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Biochemical Society Transactions

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30971435/exploitation-of-the-escherichia-coli-lac-operon-promoter-for-controlled-recombinant-protein-production
#1
REVIEW
Douglas F Browning, Rita E Godfrey, Kirsty L Richards, Colin Robinson, Stephen J W Busby
The Escherichia coli lac operon promoter is widely used as a tool to control recombinant protein production in bacteria. Here, we give a brief review of how it functions, how it is regulated, and how, based on this knowledge, a suite of lac promoter derivatives has been developed to give a controlled expression that is suitable for diverse biotechnology applications.
April 10, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30952803/packaging-development-how-chromatin-controls-transcription-in-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Julia A Horsfield
How developmental gene expression is activated, co-ordinated and maintained is one of the biggest questions in developmental biology. While transcription factors lead the way in directing developmental gene expression, their accessibility to the correct repertoire of genes can depend on other factors such as DNA methylation, the presence of particular histone variants and post-translational modifications of histones. Collectively, factors that modify DNA or affect its packaging and accessibility contribute to a chromatin landscape that helps to control the timely expression of developmental genes...
April 5, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30952802/apoptotic-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-structure-function-relationships
#3
REVIEW
Lois R Grant, Ivana Milic, Andrew Devitt
Apoptosis is an essential process for normal physiology and plays a key role in the resolution of inflammation. Clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs) involves complex signalling between phagocytic cells, ACs, and the extracellular vesicles (EVs) they produce. Here, we discuss apoptotic cell-derived extracellular vesicles (ACdEVs) and how their structure relates to their function in AC clearance and the control of inflammation, focussing on the ACdEV proteome. We review the current knowledge, ongoing work and future directions for research in this field...
April 5, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30952801/imaging-cell-morphology-and-physiology-using-x-rays
#4
REVIEW
Venera Weinhardt, Jian-Hua Chen, Axel Ekman, Gerry McDermott, Mark A Le Gros, Carolyn Larabell
Morphometric measurements, such as quantifying cell shape, characterizing sub-cellular organization, and probing cell-cell interactions, are fundamental in cell biology and clinical medicine. Until quite recently, the main source of morphometric data on cells has been light- and electron-based microscope images. However, many technological advances have propelled X-ray microscopy into becoming another source of high-quality morphometric information. Here, we review the status of X-ray microscopy as a quantitative biological imaging modality...
April 5, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30936245/manipulating-nitrogen-regulation-in-diazotrophic-bacteria-for-agronomic-benefit
#5
REVIEW
Marcelo Bueno Batista, Ray Dixon
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is controlled by intricate regulatory mechanisms to ensure that fixed nitrogen is readily assimilated into biomass and not released to the environment. Understanding the complex regulatory circuits that couple nitrogen fixation to ammonium assimilation is a prerequisite for engineering diazotrophic strains that can potentially supply fixed nitrogen to non-legume crops. In this review, we explore how the current knowledge of nitrogen metabolism and BNF regulation may allow strategies for genetic manipulation of diazotrophs for ammonia excretion and provide a contribution towards solving the nitrogen crisis...
April 1, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30936244/amino-acid-transporters-in-the-regulation-of-insulin-secretion-and-signalling
#6
REVIEW
Kiran Javed, Stephen J Fairweather
Amino acids are increasingly recognised as modulators of nutrient disposal, including their role in regulating blood glucose through interactions with insulin signalling. More recently, cellular membrane transporters of amino acids have been shown to form a pivotal part of this regulation as they are primarily responsible for controlling cellular and circulating amino acid concentrations. The availability of amino acids regulated by transporters can amplify insulin secretion and modulate insulin signalling in various tissues...
April 1, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30936243/oxysterol-research-a-brief-review
#7
REVIEW
William J Griffiths, Yuqin Wang
In the present study, we discuss the recent developments in oxysterol research. Exciting results have been reported relating to the involvement of oxysterols in the fields of neurodegenerative disease, especially in Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease; in signalling and development, in particular, in relation to Hedgehog signalling; and in cancer, with a special focus on (25R)26-hydroxycholesterol. Methods for the measurement of oxysterols, essential for understanding their mechanism of action in vivo , and valuable for diagnosing rare diseases of cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism are briefly considered...
