Chandana Dinakaran, Kurcheti Pani Prasad, Megha K Bedekar, Kezhedath Jeena, Arpit Acharya, Nalini Poojary
The inflammasome is a multimeric protein complex that plays a vital role in the defence against pathogens and is therefore considered an essential component of the innate immune system. In this study, the expression patterns of inflammasome genes (NLRC3, ASC, and CAS-1), antiviral genes (IFNγ and MX), and immune genes (IL-1β and IL-18) were analysed in Oreochromis niloticus liver (ONIL) cells following stimulation with the bacterial ligands peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and infection with TiLV...
June 18, 2024: Archives of Virology
Pan Xin, Xue Chaoqun, Liu Chaojie, Yan Shuwei, Lv Tiantian, Dai Junli, Zhang Xiaoting, Li Honglian, Li Jianhua, Gao Fei
The genus Alternaria comprises many important fungal pathogens that infect a wide variety of organisms. In this report, we present the discovery of a new double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus called Alternaria botybirnavirus 2 (ABRV2) from a phytopathogenic strain, XC21-21C, of Alternaria sp. isolated from diseased tobacco leaves in China. The ABRV2 genome consists of two dsRNA components, namely dsRNA1 and dsRNA2, with lengths of 6,162 and 5,865 base pairs (bp), respectively. Each of these genomic dsRNAs is monocistronic, encoding hypothetical proteins of 201...
June 18, 2024: Archives of Virology
Roman Chernyshev, Alexey Igolkin, Antoinette van Schalkwyk, Nikolay Zinyakov, Ivan Kolbin, Andrey Shotin, Fedor Korennoy, Alexander Sprygin, Ali Mazloum
African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates are grouped and tracked through analysis of their central variable region (CVR) sequences. In this study, sequences of 70 ASFV isolates collected from different regions of Russia between 2018 and 2022 were analyzed. The analysis based on the CVR sequences indicated that the isolates belonged to three distinct groups. Group 1 shared 100% sequence identity to the isolate Georgia 2007/1. Group 5 had a C > A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 601, while group 13 is new and unique to the Far East of Russia, with five isolates from the Amur, Khabarovsk, and Primorsky regions...
June 15, 2024: Archives of Virology
Mengze Guo, Lei Zhang, Xudong Fan, Pingping Sun, Jianwei Guo, Zhengnan Li
A novel waikavirus, tentatively named "Pittosporum tobira waikavirus" (PtWV), was identified in Pittosporum tobira plants exhibiting mosaic and ringspot symptoms on foliage in Yunnan, China. The full-length genomic sequence was determined by high-throughput sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The genome of PtWV is 12,709 nt in length and has a large open reading frame (ORF) of 11,010 nt, encoding a polyprotein, and a small ORF that encodes a 13.2-kDa bellflower vein chlorosis virus (BVCV)-like protein...
June 12, 2024: Archives of Virology
Joon Kwon, Rongbin Hu, Amanda K Penicks, Chunyu Zhang, Yongzhi Wang, David Lohry, Elias J Fernandez, Leslie L Domier, M R Hajimorad
Potyvirus genomes are expressed as polyproteins that are autocatalytically cleaved to produce 10 to 12 multifunctional proteins, among which P1 is the most variable. It has long been hypothesized that P1 plays role(s) in host adaptation and host specificity. We tested this hypothesis using two phylogenetically distinct potyviruses: soybean mosaic virus (SMV), with a narrow host range, and clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV), with a broader host range. When the full-length P1 cistron of SMV-N was replaced with P1 from ClYVV-No...
June 12, 2024: Archives of Virology
Shady Shalaby, Walaa Awadin, Reham Karam, Sanaa Salem, Ahmed El-Shaieb
Adenoviruses are a diverse group of viruses that can cause a variety of diseases in poultry, including respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. In turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), adenoviruses commonly cause hemorrhagic enteritis and, rarely, inclusion body hepatitis. In this study, we investigated fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) circulating in turkeys in Egypt. Following clinical examination of 500 birds, a portion of the hexon gene was amplified from four out of 50 samples from diseased birds (8%), and one amplicon that produced a strong band was selected for sequencing...
June 12, 2024: Archives of Virology
Pranab Jyoti Das, Joyshikh Sonowal, Gyanendra Singh Sengar, Seema Rani Pegu, Rajib Deb, Satish Kumar, Santanu Banik, Swaraj Rajkhowa, Vivek Kumar Gupta
Since 2020, African swine fever (ASF) has affected all pig breeds in Northeast India except Doom pigs, a unique indigenous breed from Assam and the closest relatives of Indian wild pigs. ASF outbreaks result in significant economic losses for pig farmers in the region. Based on sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the B646L (p72) gene, it has been determined that ASFV genotype II is responsible for outbreaks in this region. Recent studies have shown that MYD88, LDHB, and IFIT1, which are important genes of the immune system, are involved in the pathogenesis of ASFV...
