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Mark Ainsley Colijn, Zahinoor Ismail
Schizophrenia is a phenotypically heterogeneous and poorly understood disorder. While its etiology is likely multifactorial, immune system dysfunction has increasingly been implicated in its development. As hallucinations and delusions occur frequently and prominently in autoimmune encephalitis (AE), numerous studies have sought to determine whether a small subset of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia possess anti-neuronal antibodies implicated in AE. Exploring this possibility is of clinical relevance, as identifying individuals with AE who have been misdiagnosed as having a primary psychotic disorder may allow for the implementation of appropriate immune-related therapies as early as possible in the course of the illness, in order to optimize outcomes, reduce illness chronicity, and minimize adverse events...
May 16, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Stefano Porcelli, Marco Calabrò, Concetta Crisafulli, Antonis Politis, Ioannis Liappas, Diego Albani, Ilaria Raimondi, Gianluigi Forloni, Francesco Benedetti, George N Papadimitriou, Alessandro Serretti
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder accounting for 60-70% of dementia cases. Genetic origin accounts for 49-79% of disease risk. This paper aims to investigate the association of 17 polymorphisms within 7 genes involved in neurotransmission (COMT, HTR2A, PPP3CC, RORA, SIGMAR1, SIRT1, and SORBS3) and AD. METHODS: A Greek and an Italian sample were investigated, for a total of 156 AD subjects and 301 healthy controls. Exploratory analyses on psychosis and depression comorbidities were performed, as well as on other available clinical and serological parameters...
May 16, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Marco Calabrò, Concetta Crisafulli, Marco Di Nicola, Roberto Colombo, Luigi Janiri, Alessandro Serretti
BACKGROUND: Previous evidence suggested the possible association of FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene variants in bipolar disorder (BPD). OBJECTIVE: Given the need of refinement of the findings obtained in large but poorly phenotyped samples, this study investigated the possible role of variants within FKBP5 in a small but deeply phenotyped BPD sample. METHODS: A sample (N = 131) of bipolar patients were investigated with 10 polymorphisms within the FKBP5 gene...
May 9, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Manuel Morrens, Violette Coppens, Sebastian Walther
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Andrew D Wiese, Nash N Boutros
Laboratory measures have played an integral role in diagnosing pathology; however, compared to traditional medicine, psychiatric medicine has lagged behind in using such measures. A growing body of literature has begun to examine the viability and development of different laboratory measures in order to diagnose psychopathologies. The present review examines the current state of development of both sodium lactate infusion and CO2-35% inhalation as potential ancillary measures to diagnose panic disorder (PD)...
April 12, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Pedram Alirezaei, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Aliasghar Rezanejad, Alireza Soltanian, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: Individuals with lichen planopilaris (LPP) typically present with hair loss and an irritated scalp, with signs and symptoms such as itching, erythema, scaling, and burning. Both hair loss and reddened skin may be visible also for other people. Therefore, it is conceivable that individuals with LPP might report a lower mental health status. Accordingly, in the present study, we compared dimensions of mental health between individuals with LPP and healthy controls. METHOD: A total of 38 individuals with LPP (mean age: 38...
April 10, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Lillian Harber, Reza Hamidian, Ali Bani-Fatemi, Kevin Z Wang, Oluwagbenga Dada, Giovanni Messina, Marcellino Monda, Sergio Chieffi, Vincenzo De Luca
BACKGROUND: Recent investigations have highlighted significant differences in verbal recall between patients with panic disorder (PD) and controls. These studies have highlighted that verbal memory and working memory could be impaired in PD. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present meta-analysis is to confirm this hypothesis, reviewing the studies that have investigated neurocognitive testing in PD. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search for studies published between 1980 and 2015 that reported cognitive measurements in PD patients and controls...
April 10, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Qin Xiang Ng, Alex Yu Sen Soh, Nandini Venkatanarayanan, Collin Yih Xian Ho, Donovan Yutong Lim, Wee-Song Yeo
BACKGROUND: Derangements of the gut microbiome have been linked to increased systemic inflammation and central nervous system disorders, including schizophrenia. This systematic review thus aimed to investigate the hypothesis that probiotic supplementation improves schizophrenia symptoms. METHODS: By using the keywords (probiotic OR gut OR microbiota OR microbiome OR yogurt OR yoghurt OR lactobacillus OR bifidobacterium) AND (schizophrenia OR psychosis), a preliminary search of the PubMed, Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials...
April 4, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Johannes Rentzsch, Lars Thoma, Katharina Gaudlitz, Nicole Tänzer, Jürgen Gallinat, Norbert Kathmann, Andreas Ströhle, Jens Plag
Panic disorder (PD) is associated with increased body vigilance and reduced cognitive resources directed at non-fear-related stimuli, particularly in the absence of stimulus-rich environments. To date, only few studies have investigated whether this deficit in PD is reflected in reduced mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential indexing preattentive sensitivity to unexpected stimulus changes. We tested 35 patients affected by PD and 42 matched healthy controls in an oddball paradigm, using frequency and duration deviant stimuli to measure auditory MMN...
