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Medical Hypotheses | Page 2

Alejandra Romo-Araiza, Antonio Ibarra
Cognitive functions, such as learning and memory, may be impaired during aging. Age-related cognitive impairment is associated with selective neuronal loss, oxidative changes that lead to microglia activation and neuroinflammation. In addition, it is associated to alteration reduction in trophic factors affecting neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. In recent years, attention has been paid to the relationship between gut microbiota and brain. In aging, there is an alteration in microbiota, gut microbiota diversity is perturbed with an increase in pathogenic bacteria at the expense of beneficial ones...
September 26, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Christopher B Germann
We introduce a novel hypothesis which states that the therapeutic utilisation of psilocybin has beneficial effects on genetic aging. Ex hypothesi, we predict a priori that controlled psilocybin interventions exert quantifiable positive impact on leucocyte telomere length (telomeres are a robust predictor of mortality and multifarious aging-related diseases). Our hypothesising follows the Popperian logic of scientific discovery, viz., bold (and refutable) conjectures form the very foundation of scientific progress...
September 24, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Timothy B Riley, Paul G Overton
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood behavioural disorders, the frontline treatments for which are drugs with abuse potential. As a consequence, there is an urgent need to develop non addictive drug treatments with equivalent efficacy. Preclinical evidence suggests that selective serotonin uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are likely to be effective in ADHD, however clinical reports suggest that SSRIs are of limited therapeutic value for the treatment of ADHD. We propose that this disconnect can be explained by the pattern of drug administration in existing clinical trials (administration for short periods of time, or intermittently) leading to inadequate control of the autoregulatory processes which control 5-HT release, most notably at the level of inhibitory 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors...
September 24, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Ramaswamy Sharma, Russel J Reiter, Qiang Ma
Wilson disease is associated with excessive copper accumulation in cells, primarily in the liver and brain. The subcellular lesions caused by an excess of this essential metal accounts for many of the signs of Wilson disease. The drugs used to treat this disease are not always effective, and depending on dose, they may have collateral toxicity. Melatonin is an endogenously-produced molecule that functions as a copper chelator, a potent antioxidant, and as a suppressor of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response in both the liver and the brain, while also reducing fibrosis/cirrhosis in the liver...
September 24, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Ning Fan, Junkai Tan, Xuyang Liu
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) represents a distinct disease entity with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) as the main risk factor, even though the reasons for why the IOP is elevated remains to be elucidated. It is considered that normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is a subtype of POAG, comprising a special form of glaucomatous neurodegeneration or glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) almost exactly the same as that seen in POAG, but the IOP, as named, remains in the statistically normal range. Actually the disease entity of NTG has been a profound confusion and it is difficult to be accurately conceptualized...
September 24, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Basant K Puri, Nikita White, Jean A Monro
The dried root of the angiosperm Scutellaria baicalensis, also known as Chinese skullcap or Baikal skullcap, is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, Korean traditional medicine and as a nutritional supplement; several studies have indicated that both the supplement and some of its ingredients may have clinically beneficial actions. However, the National Institutes of Health official guidance states that the use of Scutellaria "has been implicated in rare instances of clinically apparent liver injury" and that "the onset of symptoms and jaundice occurred within 6-24 weeks of starting skullcap, and the serum enzyme pattern was typically hepatocellular", with marked increases in serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels...
September 19, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Sylvie Odent, Michel Odent
In the field of developmental origins of health and diseases among humans, classical epidemiology has limited power. We hypothesize that widely available "biological clocks" would introduce a new era in the history of health research. By contrasting chronological age and physiological age, "biological clocks" might become instrumental, without any delay, in exploring the possible long-term effects of a highly modified lifestyle during the "primal period". The aging process, life expectancy and health in general would be the main criteria...
September 19, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Turhan Canli
Despite strong evidence for the heritability of major depressive disorder (MDD), efforts to identify causal genes have been disappointing. Furthermore, although there is strong support for life stress as a major predictor of MDD, there are also considerable individual differences in susceptibility and resilience that remain poorly understood. Efforts to identify specific gene-by-environment risk factors produced results that were initially encouraging, but that were not supported by later large-scale studies...
September 19, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Takahiro Mezaki, Kanako Namekawa
JacquelineduPré (26 January 1945-19 October 1987) is one of the greatest cellists in the 20th century. Her musical career was terminated at age 28, allegedly due to multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with axonal involvement, characterized by the dissemination in time and space of the lesions (plaques). Diverse neurological symptoms may occur in MS, and a variety of symptoms relentlessly accumulated in her case after the diagnosis in 1973, which is concordant with primary progressive rather than relapsing-remitting form of MS...
September 17, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Charles G Coffey
In this paper are discussed reasons to suspect that measurements of serum endothelin levels in women with preeclampsia may not provide accurate estimations of the degree of systemic endothelin receptor activation and reasons to suspect that systemic endothelin receptor saturation studies should provide such estimations more accurately.
September 14, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Eliseu da Cruz Moreira-Junior
Despite decades of research on Parkinson's disease (PD), the etiology of this disease remains unclear. The present manuscript introduces a new hypothesis proposing a hyper-serotonergic state as the main mechanism leading to axonal impairment both in dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in PD. The strong serotonergic connection between the raphe nuclei and the dorsal raphe nuclei with the basal ganglia, all important brain structures associated with the pathophysiology of PD, emphasize a potential role for this neurotransmitter in PD...