June 12, 2024: Archives of Virology
Barbora Markusková, Sulafa Elnwrani, Michal Andrezál, Tatiana Sedláčková, Tomáš Szemes, Lívia Slobodníková, Michal Kajsik, Hana Drahovská
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common causative agent of urinary tract infections, and strains that are resistant to antibiotics are a major problem in treating these infections. Phage therapy is a promising alternative approach that can be used to treat infections caused by polyresistant bacterial strains. In the present study, 16 bacteriophages isolated from sewage and surface water were investigated. Phage host specificity was tested on a collection of 77 UPEC strains. The phages infected 2-44 strains, and 80% of the strains were infected by at least one phage...
June 8, 2024: Archives of Virology
Edison Reyes-Proaño, A Jenny Knerr, Alexander V Karasev
A novel totivirus, named "birch toti-like virus" (BTLV), was discovered in European white birch (Betula pendula) plants. The genome of BTLV is 4,967 nucleotides long and contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) coding for the capsid protein (CP) and an RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRP). The encoded CP and RdRP proteins shared 46.9% and 60.2% amino acid sequence identity, respectively, with those of Panax notoginseng virus B. The presence of a putative slippery heptamer signal 82 nt upstream of the stop codon of ORF1 suggests that a -1 translational frameshifting strategy is involved in the expression of ORF2, like in other totiviruses...
June 8, 2024: Archives of Virology
Chao Ning, Zhuang-Xin Ye, Zhong-Tian Xu, Ting Li, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Jian-Ping Chen, Jun-Min Li, Qianzhuo Mao
The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is a significant agricultural pest capable of long-distance migration and transmission of viruses that cause severe disease in rice. In this study, we identified a novel segmented RNA virus in a BPH, and this virus exhibited a close relationship to members of a recently discovered virus lineage known as "quenyaviruses" within the viral kingdom Orthornavirae. This newly identified virus was named "Nilaparvata lugens quenyavirus 1" (NLQV1). NLQV1 consists of five positive-sense, single-stranded RNAs, with each segment containing a single open reading frame (ORF)...
June 8, 2024: Archives of Virology
Yanhong Wu, Yongqiang Zhao, Xiuting Zhang, Tao Wei, Qianwen Peng, Jianke Wang, Zongyue Liu, Yanzhu Zhu, Xiqun Shao
Amdoparvoviruses infect various carnivores, including mustelids, canids, skunks, and felids. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) belongs to the prototypical species Amdoparvovirus carnivoran1. Here, we identified a novel amdoparvovirus in farmed Asian badgers (Meles meles), and we named this virus "Meles meles amdoparvovirus" (MMADV). A total of 146 clinical samples were collected from 134 individual badgers, and 30.6% (41/134) of the sampled badgers tested positive for amdoparvovirus by PCR. Viral DNA was detected in feces, blood, spleen, liver, lung, and adipose tissue from these animals...
June 8, 2024: Archives of Virology
J Praveenraj, K Saravanan, R Srinath, A Uma, R Kiruba Sankar
Here, we report the first detection of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in Indian glass fish in the Andaman Islands, India. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of whitish clusters of nodules on the fish's skin, fins, and eyes. The histopathology of the nodules revealed typical hypertrophied fibroblasts. Molecular characterization of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of the virus showed a significant resemblance to known LCDV sequences from Korea and Iran, with 98.92% and 97.85% sequence identity, respectively...
June 7, 2024: Archives of Virology
K G Sai Balaji, M Karikalan, S Saravanan, S Mahajan, K Rajeshkumar, Mirza Vaseem, Sushmita Nautiyal, Athira Subash, Kirtika Sharma, Sanchay Kumar Biswas, Sukdeb Nandi, Abhijit M Pawde, Karam Pal Singh, Gaurav Kumar Sharma
The present study focuses on the pathological and molecular characterization of African swine fever virus (ASFV) associated with an outbreak in wild boars in two national parks in southern India in 2022-2023. Significant mortality was observed among free-ranging wild boars at Bandipur National Park, Karnataka, and Mudumalai National Park, Tamil Nadu. Extensive combing operations were undertaken in both national parks, spanning an area of around 100 km2 , originating from the reported epicenter, to estimate the mortality rate...