April 1, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30902926/protein-engineering-the-potential-of-remote-mutations
#8
REVIEW
Matthew Wilding, Nansook Hong, Matthew Spence, Ashley M Buckle, Colin J Jackson
Engineered proteins, especially enzymes, are now commonly used in many industries owing to their catalytic power, specific binding of ligands, and properties as materials and food additives. As the number of potential uses for engineered proteins has increased, the interest in engineering or designing proteins to have greater stability, activity and specificity has increased in turn. With any rational engineering or design pursuit, the success of these endeavours relies on our fundamental understanding of the systems themselves; in the case of proteins, their structure-dynamics-function relationships...
March 22, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30902925/united-colours-of-chromatin-developmental-genome-organisation-in-flies
#9
REVIEW
Caroline Delandre, Owen J Marshall
The organisation of DNA into differing forms of packaging, or chromatin, controls many of the cell fate decisions during development. Although early studies focused on individual forms of chromatin, in the last decade more holistic studies have attempted to determine a complete picture of the different forms of chromatin present within a cell. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , the study of chromatin states has been aided by the use of complementary and cell-type-specific techniques that profile the marks that recruit chromatin protein binding or the proteins themselves...
March 22, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30902924/glioblastoma-heterogeneity-and-the-tumour-microenvironment-implications-for-preclinical-research-and-development-of-new-treatments
#10
REVIEW
Sally L Perrin, Michael S Samuel, Barbara Koszyca, Michael P Brown, Lisa M Ebert, Mariana Oksdath, Guillermo A Gomez
Glioblastoma is the deadliest form of brain cancer. Aside from inadequate treatment options, one of the main reasons glioblastoma is so lethal is the rapid growth of tumour cells coupled with continuous cell invasion into surrounding healthy brain tissue. Significant intra- and inter-tumour heterogeneity associated with differences in the corresponding tumour microenvironments contributes greatly to glioblastoma progression. Within this tumour microenvironment, the extracellular matrix profoundly influences the way cancer cells become invasive, and changes to extracellular (pH and oxygen levels) and metabolic (glucose and lactate) components support glioblastoma growth...
March 22, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30902923/recruited-lysosomal-enzymes-as-major-digestive-enzymes-in-insects
#11
REVIEW
Walter R Terra, Renata O Dias, Clélia Ferreira
The mass recruitment to the midgut contents of lysosomal proteolytic enzymes occurred in insects under three major selective pressures. Hemipteran (true bugs, aphids, and cicadas) ancestors lost their serine peptidases (SP) on adapting to feed on protein-free plant sap. When they returned to protein diets, their cathepsins L and B were recruited to replace their lost SP. Among beetles of the series Cucujiformia, cathepsins L were recruited to hydrolyze ingested plant inhibitors that affect their major SP and/or to deal with special seed proteins, such as prolamins...
March 22, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30902922/endothelial-to-haematopoietic-transition-an-update-on-the-process-of-making-blood
#12
REVIEW
Katrin Ottersbach
The first definitive blood cells during embryogenesis are derived from endothelial cells in a highly conserved process known as endothelial-to-haematopoietic transition (EHT). This conversion involves activation of a haematopoietic transcriptional programme in a subset of endothelial cells in the major vasculature of the embryo, followed by major morphological changes that result in transitioning cells rounding up, breaking the tight junctions to neighbouring endothelial cells and adopting a haematopoietic fate...
March 22, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30902921/the-role-of-the-12-s-hete-gpr31-12-heter-axis-in-cancer-and-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#13
REVIEW
Monica Napolitano
The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large superfamily of seven transmembrane-spanning receptors that are activated by several classes of ligands, including bioactive lipids. GPCRs are attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of human diseases, as they finely regulate a wide array of cellular functions. In this minireview, we summarized what is currently known about the G protein-coupled receptor GPR31/12-HETER. We highlighted, in particular, its structural similarity with human homologs, the biological functions of its recognized ligand 12( S )-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), an arachidonic acid metabolite, and the role that GPR31/12-HETER-mediated signals play in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis, and in liver ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury...
