Chris Greening, Ashleigh Kropp, Kylie Vincent, Rhys Grinter
The splitting of hydrogen (H2) is an energy-yielding process, which is important for both biological systems and as a means of providing green energy. In biology, this reaction is mediated by enzymes called hydrogenases, which utilise complex nickel and iron cofactors to split H2 and transfer the resulting electrons to an electron-acceptor. These [NiFe]-hydrogenases have received considerable attention as catalysts in fuel cells, which utilise H2 to produce electrical current. [NiFe]-hydrogenases are a promising alternative to the platinum-based catalysts that currently predominate in fuel cells due to the abundance of nickel and iron, and the resistance of some family members to inhibition by gases, including carbon monoxide, which rapidly poison platinum-based catalysts...
September 25, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede
Toxic aggregation of proteins and peptides into amyloid fibers is the basis of several human diseases. In each disease, a particular peptide noncovalently assembles into long thin structures with an overall cross-β fold. Amyloids are not only related to disease: functional amyloids are found in many biological systems and artificial peptide amyloids are developed into novel nanomaterials. Amyloid fibers can act as template for the generation of more amyloids but are considered nonreactive in chemical catalysis...
September 25, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Kai Zhang, Victoria Chan, Roberto J Botelho, Costin N Antonescu
Cardiolipin and phosphatidylinositol along with the latter's phosphorylated derivative phosphoinositides, control a wide range of cellular functions from signal transduction, membrane traffic, mitochondrial function, cytoskeletal dynamics, and cell metabolism. An emerging dimension to these lipids is the specificity of their fatty acyl chains that is remarkably distinct from that of other glycerophospholipids. Cardiolipin and phosphatidylinositol undergo acyl remodeling involving the sequential actions of phospholipase A to hydrolyze acyl chains and key acyltransferases that re-acylate with specific acyl groups...
September 22, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Kimberly N Espinoza Pereira, Jixiu Shan, Jonathan D Licht, Richard L Bennett
Genes encoding histone proteins are recurrently mutated in tumor samples, and these mutations may impact nucleosome stability, histone post-translational modification, or chromatin dynamics. The prevalence of histone mutations across diverse cancer types suggest that normal chromatin structure is a barrier to tumorigenesis. Oncohistone mutations disrupt chromatin structure and gene regulatory mechanisms, resulting in aberrant gene expression and the development of cancer phenotypes. Examples of oncohistones include the histone H3 K27M mutation found in pediatric brain cancers that blocks post-translational modification of the H3 N-terminal tail and the histone H2B E76K mutation found in some solid tumors that disrupts nucleosome stability...
September 18, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Brandon J Reeder
Since its discovery in 2001, the function of cytoglobin has remained elusive. Through extensive in vitro and in vivo research, a range of potential physiological and pathological mechanisms has emerged for this multifunctional member of the hemoglobin family. Currently, over 200 research publications have examined different aspects of cytoglobin structure, redox chemistry and potential roles in cell signalling pathways. This research is wide ranging, but common themes have emerged throughout the research. This review examines the current structural, biochemical and in vivo knowledge of cytoglobin published over the past two decades...
September 18, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Charlotte Merzbacher, Diego A Oyarzún
Dynamic pathway engineering aims to build metabolic production systems embedded with intracellular control mechanisms for improved performance. These control systems enable host cells to self-regulate the temporal activity of a production pathway in response to perturbations, using a combination of biosensors and feedback circuits for controlling expression of heterologous enzymes. Pathway design, however, requires assembling together multiple biological parts into suitable circuit architectures, as well as careful calibration of the function of each component...
September 1, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Vijigisha Srivastava, Einav Gross
The removal of damaged mitochondrial components through a process called mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) is essential for the proper function of the mitochondrial network. Hence, mitophagy is vital for the health of all aerobic animals, including humans. Unfortunately, mitophagy declines with age. Many age-associated diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, are characterized by the accumulation of damaged mitochondria and oxidative damage. Therefore, activating the mitophagy process with small molecules is an emerging strategy for treating multiple aging diseases...
August 31, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Sandra H Lee, Hannah E Duron, Dipayan Chaudhuri
While mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation is broadly regulated, the impact of mitochondrial Ca2+ on substrate flux under both physiological and pathological conditions is increasingly being recognized. Under physiologic conditions, mitochondrial Ca2+ enters through the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter and boosts ATP production. However, maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis is crucial as too little Ca2+ inhibits adaptation to stress and Ca2+ overload can trigger cell death. In this review, we discuss new insights obtained over the past several years expanding the relationship between mitochondrial Ca2+ and oxidative phosphorylation, with most data obtained from heart, liver, or skeletal muscle...
August 29, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Yi-Ling Wu, Ai-Hsing Yang, Yu-Hsin Chiu
Pannexin 1 (PANX1) is a widely expressed large-pore ion channel located in the plasma membrane of almost all vertebrate cells. It possesses a unique ability to act as a conduit for both inorganic ions (e.g. potassium or chloride) and bioactive metabolites (e.g. ATP or glutamate), thereby activating varying signaling pathways in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Given its crucial role in cell-cell interactions, the activity of PANX1 has been implicated in maintaining homeostasis of cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems...