June 7, 2024: Archives of Virology
Vincent N Chigor, Daniel C Digwo, Adedapo Adediji, Paul E Chidebelu, Chinyere B Chigor, Kenneth O Ugwu, Ini-Abasi I Ibangha, Renee Street, Kata Farkas
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is responsible for most cases of gastroenteritis worldwide, but information about the prevalence and diversity of HuNoV infections in lower-income settings is lacking. In order to provide more information about the burden and distribution of norovirus in Nigeria, we systematically reviewed original published research articles on the prevalence of HuNoV in Nigeria by accessing databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and African Journals Online (AJOL)...
June 7, 2024: Archives of Virology
Lady Johana Hernández-Sarmiento, Juan Felipe Valdés-López, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
Monocytes are the primary targets of Zika virus (ZIKV) and are associated with ZIKV pathogenesis. Currently, there is no effective treatment for ZIKV infection. It is known that 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3  (VitD3) has strong antiviral activity in dengue virus-infected macrophages, but it is unknown whether VitD3 inhibits ZIKV infection in monocytes. We investigated the relationship between ZIKV infection and the expression of genes of the VitD3 pathway, as well as the inflammatory response of infected monocytes in vitro...
June 6, 2024: Archives of Virology
Lun Li, Huijuan Zhang, Haixiao Jin, Jin Guo, Pan Liu, Jiao Yang, Zijian Wang, Enmin Zhang, Binbin Yu, Liyuan Shi, Jinrong He, Peng Wang, Jianchun Wei, Youhong Zhong, Wei Li
Anthrax is an acute infectious zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that is considered a potential biological warfare agent. Bacillus bacteriophages shape the composition and evolution of bacterial communities in nature and therefore have important roles in the ecosystem community. B. anthracis phages are not only used in etiological diagnostics but also have promising prospects in clinical therapeutics or for disinfection in anthrax outbreaks. In this study, two temperate B. anthracis phages, vB_BanS_A16R1 (A16R1) and vB_BanS_A16R4 (A16R4), were isolated and showed siphovirus-like morphological characteristics...
June 5, 2024: Archives of Virology
Yuto Suda, Katsunori Murota, Hiroaki Shirafuji, Shogo Tanaka, Tohru Yanase
Akabane virus (AKAV), Aino virus, Peaton virus, Sathuperi virus, and Shamonda virus are arthropod-borne viruses belonging to the order Elliovirales, family Peribunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus. These viruses cause or may cause congenital malformations in ruminants, including hydranencephaly, poliomyelitis, and arthrogryposis, although their pathogenicity may vary among field cases. AKAV may cause relatively severe congenital lesions such as hydranencephaly in calves. Furthermore, strains of AKAV genogroups I and II exhibit different disease courses...
June 3, 2024: Archives of Virology
Victória F Queiroz, Rodrigo A L Rodrigues, Jônatas Santos Abrahão
Orpheoviruses, cedratviruses, and pithoviruses are large DNA viruses that cluster together taxonomically within the order Pimascovirales of the phylum Nucleocytoviricota. However, they were not classified previously by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the gene content, morphology, and phylogenomics of these viruses, providing data that underpinned the recent proposal to establish new taxa for their initial classification. The new taxonomy, which has now been ratified by the ICTV, includes the family Orpheoviridae and genus Alphaorpheovirus, the family Pithoviridae and genus Alphapithovirus, and the family Cedratviridae and genus Alphacedratvirus, aiming to formally catalogue the isolates covered in this study...
June 1, 2024: Archives of Virology
Jinjin Liu, Zhanzheng Wang, Jie Ma, Shaoping Ji, Yuqi Huo
Noroviruses (NoVs) are the chief cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. By employing the major capsid protein VP1 of a GII.6 NoV strain as an immunogen, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with wide-spectrum binding activities against NoV genogroup II (GII) VP1 proteins. One mAb (10G7) could bind to native and denatured GII-specific VP1 proteins. The other mAb (10F2) could bind to all tested native GII VP1 proteins, but not to denatured GII.3, GII.4, GII.7, or GII.17 VP1 proteins. Using GII...
May 31, 2024: Archives of Virology
Linqing He, Jiarui Cao, Xiaolin Xie, Yayun Zhang, Xue Zhang, Hengbin Wang, Lingman Ma
Qingke Pingchuan granules (QPGs), which contain Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Fritillaria cirrhosa, fired licorice, and fired bitter almonds, among other components, can clear heat and ventilate the lungs, relieving cough and asthma. Clinically, QPGs are mainly used to treat cough, asthma, fever and other discomforts caused by acute or chronic bronchitis. In this study, the antiviral activity of QPGs against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A virus A/FM/1/47 (H1N1), oseltamivir-resistant H1N1, A/Beijing/32/92 (H3N2), Sendai virus, and human adenovirus type 3 in Hep-2 or MDCK cells was evaluated using the CCK-8 method, and the cytotoxicity of QPGs to these two cell lines was tested...
May 28, 2024: Archives of Virology
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