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Journal of Chemical Ecology | Page 2

Thomas Fabisch, Jonathan Gershenzon, Sybille B Unsicker
The specificity of woody plant defense responses to different attacking herbivores is poorly known. We investigated the responses of black poplar (Populus nigra) to leaf feeding by three lepidopteran species (Lymantria dispar, Laothoe populi and Amata mogadorensis) and two leaf beetle species (Phratora vulgatissima and Chrysomela populi). Of the direct defenses monitored, increases in trypsin protease inhibitor activity and the salicinoid salicin were triggered by herbivore damage, but this was not herbivore-specific...
February 21, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Saliou Niassy, Amanuel Tamiru, James G C Hamilton, William D J Kirk, Roland Mumm, Cassie Sims, Willem Jan de Kogel, Sunday Ekesi, Nguya K Maniania, Krishnakumari Bandi, Fraser Mitchell, Sevgan Subramanian
Aggregation of the bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has been observed on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. To understand the mechanism underpinning this behavior, we studied the responses of M. sjostedti to headspace volatiles from conspecifics in a four-arm olfactometer. Both male and female M. sjostedti were attracted to male, but not to female odor. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses revealed the presence of two distinct compounds in male M...
February 21, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Lea C Böttinger, John Hofferberth, Joachim Ruther, Johannes Stökl
Deciphering the processes driving the evolution of the diverse pheromone-mediated chemical communication system of insects is a fascinating and challenging task. Understanding how pheromones have arisen has been supported by studies with the model organism Leptopilina heterotoma, a parasitoid wasp whose defensive compound (-)-iridomyrmecin also evolved as a component of the female sex pheromone and as a cue to avoid competition with other females during host search. To understand how compounds can evolve from being non-communicative to having a communicative function and to shed light on the evolution of the multi-functional use of iridomyrmecin in the genus Leptopilina, the chemical communication of two additional species, L...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Fabian R Ortiz-Carreon, Julio C Rojas, Juan Cisneros, Edi A Malo
Chelonus insularis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an egg-larval endoparasitoid that attacks several lepidopteran species, including the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, as one of its main hosts. In this study, we identified the volatiles emitted by maize plants undamaged and damaged by S. frugiperda larvae that were attractive to virgin C. insularis females. In a Y-glass tube olfactometer, parasitoid females were more attracted to activated charcoal extracts than Porapak Q maize extracts. Chemical analysis of activated charcoal extracts from maize plants damaged by S...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jason Lancaster, Bryan Lehner, Ashot Khrimian, Andrew Muchlinski, Katrin Luck, Tobias G Köllner, Donald C Weber, Dawn E Gundersen-Rindal, Dorothea Tholl
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Under the heading "Insects" in "Methods and Materials" the sentence "A colony of N. viridula originated with field collections near Tifton, Georgia, USA" is incorrect.
February 2, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Lauren J Brzozowski, Michael Mazourek, Anurag A Agrawal
Although crop wild ancestors are often reservoirs of resistance traits lost during domestication, examining diverse cultivated germplasm may also reveal novel resistance traits due to distinct breeding histories. Using ten cultivars from two independent domestication events of Cucurbita pepo (ssp. pepo and texana), we identified divergences in constitutive and induced resistance measured by growth of generalist caterpillars and leaf traits. C. p. texana cultivars were consistently more resistant to Trichoplusia ni and Spodoptera exigua, and this was not due to expected mechanisms including cucurbitacins, nitrogen, sticky phloem sap, or toxicity...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
R Maxwell Collignon, Jonathan A Cale, J Steven McElfresh, Jocelyn G Millar
Many species of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) utilize male-produced aggregation-sex pheromones that attract both sexes. However, the reasons why and the details of how this type of pheromone is used by cerambycids and other coleopteran species that utilize analogous male-produced pheromones remain unclear. Thus, our goals were to test the hypotheses that 1) cerambycids respond to pheromones in a dose-dependent (= release rate-dependent) manner and 2) pheromone emission is density-dependent. If true, these characteristics of pheromone use could suggest that cerambycids utilize an optimal density strategy to limit competition for scarce and ephemeral hosts, i...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Zoltán Tóth, Anikó Kurali, Ágnes M Móricz, Attila Hettyey
