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Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

Kaleab Baye
Micronutrient deficiencies are widespread and disproportionately affect women and children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Among various interventions, food fortification and supplementation with micronutrients have been proven to be cost-effective. The aim of the present paper is to review existing literature to assess risks of excessive intake in LMIC to then highlight programmatic changes required to maximise benefits of micronutrient interventions while minimising risks of adverse effects. While very few LMIC have national food consumption surveys that can inform fortification programmes, many more are implementing mandatory fortification programmes...
March 11, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
William S Harris, Francis B Zotor
The purpose of this review is to consider the effects of the long-chain n-3 fatty acids found in marine foods, EPA and DHA, on risk for CVD, particularly fatal outcomes. It will examine both epidemiological and randomised controlled trial findings. The former studies usually examine associations between the dietary intake or the blood levels of EPA + DHA and CVD outcomes or, on occasion, total mortality. For example, our studies in the Framingham Heart Study and in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study have demonstrated significant inverse relations between erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels (i...
March 6, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Keiron Audain, Louis Levy, Basma Ellahi
This review aims to explore trends of early consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), within the context of growing child and adolescent obesity and escalating type-2 diabetes prevalence. We explore efforts to mitigate these, drawing on examples from Africa and elsewhere. SSB, including carbonated drinks and fruit juices, play a contributory role in the development of obesity and associated non-communicable diseases (NCD). SSA is an attractive market for beverage companies owing to its rapid economic growth, growing middle class and youthful populations...
February 28, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
C Leclercq, P Allemand, A Balcerzak, F Branca, R F Sousa, A Lartey, M Lipp, V P Quadros, P Verger
Knowing who eats what, understanding the various eating habits of different population groups, according to the geographical area, is critical to develop evidence-based policies for nutrition and food safety. The FAO/WHO Global Individual Food consumption data Tool (FAO/WHO GIFT) is a novel open-access online platform, hosted by FAO and supported by WHO, providing access to harmonised individual quantitative food consumption (IQFC) data, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). FAO/WHO GIFT is a growing repository, which will serve as the global FAO/WHO hub to disseminate IQFC microdata...
February 28, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Mark A Burton, Karen A Lillycrop
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) such as type-2 diabetes and CVD are now highly prevalent in both developed and developing countries. Evidence from both human and animal studies shows that early-life nutrition is an important determinant of NCD risk in later life. The mechanism by which the early-life environment influences future disease risk has been suggested to include the altered epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Epigenetic processes regulate the accessibility of genes to the cellular proteins that control gene transcription, determining where and when a gene is switched on and its level of activity...
February 19, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Nuno Casanova, Kristine Beaulieu, Graham Finlayson, Mark Hopkins
This review examines the metabolic adaptations that occur in response to negative energy balance and their potential putative or functional impact on appetite and food intake. Sustained negative energy balance will result in weight loss, with body composition changes similar for different dietary interventions if total energy and protein intake are equated. During periods of underfeeding, compensatory metabolic and behavioural responses occur that attenuate the prescribed energy deficit. While losses of metabolically active tissue during energy deficit result in reduced energy expenditure, an additional down-regulation in expenditure has been noted that cannot be explained by changes in body tissue (e...
February 19, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Dana Hawwash, Chen Yang, Carl Lachat
We discuss efforts in improving the value of nutrition research. We organised the paper in five research stages: Stage 1: research priority setting; Stage 2: research design, conduct and analysis; Stage 3: research regulation and management; Stage 4: research accessibility and Stage 5: research reporting and publishing. Along the stages of the research cycle, varied initiatives exist to improve the quality and added value of nutrition research. However, efforts are focused on single stages of the research cycle without vision of the research system as a whole...
February 19, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Cassandra Collins, Aoife E McNamara, Lorraine Brennan
Dietary assessment methods including FFQ and food diaries are associated with many measurement errors including energy under-reporting and incorrect estimation of portion sizes. Such errors can lead to inconsistent results especially when investigating the relationship between food intake and disease causation. To improve the classification of a person's dietary intake and therefore clarify proposed links between diet and disease, reliable and accurate dietary assessment methods are essential. Dietary biomarkers have emerged as a complementary approach to the traditional methods, and in recent years, metabolomics has developed as a key technology for the identification of new dietary biomarkers...
February 15, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Javier T Gonzalez, James A Betts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Sanjoy Saha, Brenda A Z Abu, Yasaman Jamshidi-Naeini, Upasana Mukherjee, Makenzie Miller, Li-Ling Peng, Wilna Oldewage-Theron
Iodine is an essential trace mineral, vital for its functions in many physiological processes in the human body. Both iodine deficiency (ID) and excess are associated with adverse health effects; ID and excess iodine intake have both been identified in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The review aims to (1) review the iodine status among populations in SSA until October 2018, and (2) identify populations at risk of excess or inadequate iodine intakes. A systematic search of relevant articles was carried out by a seven-member research team using PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus...
