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Medical Hypotheses

Muhammed Khairujjaman Mazumder, Shuvasish Choudhury
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive decline, dementia, and in later stages complete loss of feelings, sensation and death. The global prevalence of the disease is on the rise, and it affects 35-40% of the population above 80 years. The pathological hallmarks of the disease include extra-neuronal deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) as plaques and intra-neuronal hyperphosphorylated tau protein as neurofibrillary tangles, which cause neurodegeneration and cerebral atrophy...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Majid Talafi Noghani, Hasan Namdar
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a highly prevalent, disabling, and costly disorder worldwide. From a long time ago, headaches have been known to be associated with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Headaches originating from gastric complaints were appreciated by Persian Medicine (PM) scholars. Today, functional GI disorders are shown to have high comorbidity with migraines; however, a causal relationship is not accepted today and pathophysiological explanations for this comorbidity are scarce...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Mehmet Engin Tezcan
Remission is the goal of therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, drug free remission has not been investigated adequately. Early and intensive treatment may increase the chances of successful drug free remission. Effect of long term remission while on medical therapy on the success of drug withdrawal has not been previously evaluated in RA. Long term immune suppression has been shown to have beneficial effects on relapse rates in other diseases with dysregulated immune tolerance. Therefore, drug withdrawal could be an acceptable option in RA patients in long term remission...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
E Fiorentino
THE HYPOTHESIS: The habit of snacking and drinking soft beverages between breakfast, lunch and dinner, which is very widespread in the western world, could be a primum movens, thereby contributing to the development and subsequent persistence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). WHAT DOES THE PROPOSED HYPOTHESIS BASED ON?: The high prevalence of GERD suggests that it is very probably caused by factors, which are intrinsic and widespread in a western lifestyle. Ingesting snacks or imbibing soft drinks between breakfast, lunch and dinner causes additional gastric acid secretion, acid pocket formation, and additional transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) with acid reflux; the latter are proportional to the number of ingestions...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Bompei Yasui
To date, there is no clear evidence for memory formation. In this article, we provide a framework to understand how memory is formed. The information collected by sensory organs is converted to a digital current that enters the presynaptic neuron through axonal conductance. Digital waves are converted to analog waves in the synapses. The analog current of information flows into the postsynapse. The degree of Ca2+ influx in the postsynapse is proportional to the voltage of each wave of analog current. The activation (via dephosphorylation) of the phosphorylated phosphatase, Slingshot, is regulated by Ca2+ concentration in the spine...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Ravindra V Badhe, Sonali S Nipate
Millions of people die as a result of fatal injuries accounting for 9% of the total global annual deaths. Non fatal injuries generally result in variety of wounds. The normal wound healing process is slow and takes weeks to months, depending on the type of wound. In last two decades, electrotherapy called low-intensity currents (LIC) for the treatment became popular for faster wound healing, as well as in management of nonresponding and ulcerative wounds. It was reported that LIC mimics 'the current of injury' which is generated by body on wounding and helps in faster wound healing...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
S M Kola, P Kumar, Y E Choonara, L C du Toit, V Pillay
Neurovascular conditions are disorders associated with the blood vessels of the brain that are extremely difficult to treat successfully due to the selectivity and fastidious nature of the blood- brain barrier. Consequently, the efficacy of the pharmacological treatments for these conditions are greatly reduced thereby resulting in large amounts of neurovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Platelets are an important component of blood that actively respond to neurovascular distress in the body. Recent research has proven the effectiveness of platelets as drug delivery vehicles, during circumstances where the body naturally elicits a platelet response...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Sohan Jheeta, David Smith
Our paper briefly reviews the connection of the intestinal microbiome to the rise in non-communicable conditions related to atopic disease, obesity and mental health. We consider that the microbiome is best treated as if it were a single entity and have borrowed the terms semiochemical, allomone and kairomone (5) to describe interspecies relationship between the microbiome and ourselves (Fig. 1). We use the term dysbiosis to describe the breakdown of these relationships leading to disease (Fig. 2). As a result of this analysis we tentatively suggest that components of the microbiome assess microbial antigens in our food and pass this information back to our immune system via as yet undescribed chemical messengers: kairomones...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Fredric Schiffer
Penrose and Hameroff assert that brain computations, including quantum computations, involving hydrophobic areas of microtubules whose electron clouds go into orchestrated superpositions and reductions that lead to proto-conscious elements, or "bings" that become orchestrated into conscious experiences. Their assertion, however, like the findings of the neural correlates of consciousness, does not explain subjectivity, but rather describes necessary conditions for it. Many scientists, including Panksepp, Demasio, and Tononi, have each made great contributions to the field, but none explains how material biological processes acquire subjectivity...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Jeremy P Loenneke, Scott J Dankel, Zachary W Bell, Samuel L Buckner, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Takashi Abe
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy commonly occurs with repeated bouts of resistance exercise as well as following the administration of exogenous drugs. This increase in muscle size is thought to be mechanistically important for the increase in muscle function. However, at present, there is no experimental evidence that would support any paradigm in which muscle hypertrophy is a mechanism for increasing strength with exercise. Therefore, it seems reasonable to also question the importance of changes in muscle size for changes in muscle strength (function) following exogenous drugs as well as aging, where both muscle size and strength decrease...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Zhen Sun, Zhuo-Jing Luo
Osteoporosis and intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) are both age-related diseases of the musculoskeletal system. With the average life expectancy longer than ever, the morbidity caused by these two diseases is increasing. Nowadays, treatment strategies for osteoporosis are mainly aimed at increasing the mineral density of the bone. Some of these therapies, including vitamin D, calcium, bisphosphonates, Wnt signal activators and parathyroid hormone regulators, have been suggested to be capable of causing calcification of the cartilage endplate in the intervertebral disc...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Sture Sjöblad
The globally increasing incidences of Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) can have a common background. If challenged by the contemporary high level of nutritional glucose stimulation, the β-cells in genetically predisposed individuals are at risk for damage which can lead to the diseases. The fat to carbohydrate dietary shift can also contribute to the associated obesity epidemic.
