Medical Hypotheses | Page 3

David A Miranda, Said Pertuz
In recent years, mammographic image analysis has shown great potential for breast cancer risk assessment. The aim of risk assessment is to predict how likely a woman is to develop breast cancer in the future. Several studies suggest that computerized parenchymal analysis of mammograms can be utilized as an independent imaging biomarker of breast cancer. Parenchymal analysis consists of the quantitative assessment of visual texture patterns in mammograms to infer the level of risk. In spite of substantial evidence of the association between parenchymal patterns and breast cancer risk, its biological foundations remain poorly understood...
November 27, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Evelina Pajediene, Adomas Pajeda, Gintare Urnieziute, Erlandas Paulekas, Vanda Liesiene, Indre Bileviciute-Ljungar, Giedre Jurkeviciene, Daiva Rastenyte, Kestutis Petrikonis
BACKGROUND: More than half of stroke patients present with a sleep-related breathing disorder including both central and obstructive forms of sleep apnoea. A cerebral infarction in different brain areas can disrupt sleep regulating pathways and cause insomnia, hypersomnia, circadian rhythm disturbances and other sleep disorders. Therefore, there is a need of objective data about various sleep disorders arising after ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke in order to implement practical recommendations how to suspect, diagnose and treat these conditions...
November 27, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Saadiya Zia, Sidra Batool, Ramla Shahid
PCSK9 (Proprotein convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9), an important regulator of lipid metabolism, has been shown to play a role in hepatocellular carcinoma by promoting metastasis. PCSK9 interferes with LDL metabolism and causes dyslipidemias in hematological malignancies particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nutraceuticals like berberine, curcumin and polydatin have been found effective in modulating PCSK9 expression by lowering LDL levels. Eugenol, a nutraceutical has shown a promising role in cancer due to its antioxidant and antihypercholesterolemic effects...
November 27, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Haim Golan, Boris Makogon, Olga Volkov, Yuri Smolyakov, Amir Hadanny, Shai Efrati
We tested the hypothesis that if SPECT/CT-detected volumes of active and inactive parts of brain tissue present correlation with the results of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) of ischemic stroke, SPECT imaging may serve as a selective tool for post-stroke patients to indicate cases that may significantly benefit from HBOT. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 62 consecutive patients administered for HBOT after the ischemic stroke episode. All patients received 60 daily hyperbaric sessions consisting of 90 min of exposure to 100% oxygen at a pressure of 0...
November 26, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Xu-Sheng Qiu, Xu-Gang Li, Yi-Xin Chen
Infected nonunion is still a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. The goal of treatment is to eliminate infection and achieve bone union. Surgery is the only effective method currently. However, it is invasive and the results are still unsatisfactory. Therefore, seeking a noninvasive and effective method to resolve infected nonunion is necessary. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been used for the treatment of nonunion for more than 40 years. PEMF could promote bone formation at tissue, cell and subcellular levels...
November 18, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Yona Amitai, Helen Shental, Luba Atkins-Manelis, Gideon Koren, Chen Stein Zamir
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing awareness to ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) in infants, with marked increase in its report in the medical literature. Some reports indicate increase in prevalence. Whether the increase ankyloglossia rate is a real phenomenon or merely reflects increased awareness and reports has to be determined. One explanation for the increasing ankyloglossia rates is the growing trend of breast feeding initiation, often impaired by ankyloglossia, which brings it to medical attention...
November 18, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Fatih Şişik, Eser Sert
Automatic decision support systems have gained importance in health sector in recent years. In parallel with recent developments in the fields of artificial intelligence and image processing, embedded systems are also used in decision support systems for tumor diagnosis. Extreme learning machine (ELM), is a recently developed, quick and efficient algorithm which can quickly and flawlessly diagnose tumors using machine learning techniques. Similarly, significantly fast and robust fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (FRFCM) is a novel and fast algorithm which can display a high performance...
