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Polimery W Medycynie

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740940/dialysis-membranes-a-2018-update
#1
REVIEW
Piotr Olczyk, Artur Małyszczak, Mariusz Kusztal
Dialysis membranes are the basic element of a hemodialyzer. Synthetic and natural materials characterized by various fiber arrangements are used in their production. The most up-to-date ones are made of synthetic polymers such as polyamide, phosphatidylserine (PS), polyacrylonitrile-based fiber (PAN), polyarylethersulfone, polyethersulfone, or polymethylmethacrylate. Dialysis membranes are characterized by the ability to remove uremic molecules, which can be divided into small water-soluble compounds, protein-bound compounds and larger "middle molecules"...
January 2018: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30729758/polyethylene-terephthalate-tape-augmentation-as-a-solution-in-recurrent-quadriceps-tendon-ruptures
#2
REVIEW
Maciej Leciejewski, Aleksandra Królikowska, Paweł Reichert
Quadriceps tendon rupture is a severe and demanding problem in knee surgery, especially when it is recurrent and when elderly patients are involved. It can have a devastating impact when it is a complication following knee arthroplasty. There are many procedures for dealing with this problem, but none of them offer reliable results. The most popular methods of treatment are traditional transosseous sutures and suture anchors, often in combination with semitendinosus augmentation. In cases of osteoporotic bone or hamstring insufficiency, these solutions are not appropriate...
January 2018: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712333/-safety-assessment-of-using-collamer-phakic-implants-in-the-correction-of-refractive-errors
#3
Krystyna Grzebieluch-Reichert, Jarosław Marek, Marta Misiuk-Hojło
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of patients with refractive visual impairments, in whom the correction using spectacles or contact lenses does not meet expectations, consider the possibility of undergoing refractive surgery. Phakic implants are an alternative for patients who are not eligible for laser correction. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to assess the safety of using collamer phakic implants in the correction of vision defects during the annual follow-up...
January 2018: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657657/starch-nanoparticles-in-drug-delivery-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Michael Ayodele Odeniyi, Omobolanle A Omoteso, Adewale O Adepoju, Kolawole T Jaiyeoba
The uptake and specificity of drugs and the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs has been improved by means of targeted drug delivery using nanoparticles. Many platforms have been used for nanoparticulate drug delivery and these include liposomes, polymer conjugates, metallic nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanoshells, and protein and nucleic acid-based nanoparticles. Starch is the 2nd most abundant natural polymer and has found wide use in drug delivery systems as binder, disintegrant and filler...
January 2018: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657656/formulation-and-characterization-of-oral-rapid-disintegrating-tablets-of-levocetirizine
#5
Samvedn Samvedna, Shammy Jindal, Gaurav Mishra, Jyotsana R Madan, Gaurav Gupta, Rajendra Awasthi, Terezinha De Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Kamal Dua, Giriraj T Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: Levocetirizine, active R (-) enantiomer of cetirizine, is an orally active and selective H1 receptor antagonist used medically as an anti-allergic. Allergic rhinitis is a symptomatic disorder of the nose induced by inflammation mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the membrane lining the nose after allergen exposure. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to prepare rapidly disintegrating tablets of levocetirizine after its complexation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)...
January 2018: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657655/porous-starch-and-its-application-in-drug-delivery-systems
#6
REVIEW
Monika Sujka, Urszula Pankiewicz, Radosław Kowalski, Karolina Nowosad, Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak
In recent years, starch has become a new potential biomaterial for pharmaceutical applications. This biopolymer has unique physicochemical and functional characteristics, as well as various advantages such as low price, relative ease of isolation in pure form from the plant source, non-toxicity, biodegradability, good biocompatibility, and interaction with living cells. Starch is currently used in pharmacy as a binder, disintegrating agent, film-forming material, raw material for production of microspheres and nanoparticles, and a component of drug delivery systems...
January 2018: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657654/preparation-characterization-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-tablets-containing-microwave-assisted-solid-dispersions-of-apremilast
#7
Jyotsana R Madan, Akshaya R Pawar, Rajesh B Patil, Rajendra Awasthi, Kamal Dua
BACKGROUND: Solid dispersions are among the techniques successfully employed to enhance the dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs. Microwave (MW)-assisted evaporative crystallization has been used to prepare solid dispersions of drugs and polymers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the solubility of apremilast (APM) in water by exploring the effect of MW-assisted solid dispersion technology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present study, solid dispersions of APM, a poorly water-soluble drug, were prepared...
