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Medical Hypotheses | Page 2

Francine Dos Santos Costa, Bernardo Antonio Agostini, Helena Silveira Schuch, Marcos Britto Correa, Marília Leão Goettems, Flávio Fernando Demarco
Dental caries has common risk factors with impairments in growth, cognitive development and child general health. Identifying socioeconomic contexts and parental behaviors in early life that may be associated with negative outcomes in the child's future and their causal mechanisms can contribute to planning early interventions. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to propose and discuss possible ways to explain how early childhood stimulation may be associated with future oral health status, based on the life-course theory of chain-of-risk model and accumulation of risk model...
September 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Bahadir Simsek, Ufuk Çakatay
Cyanogenic glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants and are metabolized into thiocyanate by the intestines and liver. Conversion of plant derived thiocyanates into cyanide and isocyanic acid occurs by the activity of neutrophil-derived enzyme myeloperoxidase. Therefore, increased intake of cyanogenic glycoside rich plant based diet may lead to increased isocyanic acid induced protein carbamylation in chronic inflammatory states (increased myeloperoxidase activity). As there is a close relationship between non-enzymatic post-translational modification and protein function, carbamylation induced structural changes also affect the functions of proteins...
September 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Victoria J Berdikova Bohne, Øyvind Bohne
Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID) or myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has an unknown aetiology, with no known treatment and a prevalence of approximately 22 million individuals (2%) in Western countries. Although strongly suspected, the role of lactate in pathology is unknown, nor has the nature of the two most central symptoms of the condition - post exertional malaise and fatigue. The proposed mechanism of action of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) plays a central role in maintaining energy production with cofactors alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and its counterpart dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), its regeneration suggested as the new rate limiting factor...
September 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Soroush Seifirad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Zilan Bazancir, Tüzün Fırat
Lateral epicondylitis is a chronic angiofibroblastic degeneration of the origins of the wrist extensor muscles and is characterized by diffuse elbow pain. Although it is the most common syndrome of the elbow joint, the most affected structure is the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscle. Several theories have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of lateral epicondylitis, however, there is no evidence to show that the sarcomere length and microanatomical features of the ECRB muscle can be affected by the elongated position of the muscle...
September 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Huapeng Sun, Aixia Tian, Jin Zhang, Xiaofeng Liao, Na Zhang
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the tumor-suppressing factor myogenicity differentiation factor (MyoD) against high metastatic colorectal cancer through its powerful transformation by which the tumor cells were converted into muscle cells or other cells to inhibit the malignant proliferation of tumor cells. METHODS: The roles of MyoD in colon cancer proliferation, invasion and migration were analyzed by CCK-8 assay and Transwell, and EMT by real-time PCR and Western blot...
September 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Jose Luiz Villaça Avoglio
There is large support in literature linking tinnitus to dental occlusion and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). However, there is no model to explain such a link. This hypothesis explains how the fusimotor system of the muscles innervated by the trigeminal motor nucleus is affected by inadequacies in the occlusion of the teeth that cause changes in posture and movement of the mandible. Reptile to mammal evolution shows that stomatognathic structures underwent changes related to mastication. Among several changes, there was the appearance of a new articulation between the mandible and skull: the temporomandibular joint...
September 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Sean O'Connor
Forward models allow individuals to learn to predict the sensory consequences of their own behavior. Social forward models have been proposed as an extension of forward models, allowing individuals to learn to predict the response of another to the individual's own behavior. This article proposes similarly that an individual who treats their reflection as another may learn to predict the behavior of their reflection, offering a new perspective on mirror self-recognition and a potential framework through which to investigate visual delusions...
September 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Martina Baiardo Redaelli, Alberto Zangrillo, Vanesa Gregorc, Fabio Ciceri, Lorenzo Dagna, Yamume Tshomba, Paolo Navalesi, Giovanni Landoni
Cancer is the second cause of death worldwide, but current therapies are often insufficient or linked with toxicity. Initial evidence in scientific literature seems to support the role of non-pharmacological strategies, including hypoglycemia, in cancer treatment. The biological rationale for hypoglycemia-based treatment of cancer resides in the evidence that cancer cells predominantly utilize glucose as an energy source; notably, cancer cells seem to have damaged glycolysis regulation and few, defective mitochondria showing impaired oxidative phosphorylation...
September 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Turab Selçuk, Ahmet Alkan
Microaneurysms are lesions in the shape of small circular dilations which result from thinning in peripheral retinal blood vessels due to diabetes and increasing intra-retinal blood pressure. Because it is considered as the most important clinical finding in the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy, accurate detection of these lesions bear utmost importance in the early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. The present study aims to accurately, effectively and automatically detect microaneurysms which are difficult to detect in color fundus images in early stage...