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Francisco Gerson A de Meneses, Gildário Dias Lima, Monara Nunes, Victor Hugo Bastos, Silmar Teixeira
Electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the mechanisms used to collect complex data. Its use includes evaluating neurological disorders, investigating brain function and correlations between EEG signals and real or imagined movements. The Topographic Image of Cortical Activity (TICA) records obtained by the EEG make it possible to observe, through color discrimination, the cortical areas that represent greater or lesser activity. Percolation Theory (PT) reveals properties on the aspects of fluid spreading from a central point, these properties being related to the aspects of the medium, topological characteristics and ease of penetration of a fluid in materials...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Binali Firinci, Ozgur Caglar, Erdem Karadeniz, Ali Ahiskalioglu, Tuba Demirci, Mehmet Dumlu Aydin
BACKGROUND: Although olfaction has been considered as important neuroimmunomodulatory foundation, there is no satisfying analytical information between neurohistomorphological features olfactory networks and intestinal immune system hardwares. We studied if the olfactory bulb lesions (OBL) may rely on histopathological features of intestinal lymphatic Peyer's patches in an animal model. METHODS: Thirty-two rats were grouped as control (Group I, n = 8), SHAM (Group II, n = 7) and OBL (Group III, n = 17) respectively; and followed eight weeks and animals were decapitated...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Amar Pujari, Rohit Saxena, Swati Phuljhele, Karthika Bhaskaran, Shabeer Basheer, Pradeep Sharma
Optic nerve avulsion following peri-orbital trauma is an enigmatic clinical entity. Several mechanisms and ideas have been put forward to derive a logical conclusion, however, each factor independently does not appear to explain the mechanism in a logical way, therefore, here we elaborate the probable chain of events responsible for this complication. During isolated blunt trauma to the orbital framework, the globe continues to move anteriorly without any active resistance, in contrast to the globe, the optic nerve with more delicate bony and soft tissue relations, likely to remain relatively static...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Amr Salem
Despite the vast advancement made in endovascular practice, it is still lacking the long-term success of open surgery in treating critical limb ischemia. In Bypass surgery excess length of the graft is cut to straighten it between the arterial anastomoses to avoid any excess length, in order to make sure that there will be no curves, but in endovascular approach this option is not available. In endovascular procedures, there are factors affecting negatively the long-term results. These factors contribute to excess length of the arterial wall, which is exaggerated after balloon dilatation...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
K P C Kuypers
Psychedelic substances have regained interest as therapeutic agents in the treatment of stress-related disorders. The effects seem to be of persisting nature even after a single dose. Also in lower than 'regular' recreational doses, so-called micro-doses, without the typical effects on consciousness, users report beneficial effects on cognitive processes and well-being. The exact neurobiological mechanism underlying these persisting effects is not clear. While previous research has mainly focused on the central nervous system including the immune system and the neuroendocrine system, I propose a central role for sleep and the microbiome in the effects of regular and low doses of psychedelics respectively...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Jing-Zhang Wang, Yu-Hua Zhang, Wen-Tao Du, Guang Liu, Xiang-Yang Zhang, Shu-Zhen Cheng, Xin-Hua Guo
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a major threat to health worldwide, but today's methods for recovering heart function are limited, which is due largely to the deficient proliferative capacity of adult cardiomyocytes in the human body. To successfully overwhelm this deficiency, we propose a promising hypoxic therapy and highlight its unique role in directly eliciting endogenous myocardial regeneration in vivo. In the hypothesis, sufficient oxygen could be a restrictive factor of myocardial growth, whereas a moderate hypoxia might stimulate cardiomyocyte proliferation and enhance myocardial regeneration, heart weight and cardiac function recovery...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Abdolreza Esmaeilzadeh, Shabnam Pouyan, Maryam Erfanmanesh
Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries associated with lipids and other metabolic alterations is a leading cause of death all around the world and its rate is raising as a result of unhealthy lifestyles. Reports by World Health Organization indicate that 31% of all death occurrences are due to heart attacks and strokes. Today, the most common medicines for treating atherosclerosis are statins which are HMG-coA reductase inhibitors. Beside their benefits in treating atherosclerosis, some side effects have been reported as well...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Mohammad Javed Ali, Friedrich Paulsen
Primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) is a syndrome of unknown etiology, predominantly affecting post-menopausal females, characterized by progressive inflammation, fibrosis and subsequent obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. Numerous factors have been proposed as possible etiologic factors and include anatomical configuration, ocular and nasal infections, peri-lacrimal vascular disorders, hormonal influence, lacrimal drainage lymphoid tissue, gastroesophageal reflux disease, topical medications, swimming pool exposure, smoking, genetic factors, autonomic and lysosomal dysregulation...
April 2019: Medical Hypotheses
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