January 2018: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30484289/a-study-of-the-effect-of-x-ray-irradiation-on-the-structure-of-narafilcon-a-biopolymer-soft-contact-lenses
#8
Katarzyna Filipecka, Mariusz Budaj, Bogdan Miśkowiak, Sylwia Mandecka, Radosław Mandecki, Małgorzata Makowska-Janusik, Jacek Filipecki
BACKGROUND: The effects of external factors such as X-ray irradiation on the structure and physical properties of contact lenses are very important for both the patients using contact lenses and medical personnel. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of X-rays on the structure of Narafilcon A silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to study the structural changes caused by X-rays in Narafilcon A polymer contact lenses, the following spectroscopy methods were used: positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), Fourier transform middle infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy (RS)...
January 2018: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30484288/-study-of-the-structure-of-contact-lenses-using-pals-mir-and-raman-spectroscopy-in-the-regard-of-safety-of-persons-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation
#9
REVIEW
Mariusz Budaj, Andrzej Michalski, Bogdan Miśkowiak, Katarzyna Filipecka, Sylwia Mandecka
Among patients and health professionals who are exposed to ionizing radiation during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, refractive errors are common and soft contact lenses are widely used to correct them. Changes in the inner structure of contact lens may influence the safety of its usage through modification of its water content or oxygen accessibility to cornea. Therefore, analysis of impact of external factors, therein ionizing radiation used in medicine, on contact lenses parameters is necessary, particularly to compare the presence of free volume gaps in the structure of the polymer soft contact lenses...
January 2018: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30009587/formulation-and-evaluation-of-controlled-release-matrix-systems-of-ciprofloxacin
#10
Venkata Ramana Malipeddi, Rajendra Awasthi, Kamal Dua
BACKGROUND: Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug to which most Gram-negative and many Gram-positive bacteria are highly susceptible. Fluoroquinolones are administered repeatedly, twice a day for 5 days, during the course of therapy. Hence, they require repeated administration. Ciprofloxacin qualifies as a drug candidate for a controlled-release drug delivery system. OBJECTIVES: The present work was aimed to develop ciprofloxacin hydrochloride-containing matrix tablets by the wet granulation method...
July 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30009586/light-cured-dimethacrylate-dental-restorative-composites-under-a-prism-of-annihilating-positrons
#11
Olha Shpotyuk, Adam Ingram, Oleh Shpotyuk, Elvira Bezvushko
BACKGROUND: Breakthrough resolutions in current biopolymer engineering rely on reliable diagnostics of atomic-deficient spaces over the finest sub-nanometer length scales. One such diagnostic is positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, which probes space-time continuum relationships for the interaction between electrons and their antiparticle (positrons) in structural entities like free-volume defects, vacancies, vacancy-like clusters, interfacial voids and pores, etc. OBJECTIVES: This paper is intended to highlight the possibilities of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy as an informative instrumentation tool to parameterize free-volume evolution in light-cured dimethacrylate dental restorative composites exemplified by Charisma® (Heraeus Kulzer GmbH, Hanau, Germany) and Dipol® (Oksomat-AN Ltd, Kyiv, Ukraine)...
July 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30009585/improving-the-solubility-of-nevirapine-using-a-hydrotropy-and-mixed-hydrotropy-based-solid-dispersion-approach
#12
Jyotsana R Madan, Virendra J Kamate, Kamal Dua, Rajendra Awasthi
BACKGROUND: Nevirapine, an antiviral drug, is a potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). It is used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV type-1 (HIV-1) infection and AIDS. Nevirapine is a BCS class II drug which shows dissolution rate limited absorption. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present research was to provide a fast dissolving solid dispersion of nevirapine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The solubility of nevirapine was initially determined individually in four hydrotropic agents - namely urea, lactose, citric acid and mannitol - at a concentration of 10, 20, 30 and 40% w/v solutions using purified water as a solvent...
July 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30009584/-influence-of-electrochemical-ageing-on-properties-of-chosen-medical-receptacles
#13
Adam Gnatowski, Mateusz Chyra, Paulina Walczak
BACKGROUND: Presently, most of receptacles used in medicine are made of polymeric materials. This is due to, e.g., low price, low weight, and aesthetic values of these materials. The important issue is to ensure long life of polymer in order to protect the medicines closed in the boxes. However, all materials during exploitation are exposed to many factors, which can cause degradation of polymer materials. Degradation processes lead to deterioration of thermomechanical properties of polymers...