November 18, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
F M Corrigan, J Christie-Sands
Underlying any complex relational intersubjectivity there is an inherent urge to connect, to have proximity, to engage in an experience of interpersonal contact. The hypothesis set out here is that this most basic urge to connect is dependent on circuits based in three main components: the midbrain superior colliculi (SC), the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), and the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine systems originating in the midbrain ventral tegmental area. Firstly, there is orienting towards or away from interpersonal contact, dependent on approach and/or defensive/withdrawal areas of the SC...
November 18, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Maria Isabel Del Olmo García, Juan Francisco Merino-Torres
Glycemic variability (GV) has been recently described as an independent cardiovascular risk factor in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Also, new findings suggest that GV plays an important role in the development of complications related to impaired glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. On the other hand, although treatment for diabetes can reduce HbA1c in a similar extent their effectiveness over GV can be radically different. Patients in the acute setting of a coronary syndrome should be strictly monitorized to maintain glucose within recommended values; avoiding values lower than 90 mg/dL (5 mmol/L) and higher than 180 mg/dL (10 mmol/L)...
November 18, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Vicente Odone-Filho, Lilian Maria Cristofani, Paulo Taufi Maluf, Maria Tereza Assis Almeida, Nathalia Halley, Carolina Sgarioni Camargo Vince, Alessandra Milani Prandini de Azambuja, Melina Brumatti, Priscilla Lubraico, Luiz Heraldo Arouche da Camara Lopes, Katia Ramos Moreira Leite, Joao Luis Fernandes Silva, José Píndaro Pereira Plese, Eduardo Weltman
Although frequently disseminated to other anatomical sites, neuroblastoma (NB) is rarely reported as involving the central nervous system (CNS), which may reflect insufficient research in poorly controlled systemic disease. Here we demonstrate the involvement of the CNS in patients with NB over 18 months of age at diagnosis of extensive systemic disease. Meningeal metastases were observed even in the presence of complete systemic control. Although no improvement in patient's survival was observed, radiotherapy was effective in preventing CNS recurrence after observation of actual or previous dural disease...
November 18, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Mehdi Abouzari, Khodayar Goshtasbi, Brooke Sarna, Harrison W Lin, Hamid R Djalilian
Between 2016 and 2017, several U.S. Diplomats in Havana, Cuba, experienced perplexing vestibular and neurological symptoms attributed to an unknown source. They presented with significant vestibular and headache symptoms similar to individuals who experience vestibular migraine (VM). As such, we hypothesize that VM may be a possible explanation for the Havana cohort's presenting symptoms. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared symptoms reported by the affected individuals in Havana, Cuba, to symptoms reported by corresponding patients from a tertiary academic neurotology clinic with a chief complaint of vertigo or disequilibrium, who met the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for VM...
November 18, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
George D Vavougios
Following Braak's hypothesis on the infectious pathogenesis of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD), several bacteria and viruses have been investigated as likely culprits. Recent research has focused on neuroinvasive influenza A viruses (IAV), whereas a genetic link between sPD and tuberculosis has arisen in LRRK2 - dependent maturation of the phagosome. An integrative, outside - in, multi - hit hypothesis is presented here, where (a) mycobacterial immunomodulation creates a phagocyte niche along with cytokine mediated, site specific (i...
November 18, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Mesut Toğaçar, Burhan Ergen, Zafer Cömert
Invasive ductal carcinoma cancer, which invades the breast tissues by destroying the milk channels, is the most common type of breast cancer in women. Approximately, 80% of breast cancer patients have invasive ductal carcinoma and roughly 66.6% of these patients are older than 55 years. This situation points out a powerful relationship between the type of breast cancer and progressed woman age. In this study, the classification of invasive ductal carcinoma breast cancer is performed by using deep learning models, which is the sub-branch of artificial intelligence...