Possessing toxins can contribute to an efficient defence against various threats in nature. However, we generally know little about the energy- and time-demands of developing toxicity in animals, which determines the efficiency of chemical defence and its trade-off with other risk-induced phenotypic responses. In this study we examined how immersion into norepinephrine solution inducing the release of stored toxins, administration of mild stress mimicking predator attack or simple handling during experimental procedure affected the quantity and number of toxin compounds present in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles as compared to undisturbed control individuals, and investigated how fast toxin reserves were restored...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Gherardo Bogo, Laura Bortolotti, Simona Sagona, Antonio Felicioli, Marta Galloni, Marta Barberis, Massimo Nepi
Nectar mediates complex interactions between plants and animals. Recent research has focused on nectar secondary compounds that may play a role in regulating some of these interactions. These compounds may affect the behavior of nectar feeders by interacting with their neurobiology. Non-protein amino acids (NPAAs) can constitute a large portion of the amino acid content of floral nectar, but their ecological function has, to date, not been investigated. In this study, we tested the effects of diets with low and high concentrations of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and β-alanine on the survival and behavior of Bombus terrestris and Apis mellifera...
January 6, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Elvira S De Lange, Jordano Salamanca, James Polashock, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona
Herbivorous insects are important problems in cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) production. The use of chemical pesticides is common practice, but beneficial insects such as natural enemies of herbivores (e.g. predators and parasitoids) could be affected as well. Therefore, we studied the defensive mechanisms that cranberry plants use to combat pests, focusing on herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), which can be used to recruit predators and parasitoids foraging for prey or hosts. Then, we used synthetic HIPVs to test the attraction of natural enemies...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Hong-Lei Wang, Mario Baldessari, Gianfranco Anfora, Erik J van Nieukerken, Christer Löfstedt
Two heliozelid species, Antispila oinophylla van Nieukerken & Wagner and Holocacista rivillei (Stainton) severely infest Italian grapevines. The volatile pheromones from calling females were collected by solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). Two compounds from A. oinophylla females eliciting electrophysiological activity from the conspecific male antenna were identified as (Z)-5-tetradecenal and (Z)-7-tetradecenal by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis...
January 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Kevin R Cloonan, Fernando Sanchez-Pedraza, Yucheng Zhou, M Monica Giusti, Betty Benrey
Highbush blueberry is a crop native to the northeast USA that has been domesticated for about 100 years. This study compared the susceptibility of wild and domesticated/cultivated highbush blueberries to an invasive frugivorous pest, the spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii). We hypothesized that: 1) cultivated fruits are preferred by D. suzukii for oviposition and better hosts for its offspring than wild fruits; and, 2) wild and cultivated fruits differ in physico-chemical traits. Fruits from wild and cultivated blueberries were collected from June through August of 2015 and 2016 from 10 to 12 sites in New Jersey (USA); with each site having wild and cultivated blueberries growing in close proximity...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Armin Tröger, Glenn P Svensson, David M Althoff, Kari A Segraves, Robert A Raguso, Wittko Francke
The hydrocarbon pattern in the floral scent of Yucca species was found to comprise a group of unbranched, mid-chain alkanes, alkenes, and an alkadiene. In Y. reverchonii, highly dominant (Z)-8-heptadecene is accompanied by (6Z,9Z)-6,9-heptadecadiene and heptadecane as minor components and by traces of other saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with similar chain length. Some of these volatiles proved to be perceived by the antennae of Tegeticula cassandra (pollinating seed-eater of Yucca) and Prodoxus decipiens (herbivore on Yucca)...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Tobias Züst, Georg Petschenka, Amy P Hastings, Anurag A Agrawal
Cardenolides are classically studied steroidal defenses in chemical ecology and plant-herbivore coevolution. Although milkweed plants (Asclepias spp.) produce up to 200 structurally different cardenolides, all compounds seemingly share the same well-characterized mode of action, inhibition of the ubiquitous Na+ /K+ ATPase in animal cells. Over their evolutionary radiation, milkweeds show a quantitative decline of cardenolide production and diversity. This reduction is contrary to coevolutionary predictions and could represent a cost-saving strategy, i...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Alba Lázaro-González, José A Hódar, Regino Zamora
