involved in multiple homeostatic functions. Although the metabotropic glutamate receptors have been shown to be coupled to TRPC channel activation in cortical and sub-cortical brain regions, in the hypothalamus multiple amine and peptidergic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and growth factor/cytokine receptors are linked to activation of TRPC channels that are vital for reproduction, temperature regulation, arousal and energy homeostasis...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Arpad Dobolyi, Melinda Cservenák, Larry J Young
Critically important components of the maternal neural circuit in the preoptic area robustly activated by suckling were recently identified. In turn, suckling also contributes to hormonal adaptations to motherhood, which includes oxytocin release and consequent milk ejection. Other reproductive or social stimuli can also trigger the release of oxytocin centrally, influencing parental or social behaviors. However, the neuronal pathways that transfer suckling and other somatosensory stimuli to the preoptic area and oxytocin neurons have been poorly characterized...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Sofia Cussotto, Kiran V Sandhu, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The human gut harbours trillions of symbiotic bacteria that play a key role in programming different aspects of host physiology in health and disease. These intestinal microbes are also key components of the gut-brain axis, the bidirectional communication pathway between the gut and the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the CNS is closely interconnected with the endocrine system to regulate many physiological processes. An expanding body of evidence is supporting the notion that gut microbiota modifications and/or manipulations may also play a crucial role in the manifestation of specific behavioural responses regulated by neuroendocrine pathways...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Olivia Le Moëne, Anders Ågmo
Sexual attraction has two components: Emission of sexually attractive stimuli and responsiveness to these stimuli. In rodents, olfactory stimuli are necessary but not sufficient for attraction. We argue that body odors are far superior to odors from excreta (urine, feces) as sexual attractants. Body odors are produced by sebaceous glands all over the body surface and in specialized glands. In primates, visual stimuli, for example the sexual skin, are more important than olfactory. The role of gonadal hormones for the production of and responsiveness to odorants is well established...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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