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Medical Hypotheses | Page 3

Yoshiharu Uno
Functional bowel symptoms can be occurred during remission from inflammatory bowel disease. In this case, a low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) diet is effective for the amelioration or prevention of symptoms. However, the reason is not fully explained. This report proposes a hypothesis regarding the entire process in which inflammatory bowel disease with IBS-like symptoms (IBD-IBS) causes symptoms. A detailed process was assumed, starting from high pressure in the lumen and finally to abdominal symptoms...
July 24, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Mark F McCarty, Simon Iloki-Assanga, Lidianys Maria Lewis Lujany
The mechanisms underlying cancer cachexia - the proximate cause of at least 20% of cancer-related deaths - have until recently remained rather obscure. New research, however, clarifies that cancers evoking cachexia release microvesicles rich in heat shock proteins 70 and 90, and that these extracellular heat shock proteins induce cachexia by serving as agonists for toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in skeletal muscle, macrophages, and adipocytes. Hence, safe nutraceutical measures which can down-regulate TLR4 signaling can be expected to aid prevention and control of cancer cachexia...
July 24, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Chenmala Karthika, Raman Sureshkumar
Cancer is one of the most deadly diseases spreading all over the world and a major cause of fear in the society. Colon cancer is the 4th most common cancer causing death in both male and female equally, mainly caused due to the improper diet plans, consumption of the red meat and lack of exercise. Although the design of the chemotherapeutic drugs is well advanced, many of them developed resistance towards the cancer cells. The major reason behind the drug resistance in the colon cancer cells is due to the action exhibited by P-gp, which belongs to a member of ABC transporter family...
July 24, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Marte Kierulf Åm, Anders Lyngvi Fougner, Reinold Ellingsen, Dag Roar Hjelme, Patrick Christian Bösch, Øyvind Stavdahl, Sven Magnus Carlsen, Sverre Christian Christiansen
The artificial pancreas requires fast and reliable glucose measurements. The peritoneal space has shown promising results, and in one of our studies we detected glucose changes in the peritoneal space already at the same time as in the femoral artery. The peritoneal lining is highly vascularised, covered by a single layer of mesothelial cells and therefore easily accessible for proper sensor technology, e.g. optical technology. We hypothesize that the rapid intraperitoneal glucose dynamics observed in our study was possible because the sensors were located directly at the peritoneal lining, at the point where the glucose molecules entered the peritoneal space...
July 20, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Alina Breslavets, Maksym Breslavets, Neil H Shear
In today's medical practice, the approach towards quantitative analysis of the skin is considered to be challenging and subjective. The current accepted measures and indexes do not exhibit a universal measurement, carry subjective opinions, and vary from one assessor to another. We propose a novel promising technique that provides a universal measure of various skin conditions which accesses the severity of skin disease in a quantitative manner. In this paper, we describe a clinical tool which provides a quantitative analysis of the skin using a mathematical algorithm of calculating Maximum entropy...
July 19, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Ioannis Ilias, Lina Zabuliene
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 24, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Vardan T Karamyan
Stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are significant clinical problems characterized by high rate of mortality and long-lasting disabilities, and an unmet need for new treatments. Current experimental stroke and TBI research are evolving to focus more on understanding the brain's self-protective mechanisms to meet the critical need of developing new therapies for these disorders. In this hypothesis-based manuscript, I provide several lines of evidence that peptidase neurolysin (Nln) is one of the brain's potent, self-protective mechanisms promoting preservation and recovery of the brain after acute injury...
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Pierre P Kamoun
Mental retardation is a progressive condition in Down syndrome: intelligence starts to decline linearly within the first year. This phenomenon could be related to the overproduction of a toxic compound, hydrogen sulfide. Indeed, a gene located on chromosome 21 controls the production of cystathionine-β-synthase, an enzyme involved in hydrogen sulfide production in the central nervous system. It has recently been demonstrated that excess cystathionine-β-synthase levels are needed and sufficient to induce cognitive phenotypes in mouse models of Down syndrome...
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
T Režić, K Blaslov, I Kruljac, D Rahelić, M Vrkljan, I P Renar
Adiposity is a chronic disease and one of the major modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Its prevalence in the world could be considered epidemic with 80% of patients with T2DM being obese. Novel antidiabetic drugs, such as glucagone-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists have demonstrated benefitial effect on weight reduction. Nevertheless, in the last decades the need for new therapeutic strategies in the management of adiposity have emerged. Both adiposity and T2DM have negative effect on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Zoran M Gluvic, Emina M Sudar-Milovanovic, Vladimir S Samardzic, Milan M Obradovic, Danimir P Jevremovic, Sasa P Radenkovic, Esma R Isenovic
Primary hypothyroidism can affect lipid metabolism, cardiovascular (CV) function, and overall patients' quality of life (QoL). Decrease in serum nitric oxide (NO) levels could promote the atherosclerosis acceleration in hypothyroid patients. Our hypothesis is that serum NO level is altered in hypothyroidism; more specifically, we hypothesize that the early vascular changes that can be observed in hypothyroidism could be due to these alterations and that serum NO levels are associated with lipid levels in female patients diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) or clinical hypothyroidism (CH)...