August 25, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Konstantina Nikolatou, David M Bryant, Emma Sandilands
The ability to remodel and move cellular membranes, and the cargoes regulated by these membranes, allows for specialised functions to occur in distinct regions of the cell in a process known as cellular polarisation. The ability to collectively co-ordinate such polarisation between cells allows for the genesis of multicellularity, such as the formation of organs. During tumourigenesis, the rules for such tissue polarisation become dysregulated, allowing for collective polarity rearrangements that can drive metastasis...
August 25, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
James M Murphy
Biochemical Society Transactions is the reviews journal of the Biochemical Society. Publishing concise reviews written by experts in the field it provides a timely snapshot of the latest developments across all areas of the molecular and cellular biosciences. Elevating authors' ideas and expertise, each review includes a perspectives section where authors offer comment on the latest advances, a glimpse of future challenges and highlighting the importance of associated research areas in far broader contexts...
August 23, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Sweta Anantharaman, Danielle Guercio, Alicia G Mendoza, Jason M Withorn, Elizabeth M Boon
Biofilm-based infections pose a serious threat to public health. Biofilms are surface-attached communities of microorganisms, most commonly bacteria and yeast, residing in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). The EPS is composed of several secreted biomolecules that shield the microorganisms from harsh environmental stressors and promote antibiotic resistance. Due to the increasing prominence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms and a decreased development of bactericidal agents in clinical production, there is an increasing need to discover alternative targets and treatment regimens for biofilm-based infections...
August 23, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Hoang Anh Le, Roberto Mayor
Physical properties of tissue are increasingly recognised as major regulatory cues affecting cell behaviours, particularly cell migration. While these properties of the extracellular matrix have been extensively discussed, the contribution from the cellular components that make up the tissue are still poorly appreciated. In this mini-review, we will discuss two major physical components: stiffness and topology with a stronger focus on cell-cell interactions and how these can impact cell migration.
August 23, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Alexander Förderer, Jiorgos Kourelis
Nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) are a diverse family of intracellular immune receptors that play crucial roles in recognizing and responding to pathogen invasion in plants. This review discusses the overall model of NLR activation and provides an in-depth analysis of the different NLR domains, including N-terminal executioner domains, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) module, and the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain. Understanding the structure-function relationship of these domains is essential for developing effective strategies to improve plant disease resistance and agricultural productivity...
August 21, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Yanran Chen, Xiongwen Cao, Ken H Loh, Sarah A Slavoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Hon Wing Liu, Florian Roisné-Hamelin, Stephan Gruber
SMC and SMC-like complexes promote chromosome folding and genome maintenance in all domains of life. Recently, they were also recognized as factors in cellular immunity against foreign DNA. In bacteria and archaea, Wadjet and Lamassu are anti-plasmid/phage defence systems, while Smc5/6 and Rad50 complexes play a role in anti-viral immunity in humans. This raises an intriguing paradox - how can the same, or closely related, complexes on one hand secure the integrity and maintenance of chromosomal DNA, while on the other recognize and restrict extrachromosomal DNA? In this minireview, we will briefly describe the latest understanding of each of these complexes in immunity including speculations on how principles of SMC(-like) function may explain how the systems recognize linear or circular forms of invading DNA...
August 16, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Matthieu P M H Benoit, Byron Hunter, John S Allingham, Hernando Sosa
Kinesin motor proteins couple mechanical movements in their motor domain to the binding and hydrolysis of ATP in their nucleotide-binding pocket. Forces produced through this 'mechanochemical' coupling are typically used to mobilize kinesin-mediated transport of cargos along microtubules or microtubule cytoskeleton remodeling. This review discusses the recent high-resolution structures (<4 Å) of kinesins bound to microtubules or tubulin complexes that have resolved outstanding questions about the basis of mechanochemical coupling, and how family-specific modifications of the motor domain can enable its use for motility and/or microtubule depolymerization...
August 10, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Miles Graham, Peijun Zhang
Developments in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have been interwoven with the study of viruses ever since its first applications to biological systems. Following the success of single particle cryo-EM in the last decade, cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is now rapidly maturing as a technology and catalysing great advancement in structural virology as its application broadens. In this review, we provide an overview of the use of cryo-ET to study viral infection biology, discussing the key workflows and strategies used in the field...
August 10, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Simran Chhabra, Manjula Kalia
Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) are immune GTPases that are induced in response to interferon stimulation/pathogen infection. These proteins arose early in evolution and have multiple physiological roles ranging from tumor suppression to anti-microbial functions. While several studies describe their mechanistic role in the lysis of bacteria/pathogen vacuole, and activation of the inflammasome, their functions in viral infections are only just emerging. The role of the GBPs in virus infections is multifaceted, being both dependent on and independent of GTP binding/hydrolysis and isoprenylation...
August 3, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
Emily Gruber, Lev M Kats
Of the many genetic alterations that occur in cancer, relatively few have proven to be suitable for the development of targeted therapies. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and -2 increase the capacity of cancer cells to produce a normally scarce metabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), by several orders of magnitude. The discovery of the unusual biochemistry of IDH mutations spurred a flurry of activity that revealed 2-HG as an 'oncometabolite' with pleiotropic effects in malignant cells and consequences for anti-tumour immunity...
August 1, 2023: Biochemical Society Transactions
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