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Medical Hypotheses | Page 2

Seda Arslan Tuncer, Beyza Akılotu, Suat Toraman
Sleep disorders, which negatively affect an individual's daily quality of life, are a common problem for most of society. The most dangerous sleep disorder is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which manifests itself during sleep and can cause the sudden death of patients. Many important parameters related to the diagnosis and treatments of such sleep disorders are simultaneously examined. This process is exhausting and time-consuming for experts and also requires experience; thus, it can cause difference of opinion among experts...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Richard D Semba, Ruin Moaddel, Pingbo Zhang, Christopher E Ramsden, Luigi Ferrucci
Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass, strength, and physical performance that occurs during aging, is highly prevalent among the elderly. Sarcopenia increases the risk of falls, disability, and death. The biological basis for sarcopenia is not well understood. There are no specific preventive or therapeutic strategies for sarcopenia except exercise. The elucidation of biological pathways and identification of therapeutic targets for treating or preventing sarcopenia remain a high priority in aging research...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Ciro Antunes Medeiros
The present article proposes that the language production difficulties of Broca's aphasics may be explained by damage to the brain action planning mechanism. More precisely, the impairment to the ability for performing what Koechlin and Jubaul (2006) called the "successive selection of subordinate segments that constitute" "hierarchically higher action plans" would hamper the capacity to hierarchically combine ideas and communicative goals in the context of language production. It is also proposed how such a hypothesis could be tested by using already existent cognitive tasks in combination to traditional treatments of aphasia...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
German Todorov, Catarina Cunha
Recent studies demonstrated the existence in vivo of various functional DNA structures that differ from the double helix. The G-quadruplex (G4) and intercalated motif (I-motif or IM) DNA structures are formed as knots where, correspondingly, guanines or cytosines on the same strand of DNA bind to each other. There are grounds to believe that G4 and IM sequences play a significant role in regulating gene expression considering their tendency to be found in or near regulatory sites (such as promoters, enhancers, and telomeres) as well as the correlation between the prevalence of G4 or IM conformations and specific phases of cell cycle...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Dun-Xian Tan
Here, a new theory of aging is proposed. This new theory is referred as the Host-Mitochondria Intracellular Innate Immune Theory of Aging (HMIIITA). The main point of this theory is that the aging is rooted from an evolutionary competition, that is, a never ending coevolutionary race between host cells and mitochondria. Mitochondria are the descendants of bacteria. The host cells will inevitably sense their bacterial origin, particularly their circular mtDNA. The host intracellular innate immune pressure (HIIIP) aims to eliminate mtDNA as more as possible while mitochondria have to adapt the HIIIP for survival...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Huda Naas, Amanda Almeida de Oliveira, Tatiana Karpova, Kenia Pedrosa Nunes
Hyperglycemia is a chief factor in diabetes, a complex disease associated with reproductive disorders, mainly testicular dysfunction, which contributes to male infertility. Leydig cells are the predominant cell population in the testis interstitium and, when stimulated, they are capable of initiating immune responses playing crucial roles in the mechanisms related to testis' homeostasis. These cells express TLR4, an innate immune receptor, which is known to be modulated by hyperglycemia in other cell populations and tissue types...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Thiago de Bittencourt Buss, Leonardo Mroginski, Gabriel Moojen de Jesus, Sofia Forcellini, Ana Vitória Lucion Didoné, Fabiana Quoos Mayer, José Eduardo Vargas
To elucidate the genetic architecture of asthma continues to be a challenge for molecular biologists and medical researchers. However, powerful genomic technologies are at disposal to help decipher complete human genomes; the genetic variability in asthma hinders the discovery of common molecular markers for this disease. In this context, we purpose to explore genomic mosaicism on asthma cells' biology as a strategy to discover key mechanisms, which can complement or re-define asthma diagnosis. Recent evidences showed that genomic mosaicism could be a normal event...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
B K Puri, C Ijeh, J A Monro
DNA adducts are associated with a number of diseases, including cancer. Based on a recent report by our group, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that DNA adducts can be removed by means of one or more of the following three intervention programmes: intermittent whole-body hyperthermia; detoxification; and cell repair. The number of DNA adducts and total DNA adduct concentrations were measured in 104 patients who underwent one or more of the three intervention programmes. DNA adduct assessments were carried out on extracted genomic DNA by gas-liquid chromatography, with any DNA adducts found being localised using DNA microarrays...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Mahesh Kandasamy, Ajisha Yesudhas, G P Poornimai Abirami, Risna Kanjirassery Radhakrishnan, Syed Aasish Roshan, Esther Johnson, Vijaya Roobini Ravichandran, Abir Biswas, Sellathamby Shanmugaapriya, Muthuswamy Anusuyadevi, Ludwig Aigner
Neural stem cell (NSC) mediated adult neurogenesis represents the regenerative plasticity of the brain. The functionality of the neurogenic process appears to be operated by neuroblasts, the multipotent immature neuronal population of the adult brain. While neuroblasts have been realized to play a major role in synaptic remodeling and immunogenicity, neurodegenerative disorders have been characterized by failure in the terminal differentiation, maturation, integration and survival of newborn neuroblasts. Advancement in understanding the impaired neuroregenerative process along the neuropathological conditions has currently been limited by lack of an appropriate experimental model of neuroblasts...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Neringa Jucevičiūtė, Indrė Banaitytė, Antanas Vaitkus, Renata Balnytė
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of dopaminergic neuromelanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra. Peripheral melanin, found in skin and hair, and neuromelanin appear to have some characteristics in common and share the same precursor for their synthesis; therefore, skin and hair features could be associated with PD. We hypothesize that earlier age at onset of hair greying, greater tendency to sunburn, difficulty tanning and dysregulation of sebum production are more common among PD patients due to genetically determined lower constitutive amounts of melanin and accumulation of α-synuclein in the skin, which leads to disrupted synthesis of peripheral melanin and dysregulated sebum secretion...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
James P Bennett
Mitochondria likely arose from serial endosymbiosis by early eukaryotic cells and control electron flow to molecular oxygen to facilitate energy transformation. Mitochondria translate between the quantum and macroscopic worlds and utilize quantum tunneling of electrons to reduce activation energy barriers to electron flow. Electron tunneling has been extensively characterized in Complex I of the electron transport chain. Age-related increases in oxidative damage to these electron tunneling systems may account for decreased energy storage found in aged and neurodegenerative disease tissues, such as those from sufferers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD)...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Hirofumi Morioka, Shinji Ijichi, Naomi Ijichi, Yukina Ijichi, Bryan H King
How a social episode is perceived by a person and how the experience affects her/his subsequent behaviors will inevitably and sometimes accidentally vary in each case on the developmental trajectory from the birth of consciousness to death. Both the preceding developmental conditions and the social impact of the episode become a starting point for the following states of human complex conditions, creating the extraordinary diversity that characterizes our complex society. In this evolutionarily carved landscape, genetic factors including stochastic epistasis, environmental modification, and gene-environment interactions are all active...
