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Medical Hypotheses

Victoria Bertoni, Chiara Nicoletti, Braian M Beker, Carlos G Musso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Peter Wostyn
Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Primary open-angle glaucoma, the most common type, is characterized by progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons in the optic nerve, resulting in progressive deterioration of visual fields. The optic nerve head is generally considered to be the primary site of axonal injury in glaucoma. Although the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic neuropathy is not well understood, elevated intraocular pressure is considered the most important modifiable risk factor...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
A Cabizosu, N Carboni, A Figus, J M Vegara-Meseguer, G Casu, P Hernández Jiménez, A Martinez-Almagro Andreo
HYPOTHESIS: The hypothesis of this work is that infrared thermography could become a valid tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of the Emery-Dreifuss disease due to putative temperature changes produced by a constant degenerative evolution of this muscular dystrophy. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS: To justify this hypothesis we proposed a pilot study with 2 brothers affected of Emery-Dreifuss who present a very different age, with the principal objective to evidence a possible evolution of this pathology...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
N Boutrid, H Rahmoune
We read with deep interest the recent article published on "Medical Hypotheses" about migraine and associated gastrointestinal disorders. Beyond the exhaustive pathophysiological explanations, we would address some relevant points to the role of melatonin as well as the high potential of intestinal microbiota in such conditions.
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
R Bianucci, L Abenavoli, P Charlier, D Lippi, O Appenzeller, A Perciaccante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Jozef Čonka, Veronika Melišková, Roman Gardlík, Július Hodosy, Peter Celec, Ľubomíra Tóthová
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections. Drinking more liquids increases the frequency of urination and it is recommended as part of the prevention and/or management of UTI. The intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is associated with obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, cola and other SSB increase liquid intake and diuresis and could, thus, affect the risk of UTI and its complications. We hypothesize that intake of cola has a protective effect on UTI and pyelonephritis...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Colin Pritchard, Anne Silk, Lars Hansen
Whilst humans evolved in the earth's Electro-Magnetic-Field (EMF) and sun-light, both being essential to life but too much sun and we burn. What happens if background EMF rise to critical levels, coinciding with increasing environmental pollutants? Two of the authors can look back over 50 clinical years and appreciate the profound changes in human morbidity across a range of disparate conditions - autoimmune diseases, asthma, earlier cancer incidence and reduced male sperm counts. In particular have been increased autism, dyslexia, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and neurological diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease, Early Onset Dementia, Multiple System Atrophy and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Richard Baskerville
The increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes transcends all cultures, largely due to populations transitioning from traditional diets and manual occupations, to sedentary, calorific lifestyles. Excess calorie intake leads to intramuscular fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Physical inactivity causes underutilization of mitochondria causing dysfunction and inflammation. Both insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction mechanisms are known to be closely related and to antagonise one another, although the precise nature of the relationship has eluded characterization...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
J D Hendrie, A Chauhan, N R Nelson, L B Anthony
Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPi) therapy has transformed the way we treat cancer. However, its immune related adverse events (irAEs) can be debilitating and life threatening. Immune therapy-induced diarrhea (ITID) is one of the most commonly encountered irAEs and can lead to expensive and prolonged hospitalizations. The current standard of care for grade 3 or 4 ITID involves ICPi discontinuation, the initiation of steroids, and infliximab for refractory disease. This treatment regimen reverses the desired anti-tumor effect of ICPis, can lead to side effects, and is cost-ineffective...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Alain A Gonfalone
Dream periods during sleep have been observed in most mammals as early in history as antiquity. Sleep researchers at the University of Chicago, discovered the phase of rapid eye movement (REM) during sleep and connected it to the dream period. During this period, called the REM phase (after the American terminology), although the brain shows electrical activity, it is insensitive to external stimulations, including light, sound, contact and, a little unexpectedly, gravity. However, since this discovery was mаde there has been no definitive explanation of the rapid eye movements Many possible explanations have been offered, and yet, the causes and contributing factors of the REM sleep phase are inadequately understood...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Jelle F Homans, Steven de Reuver, Elemi J Breetvelt, Jacob A S Vorstman, Vincent F X Deeney, John M Flynn, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, Moyo C Kruyt, René M Castelein
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), defined as a lateral deviation of the spine of at least ten degrees, is a classic enigma in orthopaedics and affects 1-4% of the general population. Despite (over) a century of intensive research, the etiology is still largely unknown. One of the major problems in all existing AIS research is the fact that most patients come to medical attention after onset of the curve. Therefore, it is impossible to know whether current investigated parameters are causative, or an effect of the scoliosis...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Svetlana I Alekseenko, Anatoly V Skalny, Olga P Ajsuvakova, Margarita G Skalnaya, Svetlana V Notova, Alexey A Tinkov