March 22, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30850425/biological-relevance-of-cell-in-cell-in-cancers
#14
REVIEW
Hannah L Mackay, Patricia A J Muller
Cell-in-cell (CIC) is a term used to describe the presence of one, usually living, cell inside another cell that is typically considered non-phagocytic. Examples of this include tumour cells inside tumour cells (homotypic), mesenchymal stem cells inside tumour cells (heterotypic) or immune cells inside tumour cells (heterotypic). CIC formation can occur in cell lines and in tissues and it has been most frequently observed during inflammation and in cancers. Over the past 10 years, many researchers have studied CIC structures and a few different models have been proposed through which they can be formed, including entosis, cannibalism and emperipolesis among others...
March 8, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30850424/the-escherichia-coli-multiple-antibiotic-resistance-activator-protein-represses-transcription-of-the-lac-operon
#15
REVIEW
Anna Lankester, Shafayeth Ahmed, Lisa E Lamberte, Rachel A Kettles, David C Grainger
In Escherichia coli , the marRAB operon is a determinant for antibiotic resistance. Such phenotypes require the encoded transcription factor MarA that activates efflux pump expression. To better understand all genes controlled by MarA, we recently mapped binding of the regulator across the E. coli genome. As expected, many MarA targets were adjacent to genes encoding stress response systems. Surprisingly, one MarA-binding site overlapped the lac operon regulatory region. Here, we show that MarA specifically targets this locus and can block transcription of the lac genes...
March 8, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30850423/on-fitness-how-do-mutations-shape-the-biology-of-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Ian J Majewski
The theory of evolution by natural selection shapes our understanding of the living world. While natural selection has given rise to all the intricacies of life on the planet, those responsible for treating cancer have a darker view of adaptation and selection. Revolutionary changes in DNA sequencing technology have allowed us to survey the complexities that constitute the cancer genome, while advances in genetic engineering are allowing us to functionally interrogate these alterations. These approaches are providing new insights into how mutations influence cancer biology...
March 8, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30837323/transcription-in-cyanobacteria-a-distinctive-machinery-and-putative-mechanisms
#17
REVIEW
Amber Riaz-Bradley
Transcription in cyanobacteria involves several fascinating features. Cyanobacteria comprise one of the very few groups in which no proofreading factors (Gre homologues) have been identified. Gre factors increase the efficiency of RNA cleavage, therefore helping to maintain the fidelity of the RNA transcript and assist in the resolution of stalled RNAPs to prevent genome damage. The vast majority of bacterial species encode at least one of these highly conserved factors and so their absence in cyanobacteria is intriguing...
March 5, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30837322/structural-studies-of-plasmin-inhibition
#18
REVIEW
Guojie Wu, Adam J Quek, Tom T Caradoc-Davies, Sue M Ekkel, Blake Mazzitelli, James C Whisstock, Ruby H P Law
Plasminogen (Plg) is the zymogen form of the serine protease plasmin (Plm), and it plays a crucial role in fibrinolysis as well as wound healing, immunity, tissue remodeling and inflammation. Binding to the targets via the lysine-binding sites allows for Plg activation by plasminogen activators (PAs) present on the same target. Cellular uptake of fibrin degradation products leads to apoptosis, which represents one of the pathways for cross-talk between fibrinolysis and tissue remodeling. Therapeutic manipulation of Plm activity plays a vital role in the treatments of a range of diseases, whereas Plm inhibitors are used in trauma and surgeries as antifibrinolytic agents...
March 5, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30837321/caught-in-the-act-lrrk2-in-exosomes
#19
REVIEW
Shijie Wang, Andrew B West
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are a frequent genetic cause of late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) and a target for therapeutic approaches. LRRK2 protein can influence vesicle trafficking events in the cytosol, with action both in endosomal and lysosomal pathways in different types of cells. A subset of late endosomes harbor intraluminal vesicles that can be secreted into the extracellular milieu. These extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, package LRRK2 protein for transport outside the cell into easily accessed biofluids...
March 5, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30837320/lrrk2-links-genetic-and-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Jillian H Kluss, Adamantios Mamais, Mark R Cookson
The past two decades in research has revealed the importance of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) in both monogenic and sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). In families, mutations in LRRK2 can cause PD with age-dependent but variable penetrance and genome-wide association studies have found variants of the gene that are risk factors for sporadic PD. Functional studies have suggested that the common mechanism that links all disease-associated variants is that they increase LRRK2 kinase activity, albeit in different ways...
March 5, 2019: Biochemical Society Transactions
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