February 11, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Victor O Owino
Africa is experiencing a sharp rise in non-communicable diseases (NCD) related to rapid globalisation and urbanisation leading to shifts in dietary and lifestyle patterns characterised by increased energy intake and physical inactivity. However, unlike more resource-endowed regions, Africa has a double burden of disease: NCD co-exist with infectious diseases including lower respiratory tract infections, HIV/AIDS and diarrhoeal diseases. The African economy is also relatively weaker, making it difficult to cope with this burden...
February 8, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Emer Fitzpatrick
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of paediatric liver disease, affecting 10% of school-aged children and 44-70% of obese children and young people (CYP) in the western world. Encompassing a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and progressive fibrosis, the disease is rapidly becoming the most common indication for liver transplantation. The molecular pathogenesis of NAFLD remains only partially understood. Development and progression of NAFLD is influenced by genetic and nutritional factors, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, gut microbiome, bile acid metabolism and lipid/glucose handling and is closely associated with overweight and obesity...
February 8, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Yashvee Dunneram, Darren C Greenwood, Janet E Cade
Menopause, the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle, marks the end of a woman's reproductive lifespan. In addition to changes in sex hormone levels associated with menopause, its timing is another predictor of future health outcomes such as duration of the presence of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and the risk of hormone-related cancers. With ageing of the population, it is estimated that worldwide 1·2 billion women will be menopausal by the year 2030. Previously the effects of reproductive factors (e.g. parity, age at menarche, pregnancy) and socio-demographic factors on intermediate and long-term health outcomes of menopause have been widely documented...
February 1, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Helen M Roche
Dietary intake and nutritional status is an important environmental factor which can modulate metabolic-inflammation. In recent years, research has made significant advances in terms of understanding the impact of dietary components on metabolic-inflammation, within the context of obesity, type-2 diabetes (T2D) and CVD risk. Our work demonstrated that different fatty acids differentially modulate metabolic-inflammation, initially focusing on Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing three protein (NLRP3) inflammasome mediated IL-1β biology and insulin signalling...
February 1, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Julia L Finkelstein, Amy Fothergill, Laura S Hackl, Jere D Haas, Saurabh Mehta
This analysis was conducted to evaluate the evidence of the efficacy of iron biofortification interventions on iron status and functional outcomes. Iron deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide, with a disproportionate impact on women and young children, particularly those living in resource-limited settings. Biofortification, or the enhancing of micronutrient content in staple crops, is a promising and sustainable agriculture-based approach to improve nutritional status. Previous randomised efficacy trials and meta-analyses have demonstrated that iron-biofortification interventions improved iron biomarkers; however, no systematic reviews to date have examined the efficacy of biofortification interventions on health outcomes...
January 30, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Henrietta Ene-Obong, Hettie C Schönfeldt, Ella Campaore, Angela Kimani, Rosemary Mwaisaka, Anna Vincent, Jalila El Ati, Pascal Kouebou, Karl Presser, Paul Finglas, U Ruth Charrondiere
Despite the rich biodiversity of the African continent and the tremendous progress so far made in food production, Africa is still struggling with the problems of food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition. To combat these problems, the production and consumption of nutritious and safe foods need to be promoted. This cannot be achieved without reliable data on the quantity and quality of nutrients and other components provided through these foods. Food composition data (FCD) are compiled as food composition tables (FCT) or food composition databases (FCDB)...
January 30, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Laura Kehoe, Janette Walton, Albert Flynn
Population ageing is rapidly progressing and it is estimated that by 2050 one in every five people globally will be aged 60 years or over. Research has shown that adequate nutritional status can positively impact the ageing process, resulting in improved quality of life and the prevention of chronic disease and mortality. However, due to physiological and social changes associated with ageing, older adults may be at increased risk of nutrient deficiencies. This review aims to investigate the nutrient intake and status of older adults in Europe and to explore the potential role of fortified foods and nutritional supplements in addressing some of the nutritional challenges identified in this population group...
January 30, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Michelle Holdsworth, Edwige Landais
Africa is currently experiencing rapid urbanisation impacting on people's food environments and dietary habits. Such changes are associated with higher prevalence of obesity coexisting with undernutrition. The present paper provides an overview of the healthiness of African urban food environments. We discuss the ways that food environments can be characterised and summarise the methods that can be used to investigate and intervene in the food environment. Data for Africa over a 50-year period (1961-2013) suggest an increasing availability of energy, animal products, fruit and vegetables, vegetable oils, sugar and sweeteners but a decrease in animal fats...
January 28, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
J I Macdiarmid, S Whybrow
Climate change is threatening future global food and nutrition security. Limiting the increase in global temperature to 1·5 °C set out in The Paris Agreement (2015) while achieving nutrient security means overhauling the current food system to create one that can deliver healthy and sustainable diets. To attain this, it is critical to understand the implications for nutrition of actions to mitigate climate change as well as the impacts of climate change on food production and the nutrient composition of foods...
January 28, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Rebecca Pradeilles, Kaleab Baye, Michelle Holdsworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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