April 4, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Thomas Plieger, Martin Melchers, Andrea Felten, Thomas Lieser, Rolf Meermann, Martin Reuter
BACKGROUND: The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have a strong impact on several affective disorders and are key targets for psychopharmacological therapy. With respect to pathogenesis, there is a growing body of evidence showing an influence of a promoter repeat polymorphism (MAOA-uVNTR) altering the expression rate of monoamine oxidase A. However, only a few studies investigate its influence on depression with only 2 of them considering the moderating effects of life stress. For burnout, there are no studies so far investigating the genetic basis...
April 3, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Ilona Gorbovskaya, Sarah Kanji, Jonathan C W Liu, Nicole Elizabeth MacKenzie, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Victoria S Marshe, Venuja Sriretnakumar, Elena F Verdu, Premysl Bercik, Giada De Palma, Margaret K Hahn, Daniel J Müller
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests an important role of the human gut microbiome in psychiatry and neurodevelopmental disorders. An increasing body of literature based on animal studies has reported that the gut microbiome influences brain development and behavior by interacting with the gut-brain axis. Furthermore, as the gut microbiome has an important role in metabolism and is known to interact with pharmaceuticals, recent evidence suggests a role for the microbiome in antipsychotic-induced metabolic side effects in animals and humans...
March 29, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Paul Jeffrey Schwartz
PURPOSE: Seattle-inspired rock and roll superstar Chris Cornell died by suicide in May 2017. In the northern hemisphere, May represents the peak of the widely replicated but still unexplained seasonal spring rhythm in suicide. Years earlier, Cornell had suffered openly from recurrent bouts of severe depression, and his early musical lyrics do indeed suggest an enduring sensitivity to the vicissitudes of depressed and suicidal states. Cornell's most famous song, Black Hole Sun, suggests a mixed mood state, the incidence of which also peaks in the spring...
March 28, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Ivanka Ristanovic, K Juston Osborne, Teresa Vargas, Tina Gupta, Vijay A Mittal
INTRODUCTION: Motor and cognitive abnormalities are well documented in psychosis spectrum disorders. Evidence suggests these deficits could be pronounced because of disruptions in the cerebellar-thalamic-cortical-cerebellar (CTCC) circuit, a network thought to be heavily implicated in motor and higher cognitive functioning. Although significant research has been done on this topic in individuals with schizophrenia and those at a clinical high risk for psychosis, much less is known about deficits at the lower end of the spectrum...
March 25, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Roman Duncko, Susanne Fischer, Stephani L Hatch, Souci Frissa, Laura Goodwin, Andrew Papadopoulos, Anthony J Cleare, Matthew Hotopf
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma represents a risk factor for developing depression with increased rates of recurrence. Mechanisms involved include a disturbed regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a measure of long-term HPA axis activity with less interference from circadian and confounding factors. However, no study has so far used HCC to investigate the role of childhood trauma in recurrent pattern of depressive symptoms. METHODS: A community-based sample of 500 participants was recruited, and depression was assessed at 3 time points using the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule...
March 21, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Reinhold Laessle, Esther Hilterscheid
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Restrained eating has been linked to binge eating under disinhibited circumstances and is therefore considered a risk factor to develop clinical eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. The present study investigated the release of gastrointestinal peptides such as ghrelin and PYY after stress, as well as cortisol in young females classified as restrained and unrestrained eaters. METHODS: The study was done in the laboratory of the Department for Biological and Clinical Psychology at the University of Trier...
March 20, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 4, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Toshihiko Kinoshita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Johanna M Gostner, Simon Geisler, Marlies Stonig, Lisa Mair, Barbara Sperner-Unterweger, Dietmar Fuchs
In the past, accelerated tryptophan breakdown was considered to be a feature of clinical conditions, such as infection, inflammation, and malignant disease. More recently, however, the focus has changed to include the additional modulation of tryptophan metabolism by changes in nutrition and microbiota composition. The regulation of tryptophan concentration is critical for the maintenance of systemic homeostasis because it integrates essential pathways involved in nutrient sensing, metabolic stress response, and immunity...
February 26, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Caroline J K Wallace, Jane A Foster, Claudio N Soares, Roumen V Milev
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence has linked mental health outcomes to the gut microbiome. This has led to the investigation of the GI tract as a target for novel treatments and interventions for depression, including probiotic supplementation. Our recent pilot study provided the first evidence of probiotics improving symptoms of depression in treatment-naive depressed patients. To further support and expand upon this evidence, data from the pilot study were used to plan a 16-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to assess the effects of probiotics on depression...
February 13, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
Bianca Lee Thomas, Nicolaas Claassen, Piet Becker, Margaretha Viljoen
BACKGROUND: Despite strong reservations regarding the validity of a number of heart rate variability (HRV) measures, these are still being used in recent studies. AIMS: We aimed to compare the reactivity of ostensible sympathetic HRV markers (low and very low frequency [LF and VLF]) to that of electrodermal activity (EDA), an exclusively sympathetic marker, in response to cognitive and orthostatic stress, investigate the possibility of LF as a vagal-mediated marker of baroreflex modulation, and compare the ability of HRV markers of parasympathetic function (root mean square of successive differences [RMSSD] and high frequency [HF]) to quantify vagal reactivity to cognitive and orthostatic stress...
February 5, 2019: Neuropsychobiology
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