July 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30009583/kheri-acacia-chundra-family-mimosaceae-gum-characterization-using-analytical-mathematical-and-pharmaceutical-approaches
#14
Rishabha Malviya, Pramod Sharma, Susheel Dubey
BACKGROUND: Natural polymers have been used in medical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry. They should be characterized before their possible applications in different industries. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to characterize Kheri (Acacia chundra, family: Mimosaceae) gum using analytical, mathematical and pharmaceutical approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Crude Kheri gum (KG) was purified using distilled water as a solvent and ethanol as a precipitating agent...
July 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29160630/synthetic-grafts-in-the-treatment-of-ruptured-anterior-cruciate-ligament-of-the-knee-joint
#15
REVIEW
Wojciech Satora, Aleksandra Królikowska, Andrzej Czamara, Paweł Reichert
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is cited as the most frequently injured ligament in the knee. The standard treatment of ACL injury remains ligament reconstruction followed by a postoperative physiotherapeutic procedure. During the reconstruction, the torn ligament can be replaced with an autograft or an allograft. A synthetic ligament is also one of the available graft options. Synthetic grafts in ruptured ACL treatment have been used as scaffolds, stents, or prostheses. The story of using synthetic materials in ACL deficient knee treatment started in the beginning of the 20th century with the usage of silk and silver fibers...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29160629/chitosan-and-its-composites-properties-for-use-in-bone-substitution
#16
REVIEW
Marek Stępniewski, Jacek Martynkiewicz, Jerzy Gosk
For many years, research has been carried out on finding an ideal bone substitute. Chitosan (CTS) is a naturally occurring polysaccharide, obtained mainly from, inter alia, the shells of crustaceans. It is characterized by its high level of biocompatibility, biodegradability and antimicrobial properties as well as its support in the healing of wounds. Chitosan, due to its ability to form porous structures, can be used in the production of scaffolds used in the treatment of bone defects. There are numerous studies on the use of CTS in combination with other substances which aim to improve its biological and mechanical properties...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29160628/the-role-of-chitin-and-chitosan-in-peripheral-nerve-reconstruction
#17
REVIEW
Michał Bąk, Olga N Gutkowska, Ewa Wagner, Jerzy Gosk
Chitin is a natural polysaccharide commonly found in nature and chitosan is its partially deacetylated derivative. The properties of both biopolymers allow their wide use in medicine and various industries. This paper presents the possibilities offered by chitin and chitosan for the creation of neurotubes utilized in peripheral nerve repair procedures. In the initial part of this manuscript, experimental studies on both polysaccharides carried out by numerous authors have been presented and their results have been discussed...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29160627/native-and-microwave-modified-terminalia-mantaly-gums-as-sustained-release-and-bioadhesive-excipients-in-naproxen-matrix-tablet-formulations
#18
Michael Ayodele Odeniyi, Babatunde Mukhtar Oyedokun, Oluyemisi Adebowale Bamiro
BACKGROUND: Hydrophilic polymers provide a means of sustaining drug delivery. Native gums may be limited in function, but modification may improve their activity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate native and modified forms of Terminalia mantaly gum for their sustained-release and bioadhesive properties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The native gum (NTM) was modified by microwave irradiation for 20 seconds (MTM20) and 60 seconds (MTM60) and characterized using microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and packing properties...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29160626/film-forming-properties-of-cissus-pulpunea-guill-and-perr-and-irvingia-gabonensis-o-rorke-gums
#19
Tolulope Omolola Ajala, Hope Idemudia Olaiya, Oluwatoyin Adepeju Odeku
BACKGROUND: Natural polymers such as gums have gained attention in drug delivery systems due to their availability, compatibility and degradation under natural and physiological conditions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the film forming properties of gums obtained from the stem of Cissus polpunea (Guill and Perr) and the seed of Irvingia gabonensis (O'Rorke). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gums were extracted from the relevant plant parts and characterized using functional, proximate and elemental properties...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29160625/evaluation-of-two-novel-plant-gums-for-bioadhesive-microsphere-and-sustained-release-formulations-of-metformin-hydrochloride
#20
John Oluwasogo Ayorinde, Michael Ayodele Odeniyi, Arvind K Bansal
BACKGROUND: The biological half life of metformin requires multiple doses which are associated with poor patient compliance. This justifies the need for a dosage form with reduced dosing frequency. OBJECTIVES: Gums from Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Cedrela odorata trees were evaluated in formulating bioadhesive microspheres containing metformin hydrochloride, for sustained drug release. Hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) was the standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Microspheres were produced from formulations of API and either cedrela gum (FC), enterolobium gum (FE) or HPMC (FH), using a W/O solvent extraction technique...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
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