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Shagun Shah, Chandrahas T Deshmukh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Trevor Tucker
This paper hypothesizes, based on fluid dynamics principles, that in multiple sclerosis (MS) non-laminar, vortex blood flow occurs in the superior vena cava (SVC) and brachiocephalic veins (BVs), particularly at junctions with their tributary veins. The physics-based analysis demonstrates that the morphology and physical attributes of the major thoracic veins, and their tributary confluent veins, together with the attributes of the flowing blood, predict transition from laminar to non-laminar flow, primarily vortex flow, at select vein curvatures and junctions...
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
José Maria Pereira de Godoy
On evaluating patients with lymphedema, the authors found that obesity is associated with generalized edema of all extremities and the trunk with increased intracellular and extracellular fluids, thus suggesting a new concept of lymphedema that the authors have termed systemic subclinical lymphedema. Animal studies show that obesity and its progression lead to changes in the lymphatic system and microcirculation with alterations in lymphatic motility, inflammatory processes, capillary permeability and immune response...
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease which can cause different symptoms due to the involvement of different regions of the central nervous system (CNS). Although this disease is characterized by the demyelination process, the most important feature of the disease is its degenerative nature. This nature is clinically manifested as progressive symptoms, especially in patients' walking, which can even lead to complete debilitation. Therefore, finding a treatment to prevent the degenerative processes is one of the most important goals in MS studies...
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Raffaele Falsaperla, Giovanna Vitaliti, Carla Cimino, Stefano Catanzaro, Giovanni Corsello
BACKGROUND: Among the most common autonomic signs visible in preterm neonates, apnea can represent the first sign of several neurologic and non-neurologic disorders, and seizure is a relatively infrequent cause. Herein authors present a case of neonatal autonomic apnea, discussing the polygraphic video-EEG features of this pathological entity and the differential diagnosis with central apnea and autonomic apnea. CASE REPORT: A female preterm Caucasian infant (29 + 4 weeks' gestational age (GA)), first twin of a twin pregnancy, at birth was intubated and surfactant administration was performed...
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Patrick Bradley
The major change in the United States and European diets associated with the increased rates of obesity was an increased consumption of refined carbohydrates. A feature of refined carbohydrates is their predisposition to cause increased fluctuations in plasma insulin and glucose levels and postprandial reactive hypoglycaemia. As the central nervous system is dependent on a stable supply of glucose this threatens the central nervous system functioning and these fluctuations also have a negative impact on the cardiovascular system...
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Craig Pickering
Caffeine is a well-established ergogenic aid, with its performance-enhancing effects replicated across a variety of exercise types. Caffeine exerts its performance-benefits through many mechanisms, including acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist, and serving to reduce sensations of fatigue and pain. One potential mechanism that is currently underexplored is whether caffeine's bitter taste mediates some of its ergogenic effects, which is discussed in this article. Previous research has demonstrated that bitter tastants have the ability to enhance performance, and this effect is mediated by bitter taste receptors in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract...
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Ivan Presta, Annalidia Donato, Paolo Zaffino, Maria Francesca Spadea, Teresa Mancuso, Natalia Malara, Eusebio Chiefari, Giuseppe Donato
The data of literature are discordant about the role of mast cells in different types of neoplasms. In this paper the authors propose the hypothesis that tumor-associated mast cells may switch to different polarization states, conditioning the immunogenic capacities of the different neoplasms. Anti-inflammatory polarized mast cells should express cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and then mast cells number should be inversely related to the intensity of inflammatory infiltrate. On the contrary, when mast cells do not express anti-inflammatory cytokines their number should be directly related to the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate...
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Udo Bonnet
In animal experiments, neuroprotective, anticonvulsive and antidepressant-like properties have been increasingly attributed to administrations of ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C) in at least medium (low millimolar) doses, which however await validation in well controlled clinical studies. In mammalian cortical and subcortical neurons, small to modest acidification (<0.4-0.5 pH-units) is belonging to the key strategies for controlling local excitability and is associated with neuroprotection, e.g. by limiting excitotoxicity...
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Amar Pujari, Rohan Chawla, Harathy Selvan, Ritika Mukhija, Atul Kumar
Traumatic retinal injuries are commonly encountered in most retinal subspecialty clinics. Retinal dialysis, detachment and other complications consequent to blunt trauma are often thought to be due to equatorial expansion of the globe following an antero-posterior compressive force. However, stretching of the globe along the primary anatomical equator may not hold true for the adjusted globe position as a consequence of the protective Bell's phenomenon which gets activated before impact. The upward and outward rolling of the globe likely creates a new equator, with the compressive forces acting along this new plane, thereby leading to stretching along the ocular coats closer to the retinal periphery...
October 2019: Medical Hypotheses
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