November 18, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Seyedsaeid Ahmadvand, Bijan Peik, Babak Azarfar
Recently, Beshkar has published a paper on the nature of qualia. His argument is based on several assumptions leading to a conjecture that qualia have a negentropic nature and so as consciousness. The assumptions are: 1) quale (singular of qualia) is the building block of consciousness and thus they are equivalent, 2) qualia and consciousness are both subjective and non-observable by any experiment, 3) qualia/consciousness are negentropic (ΔS<0) structures and yet the product of a universal evolution (ΔS≥0) in an attempt to maximize entropy (ΔS=0), 4) "quale is a structure generated by a specific region of the cerebral cortex", 5) subjectivity/non-observability of qualia/consciousness stems from quantum laws erasing the trace of negentropic processes...
November 18, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
S Schreiber, C G Pick
The efficacy of each antidepressant available has been found equal to that of amitriptyline in double-blind studies. However, a few of them are being prescribed (at under-therapeutic doses) for sleep, in non-depressed persons, when there are relative contraindications for sedative-hypnotics. Following previous studies regarding the antinociceptive mechanisms of various antidepressants, we suggest that the involvement of the opioid system in some of the antidepressants' mechanism of action may contribute to these medications' use for the induction and maintenance of sleep...
November 18, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Xin Fu, Jun Zhao, Qing-Rong Liang, Rong-Guang Luo, Guang-Qin Fan, Qun Tang
Tumor epidemiology, as well as tumor microenvironments and cancer cell signaling study, has been presented with statistical relevance of inorganic phosphate (Pi) to tumorigenesis. Although serum Pi is still not acknowledged as a clinical tumor biomarker, abnormally high Pi concentration in serum or tumor lesions is gradually recognized as a characteristic of malignancy. On the other hand, phosphate binder (e.g. La2 (CO3 )3 , Fosrenols) has been clinically approved to treat hyperphosphatemia, a metabolic disease characterized by a high serum phosphate level...
November 16, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Alje C van Hoorn
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a serious and common phenomenon which has been linked with emotion or affect regulation. The capacity for top-down emotion regulation has also been linked to vagal tone. Vagal tone is known to be low in groups with a propensity to engage in NSSI. HYPOTHESIS: Some forms of NSSI, both direct and indirect, may result in vagal stimulation. The resulting increase in vagal tone may be linked to activation of prefrontal areas and improved top-down emotion regulation...
November 16, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Ramin Rahmanzade
Fibroblasts are the most frequent cells of the connective tissues. Having the ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli in addition to the biochemical ones makes them crucial for such a composite-like and tension-preserving tissue. Over the last decade, the investigation of the role of these cells in tumor progression was a hot topic of research in tumor biology. Literatures almost unanimously describe the re-education of stromal fibroblasts by tumor cells in favor of tumor progression, which resulted in the birth of a new nomenclature, the cancer-associated fibroblasts...
November 15, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Dario Di Perna, Miguel Castro, Yannig Gasc, Pascal Haigron, Jean-Philippe Verhoye, Amedeo Anselmi
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive mitral valve repair or replacement (MIMVR) approaches have been increasingly adopted for the treatment of mitral regurgitation, allowing a shorter recovery time and improving postoperative quality of life. However, inadequate positioning of the right mini thoracotomy access (working port) translates into suboptimal exposure, prolonged operative times and, potentially, reduction in the quality of mitral repair. At present, we are missing tools to further improve the positioning of the working port in order to ameliorate surgical exposure in a patient- specific fashion...
November 14, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Orhan Yaman, Fatih Ertam, Turker Tuncer
Parkinson's disease is one of the mostly seen neurological disease. It affects to nervous system and hinders people's vital activities. The majority of Parkinson's patients lose their ability to speak, write and balance. Many machine learning methods have been proposed to automatically diagnose Parkinson's disease using acoustic, hand writing and gaits. In this study, a statistical pooling method is proposed to recognize Parkinson's disease using the vowels. The used Parkinson's disease dataset contains the features of vowels...
November 11, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
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