Chronis rhinosinusitis is considered as a widespread public health issue with a prevalence of 10%. The disease significantly reduces quality of life and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases as well as certain forms of cancer. Alteration of mucociliary clearance frequently observed in the patients and plays a significant role in disease pathogenesis. Certain studies have demonstrated that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis are characterized by significant reduction of essential trace elements and toxic metal overload...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Réda Belhaj Soulami, Miguel Castro, Pascal Haigron, Jean-Philippe Verhoye
BACKGROUND: Valve-in-valve is established as a safe and efficient alternative to redo surgery in the treatment of structural valve deterioration (SVD). In vitro models rely on the radiopaque landmarks of undeteriorated tissue valves to establish the optimal implantation level of the transcatheter heart valves inside the deteriorated valves. In computed assisted procedures, the radiopaque landmarks of the deteriorated valves may be used to guide valve implantation through image fusion...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Natalia Bertini, Chiara Nicoletti, Braian M Beker, Carlos G Musso
Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder found in clinical practice, particularly in hospitalized elderly patients, where it is associated with fractures, falls, hospital readmission, prolonged hospital stay and increased mortality. Pathophysiologically, hyponatremia can be induced by the reduction in sodium or potassium body content, and/or the increase in water body content. Sarcopenia is an ageing-associated progressive and generalized loss of musculoskeletal mass and strength which leads to low physical performance, particularly in the frail elderly...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Morteza Zangeneh Soroush, Keivan Maghooli, Seyed Kamaledin Setarehdan, Ali Motie Nasrabadi
Emotions play an important role in our life. Emotion recognition which is considered a subset of brain computer interface (BCI), has drawn a great deal of attention during recent years. Researchers from different fields have tried to classify emotions through physiological signals. Nonlinear analysis has been reported to be successful and effective in emotion classification due to the nonlinear and non-stationary behavior of biological signals. In this study, phase space reconstruction and Poincare planes are employed to describe the dynamics of electroencephalogram (EEG) in emotional states...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Jenna Cheng, Brenda Eskenazi, Felicia Widjaja, José F Cordero, Robert L Hendren
BACKGROUND: Current understanding of the etiology of autism is based on the interaction of multiple genes with each other and with environmental factors, leading to a neurodevelopmental process that results in the expression of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the child. This suggests that it might be possible to strengthen resilience to environmental stressors during the perinatal period to improve outcomes and possibly prevent the development of ASD. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE database for multiple perinatal factors associated with the development of ASD published between January 1, 2005 and July 1, 2018...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Yukio Ochi
The theory that antibody (Ab) directed against the TSH receptor (TSHR) (TSHRAb) is the causal factor of Graves' disease seems unlikely. Corticosteroids have not had a curative effect on the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease despite their effectiveness for other autoimmune diseases. Two kinds of TSHRAb, thyroid-stimulating Ab (TSAb) and thyroid-blocking Ab (TBAb), are known as causal factors of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, respectively. Previously, we reported that TSAb may be thyroid stimulating animal IgG-like hormone and TBAb may be the precursor of TSAb...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Susanne Spanier, Hannah M Kilian, Dora M Meyer, Thomas E Schlaepfer
Treatment resistant major depression is accompanied with a sizable impact on quality of life with severe consequences for social integrity, individual health and socioeconomic state. In- and outpatient care of patients with treatment resistant major depression remains very challenging for both patients and the health system. One reason is the limited knowledge on the etiology of treatment resistance in major depression resulting difficulties developing efficient treatment strategies for this group of severe depressed patients...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Z Linneman, C Reis, K Balaji, J Moore, S Braude
While it appears that there are a variety of factors that exacerbate IBD, it is frustrating that symptoms can persist and worsen even when environmental insults are removed. We suggest that there may be a positive feedback loop which perpetuates the inflammatory response in IBD patients. The loop is triggered by vitamin D deficiency which reduces calcium uptake. Lowered vitamin D and calcium interfere with anti-inflammatory pathways. Inflammation of the mucosa inhibits absorption of calcium and thus perpetuates the reduced anti-inflammatory response...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
P H Wise
The high prevalence of deleterious polygenic type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a paradox requiring explanation beyond food excess, inactivity and the obesity resulting from positive energy balance. Historically, hunting-foraging and later agrarian communities often manifested a converse negative energy balance due to nutritional deficit and/or high physical energy demand - both potentially resulting in hypoglycaemia. Since hypoglycaemia impairs both reproductive fitness and cognitive function, it is proposed that that by expressing resistance to hypoglycaemia, T2D phenotypes were subject to positive selection...
June 2019: Medical Hypotheses
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