Stress caused by parasitic plants, e.g. mistletoes, alters certain host-plant traits as a response. While several physical implications of the parasite-host relation have been well studied, shifts in the host chemical profile remain poorly understood. Here we compare the chemical profiles of mistletoe (Viscum album subsp. austriacum) leaves and host pine (Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii) needles and we investigate chemical changes in host needles of trees with different parasite loads (control, low, medium, and high)...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Daniel N Anstett, Iris Cheval, Caitlyn D'Souza, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Marc T J Johnson
Phenolics have a role in defenses against herbivores, but the defensive functions of specific groups of phenolics are still poorly understood. For example, ellagitannins (a type of hydrolyzable tannin) are predicted to decrease insect herbivore performance, but the effect of different types of ellagitannins on generalist and specialist herbivores has rarely been assessed. Here, we test the effects of the dominant oligomeric ellagitannins of Oenothera biennis and other Onagraceae on herbivore performance. We fed artificial diets containing between 1 and 100 mg/g of polyphenol fractions comprised of varying amounts and compositions of dimeric oenothein B, the trimeric oenothein A and larger oligomers, to one generalist (Spodoptera exigua) and one specialist (Schinia florida) insect herbivore species...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Stephen P Foster, Karin G Anderson
Aldehydes are components of many moth sex pheromones, and are thought to be produced from analogous alcohols by oxidase(s) in the cell membrane or the gland cuticle. This implies that the two types of components are produced and/or stored in different parts of the gland: alcohols in cells and aldehydes in cuticle. Few studies have investigated the distribution of components in moth pheromone glands. Using rinse/extract sampling, stable isotope tracer/tracee methods, and decapitation/ pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide stimulation, we studied production and distribution of (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and (Z)-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH) in the gland of Chloridea virescens (formerly Heliothis virescens)...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jan Buellesbach, Brian A Whyte, Elizabeth Cash, Joshua D Gibson, Kelsey J Scheckel, Rebecca Sandidge, Neil D Tsutsui
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), the dominant fraction of the insects' epicuticle and the primary barrier to desiccation, form the basis for a wide range of chemical signaling systems. In eusocial insects, CHCs are key mediators of nestmate recognition, and colony identity appears to be maintained through a uniform CHC profile. In the unicolonial Argentine ant Linepithema humile, an unparalleled invasive expansion has led to vast supercolonies whose nestmates can still recognize each other across thousands of miles...
December 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Elina Mäntylä, Sven Kleier, Carita Lindstedt, Silke Kipper, Monika Hilker
Insectivorous birds feed upon all developmental stages of herbivorous insects, including insect eggs if larvae and adults are unavailable. Insect egg deposition on plants can induce plant traits that are subsequently exploited by egg parasitoids searching for hosts. However, it is unknown whether avian predators can also use egg-induced plant changes for prey localization. Here, we studied whether great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) are attracted by traits of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) induced by pine sawfly (Diprion pini) egg deposition...
December 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Daniel S Bush, Joel P Siegel, May R Berenbaum
The navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) and the fungus Aspergillus flavus constitute a facultative mutualism and pest complex in tree nut and fruit orchards in California. The possibility exists that the broad detoxification capabilities of A. flavus benefit its insect associate by metabolizing toxicants, including hostplant phytochemicals and pesticides. We examined this hypothesis by conducting laboratory bioassays to assess growth rates and survivorship of pyrethroid-resistant (R347) and susceptible (CPQ) larval strains on potato dextrose agar diet containing almond meal with and without two furanocoumarins, xanthotoxin and bergapten, found in several hostplants, and with and without two insecticides, bifenthrin and spinetoram, used in almond and pistachio orchards...
December 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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