August 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Carrie Falling, Simon Stebbings, G David Baxter, Ramakrishnan Mani
Pain is reported to affect over 70% of individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), with abdominal and musculoskeletal (MSK) pain representing the most common complaints. MSK pain is typically considered within the narrow framework of inflammatory extraintestinal manifestations of IBD, resulting in a limited scope for the nature and underlying mechanisms participating in MSK pain experiences in this population. Symptoms related to central sensitization have recently demonstrated association with active IBD and worse MSK pain experiences, suggesting a potential roll for central mechanisms in MSK-related pain...
August 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Janice Block
Herein it is hypothesized that M2-like macrophages or pre-macrophages of fetal origin might play a central role in development and closure of the neural tube. Early in embryonic development, pre-macrophages arise from the fetal yolk sac and track through the bloodstream to reach diverse embryonic tissues, where they mature. Most of these macrophages exhibit an M2-like phenotype. The critical period for neural tube closure is contained within the period of yolk sac-derived pre-macrophage tracking and distribution, which poses a question: might these pre-macrophages or macrophages exert an influence on the closing neural tube? Evidence suggests that perturbations in macrophage polarization or M2 macrophage function might contribute to the failure of neural tube closure associated with diabetes mellitus, one carbon metabolism (including folic acid deficit), inositol, arachidonic acid, and sphingosine-1-phosphate, as well as in the teratogenicity of nitric acid, valproic acid, and fumonisin...
August 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Derrick Lonsdale
A huge number of proteins that occur in the body have to be folded into a specific shape in order to become functional. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids and the folding process is exquisitely complex. When this folding process is inhibited, the respective protein is referred to as being misfolded and nonfunctional. So the hypothesis that follows is in regard to the diseases that are caused by the misfolding of vital proteins and their reported relationship with thiamin metabolism. These diseases are termed proteopathies and there are at least 50 different conditions in which the mechanism is importantly related to a misfolded protein...
August 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Junhua Ye, Wenbo Zhang, Min Ye
Decompressive craniectomy (DC) plays a significant role in treating refractory intracranial hypertension. During this surgical procedure, part of the skull is removed and the underlying dura mater is open, which can effectively release intracranial pressure. However, in some cases, the decision whether or not to remove the bone flap relies on the surgeon's personal experience. Positive decisions are usually made to avoid massive postoperative cerebral edema and infarction, which can lead to overtreatment. The procedure is related to many side-effects, which may affect the recovery of neurological function...
August 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Tomas Baka, Fedor Simko
Ivabradine decreases heart rate by selective inhibition of the If current in the sinoatrial node. Ivabradine is declared to have no direct effect on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). However, there are some data suggesting an (at least indirect) effect of ivabradine on the ANS. The pathomechanism behind is unclear. Based on the complex of plexuses and ganglia in the heart, the existence of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system (ICNS), also known as the "little brain" of the heart, has been suggested...
August 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Jan H B Geertzen, Marloes C de Beus, Paul C Jutte, Egbert Otten, Rienk Dekker
In the Netherlands, 34% of all major lower limb amputations are at the trans-femoral level. Information and consensus is lacking on the optimal length of the residual length of the femur following the amputation. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that femur length should be kept as long as possible considering construction of the knee unit beneath the socket. Evaluation of the hypothesis: Providing a comprehensive overview of considerations involved in choosing the optimal femur length in a trans-femoral amputation...
August 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Ozan Bahcivan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Matthew T Lewis, Heidi L Lujan, Robert W Wiseman, Stephen E DiCarlo
Type 2 diabetes is a major public health crisis around the world. It is estimated that more than 300 million people worldwide have type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the World Health Organization estimates that deaths from the complications of diabetes will increase by two thirds between 2008 and 2030. Since type 2 diabetes is a major public health crisis, why have the genetic variants for diabetes not been removed from the genome by natural selection? We hypothesize that insulin resistance, a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, and the associated elevation in sympathetic nervous system activity and arterial blood pressure provided an advantage to humans who lived as hunter-gatherers...
August 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Martin J C van Gemert, Cornelis M A Bruijninckx, H A Martino Neumann, Pieter J J Sauer, D Martijn de Bruin, Ton G van Leeuwen
Abnormal growth of infants may indicate disease of the children, thus methods to identify growth disorders are wanted in medicine. We previously showed that two-time-points weight growth velocities at age t, calculated by a commercial software product as [Weight(t) - Weight(t - X)]/X, with X = 448 days, were erroneous due to the long separation of 448 days. We were convinced that shorter X-values would solve this accuracy problem. However, our hypothesis is that: "shorter time separations than 448 days cause a decreased accuracy of numerical weight velocity equations in realistic infant weights until an age of about three years"...
August 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Silvia Maria Lattanzio
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic, painful, heterogeneous, and common disorder carrying a substantial socio-economical burden. It lacks effective cures and its aetiology is still unknown. There exists evidence for central and peripheral neurological contribution to the symptoms but grasping the real source of abnormal nervous system sensitization remains an ongoing challenge. There exists an association between an injury/trauma and the onset of the symptoms, but a causal relationship has not been yet sufficiently supported by scientific evidence...
August 2019: Medical Hypotheses
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