September 14, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Leslie C Norins
The estimated 5.8 million Alzheimer's disease patients in the U.S. require an enormous share of national healthcare expenditures. Other nations face similar economic burdens. There have been great efforts, thus far unsuccessful, to discover an effective therapeutic, with 1081 Alzheimer's disease drug trials completed as of May 2019. The pessimism thus engendered has forestalled contingency planning for the potential major economic repercussions of a simple, quick cure. Yet, promising new research spotlighting the possible "trigger" role of infectious agents might allow some or all cases of Alzheimer's disease to be halted, reversed, or prevented with an antibiotic or antiviral compound, possibly even one already approved by drug regulators for other uses...
September 14, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
E Acaroglu, M Doany, E Cetin, R Castelein
Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) is a complex three dimensional deformity the treatment of which remains to be surgical correction of the deformity as it had progressed over certain thresholds. The main focus in surgical treatment had, for decades, been the amount of correction in the coronal plane whereas corrections in sagittal and rotational (axial) planes have also been recognized as almost as important as the coronal over the recent decades. The hypotheses presented and discussed in this study is the virtual adversity between the rates of correction in these two (sagittal and axial) planes...
September 12, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
M Simka, J Czaja, D Kowalczyk
Recent research has revealed that patients with neurodegenerative disease sleep longer in the supine position, while healthy controls prefer sleeping in the lateral decubitus position. Thus, sleeping in the lateral position seems to be protective against neurodegeneration. It has also been suggested that a protective role of this body position could be associated with better cerebral venous drainage in this body position, which results in more active glymphatic system of the brain (the system responsible for clearance of the cerebral tissue from waste products, e...
September 11, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Ioannis I Verginadis, Spyridon Ch Karkabounas, Yannis V Simos, Anastasia P Velalopoulou, Dimitrios Peschos, Antonis Avdikos, Ioannis Zelovitis, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Evangelia Dounousi, Vasilios Ragos, Angelos M Evangelou
The aim of this article is to investigate the potential cytotoxic and antitumor effects of the resonant electromagnetic fields (rEMFs) derived from the 1 H NMR spectrum of the Ph3 Sn(Mercaptonicotinic)SnPh3 complex (SnMNA). The ability of the complex's rEMFs to induce leiomyosarcoma (LMS) cell death and to recess tumor (leiomyosarcoma) development in Wistar rats was evaluated. The effects of the simultaneous administration of the SnMNA complex at extremely low concentrations and exposure to its rEMFs was also investigated...
September 6, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Kerstin Uvnäs Moberg, Linda Handlin, Kathleen Kendall-Tackett, Maria Petersson
Oxytocin is a nonapeptide consisting of a cyclic six amino-acid structure and a tail of three amino acids. It was originally known for its ability to induce milk ejection and to stimulate uterine contractions. More recently, oxytocin has been shown to stimulate social behaviors, and exert pain-relieving, anti-stress/anti-inflammatory and restorative effects. We hypothesize that oxytocin is a principal hormone that, in part, exerts its effects after degradation to active fragments with more specific effect profiles...
September 6, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Jie Tao, Yan He, Shuai Wang, Jian Mao
Peripheral nerve regeneration remains a challenge in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the existing approaches have limited regenerative capability. 3D-printed nerve conduits with well-defined properties are potent tools to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration after injuries. Meanwhile, the vascular networks within the constructs can promote the exchange of oxygen, neurotrophic factors, and removal of waste products, thereby providing an advantageous microenvironment for tissue regeneration...
September 6, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Pooja Jain, M Aamir Mirza, Zeenat Iqbal
Global prevalence of the severe periodontitis is at the alarming stage and its association with the systemic complications is highly evident which cannot be neglected. An insight into the pathophysiology of the periodontitis reveals that the promising amelioration could only be envisaged with the 4-D/multi-pronged approach of combining antibiotic along with the host modulating agents. The complications of the disease itself suggest that the use of antibiotic alone is not able to cater the symptoms completely...
September 6, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Felix Tretter, Henriette Löffler-Stastka
Medicine today is an extremely heterogeneous field of knowledge, based on clinical observations and action knowledge and on data from the biological, behavioral and social sciences. We hypothesize at first that medicine suffers from a disciplinary hyper-diversity compared to the level of conceptual interdisciplinary integration. With the claim to "understand" and cure diseases, currently with the label "Systems Medicine" new forms of molecular medicine promise a general new bottom-up directed precise, personalized, predictive, preventive, translational, participatory, etc...
September 5, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Anne Kapp, Marianne Paethke, Manfred Baqué, Ruth Nebel
Our observations question both the current doctrine of spatial orientation as processed by vestibular, visual and proprioceptive impressions as well as the horizontal alignment of the eye axis. Indeed our observations suggest spatial orientation as a physically based, largely mechanically transmitted interaction between individual and environment. It is controlled by an interface defined by the baseline of upper teeth. It simultaneously constitutes both body and environment acting as an integral part of that environment...
September 5, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
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