May 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Neal R Glaviano, David M Bazett-Jones, Grant Norte
Muscle weakness is a common impairment in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP), clinically seen in both the quadriceps and gluteal muscles. These weaknesses have been suggested to result in poor movement patterns, which results in the clinical presentation of pain due to increased stress on the patellofemoral joint. While quadriceps weakness have been identified as a risk factor for the development of PFP, prospective studies have not found gluteal muscle weakness to be a risk factor. Therefore, gluteal muscle weakness may in fact be a consequence of PFP...
May 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Adrian L Lopresti
Psychological and pharmacological interventions are the most common treatments for adult depression. While these interventions have robust evidence supporting their efficacy, there remain up to 60 percent of individuals who do not respond to treatment, or only partially respond. Unfortunately, efforts at improving outcome rates from new or modified versions of psychological or pharmacological interventions have been disappointing. It is argued that increased treatment efficacy for depression may be achieved by utilising integrative or adjunctive treatments...
May 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Kusuma Kumari Garikapati, V V V Ravi Kiran Ammu, Praveen T Krishnamurthy, Pavan Kumar Chintamaneni, Sai Kiran S S Pindiprolu
Type-II Endometrial Cancer (EMC) is one of the most common types of gynaecological cancer affecting more than 2.7 million people worldwide. Clinical evidence shows that adipokines levels are abnormally altered in Type-II EMC and reported to be one of the major responsible factor for uncontrolled proliferation and metastasis in Type-II EMC. Reversing the altered adipokine levels, therefore, help to control Type-II EMC proliferation and metastasis. In the present hypothesis we focus on the possible role of Thiazolidinediones in favourably altering the adipokine levels to benefit in the management of Type-II EMC...
May 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Mehmet Emin Ceylan, Alper Evrensel, Aslıhan Dönmez, Barış Önen Ünsalver, Fatma Duygu Kaya Yertutanol, Ahmet Mete Çom
The current diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry have been developed primarily for evidence-based clinical decision making with both categorical and dimensional approaches having their own advantages and disadvantages. Efforts have been made to improve these classification systems, and we are now at the point where we must expand beyond the one-dimensionality of these systems. In this paper, we propose that psychiatric disorders can be arranged in a three-dimensional classification system according to the degree of dysfunctions on three specific axes in a way that is similar to the arrangement of chemical elements according to their atomic weights in Mendeleyev's periodic table...
May 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Isamu Mori
Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a lifelong sleep disorder associated with orexin/hypocretin deficiency in the central nervous system. In addition to a genetic predisposition, a variety of environmental factors, such as influenza viruses, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this article, a hypothesis is proposed that environmental agents access the olfactory bulb and trigger neuroinflammation, which in turn induces neurodegeneration of orexinergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and other neuronal subpopulations regulating the sleep-wake cycle, which triggers the development of narcolepsy...
May 2019: Medical Hypotheses
P C Lalhmangaihzuali, B Divya Latha, Namdev More, Mounika Choppadandi, Govinda Kapusetti
Every year millions of lacerations and incisions taken place and require an effective methodology to manage the wound for a better life. The primary causes include mechanical trauma and surgical procedures. The rapid healing of the wound is critical to prevent further infection and reduction pain etc. Current options comprise of sutures, staplers, surgical strips and glues, again the intervention depends on the type of wound and the surgeon preference. The current wound closure techniques pose various potent limitations and confronting the problems to create a desired wound closure technique is necessary for faster and effective wound healing management...
May 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Paul D Loprinzi
Memory is a complex cognition that plays a critical role in daily functioning. This review discusses the dynamic effects of acute exercise on memory function, via a hypothesized exercise-memory interaction model, taking into consideration multiple memory systems and exercise parameters.
May 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Rodrigo Núñez-Cortés, César Espinoza-Ordóñez, Paula Pino Pommer, Giselle Horment-Lara, Sofía Pérez-Alenda, Carlos Cruz-Montecinos
Patients undergoing carpal tunnel release surgery may continue to experience pain despite the intervention. This symptom may be modulated by psychosocial factors including depression, catastrophic thinking, and kinesiophobia. Pain neuroscience education (PNE) has been found to be effective when combined with therapeutic exercise in patients with chronic pain, but this strategy has not been evaluated in patients with persistent hand pain. The findings of this study indicate that a single preoperative PNE session in combination with therapeutic exercise does not provide added benefits in comparison to standard preoperative care plus therapeutic exercise...
May 2019: Medical Hypotheses
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