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Journal of Chemical Ecology

Béla Péter Molnár, Zsolt Kárpáti, Antal Nagy, István Szarukán, Judit Csabai, Sándor Koczor, Miklós Tóth
The box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis, is an invasive pest in Europe causing damage on Buxus species. In this study, we aimed to develop a "bisexual" lure to attract both female and male moths. Based on a previous screening bioassay we tested methyl salicylate, phenylacetaldehyde and eugenol as potential attractants in different combinations. The trapping results showed that both binary and ternary blends attracted male and female moths. Catches with these blends were comparable to catches with the synthetic pheromone...
August 13, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Marco Mangiacotti, Stefano Pezzi, Marco Fumagalli, Alan Jioele Coladonato, Patrizia d'Ettorre, Chloé Leroy, Xavier Bonnet, Marco A L Zuffi, Stefano Scali, Roberto Sacchi
Animals modulate intraspecific signal shape and intensity, notably during reproductive periods. Signal variability typically follows a seasonal scheme, traceable through the expression of visual, acoustic, chemical and behavioral patterns. The chemical channel is particularly important in lizards, as demonstrated by well-developed epidermal glands in the cloacal region that secrete lipids and proteins recognized by conspecifics. In males, the seasonal pattern of gland activity is underpinned by variation of circulating androgens...
August 13, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Ashen Oleander, David R Hall, Daniel P Bray, Joseph P J Burman
Pheromone-baited traps can be excellent tools for sensitive detection of insects of conservation concern. Here, identification of the sex pheromone of Trichopteryx polycommata (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775), an under-recorded UK priority species, is reported. In analyses of extracts of the pheromone glands of female T. polycommata by gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic recording from the antenna of a male moth, a single active component was detected. This was identified as (Z,Z)-6,9-nonadecadiene (Z,Z6,9-19:H) by comparison of its mass spectrum and retention times with those of the synthetic standard...
August 13, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Enakshi Ghosh, Radhika Venkatesan
Plants emit a specific blend of volatiles in response to herbivory and these volatiles, which often attract predators and parasitoids function as an indirect plant defense. The impact of plant volatiles in shaping herbivore defenses is unclear. Here, we report that specific plant volatiles induce immune responses in the polyphagous herbivore, Spodoptera litura. We characterized the hemocyte profile and established their functional significance with respect to ontogeny and exposure to specific plant volatiles...
August 6, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Sulav Paudel, Po-An Lin, Majid R Foolad, Jared G Ali, Edwin G Rajotte, Gary W Felton
Crop domestication and selective breeding have altered plant defense mechanisms, influencing insect-plant interactions. A reduction in plant resistance/tolerance against herbivory is generally expected in domesticated species, however, limited efforts have been made to compare inducibility of plant defenses between wild and domesticated genotypes. In the present study, the inducibility of several plant defense mechanisms (e.g. defensive chemicals, trichomes, plant volatiles) were investigated, and the performance and preference of the herbivore Helicoverpa zea were measured in three different tomato genotypes; a) wild tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium L...
August 1, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Gabriel Villar, Abraham Hefetz, Christina M Grozinger
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens produce pheromones responsible for mediating both male mating behavior and many critical facets of worker social organization within their colony. These pheromones are dynamic multi-component blends, allowing the communication of detailed information. Indeed, variation in the queen's mating and reproductive state is associated with significant changes in her pheromone profiles, and these different pheromone profiles elicit different behavioral and physiological responses in female workers...
July 24, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Carlos F Pinto, D Torrico-Bazoberry, M Penna, R Cossio-Rodríguez, R Cocroft, H Appel, H M Niemeyer
Plants are able to sense their environment and respond appropriately to different stimuli. Vibrational signals (VS) are one of the most widespread yet understudied ways of communication between organisms. Recent research into the perception of VS by plants showed that they are ecologically meaningful signals involved in different interactions of plants with biotic and abiotic agents. We studied changes in the concentration of alkaloids in tobacco plants induced by VS produced by Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a generalist caterpillar that naturally feeds on the plant...
July 17, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Miklós Tóth, Lorenzo Furlan, István Szarukán, Antal Nagy, József Vuts, Teodora Toshova, Dimitar Velchev, Zsófia Lohonyai, Zoltán Imrei
Agriotes ustulatus is an economically important click beetle in Europe. A female-produced pheromone, (E,E)-farnesyl acetate, has been identified and is used for monitoring and detecting males. More recently, a floral lure targeting females with modest, but significant, activity has been described. Based on preliminary data, we hypothesized, that similar to the effects on the congeneric A. brevis, addition of the pheromone to the floral lure should improve female A. ustulatus catches. Also, as click beetles have been reported to respond to white light, we studied possible interactions between visual and chemical cues...
July 16, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Chia-Ming Liu, Shigeru Matsuyama, Yooichi Kainoh
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are important cues for natural enemies to find their hosts. HIPVs are usually present as blends and the effects of combinations of individual components are less studied. Here, we investigated plant volatiles in a tritrophic system, comprising the parasitoid wasp Lytopylus rufipes Nees (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), the Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and Japanese pear, Pyrus pyrifolia 'Kosui', so as to elucidate the effects of single components and blends on wasp behaviors...
July 10, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Amanda R Meier, Mark D Hunter
Plants use volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to cue natural enemies to their herbivore prey on plants. Simultaneously, herbivores utilize volatile cues to identify appropriate hosts. Despite extensive efforts to understand sources of variation in plant communication by VOCs, we lack an understanding of how ubiquitous belowground mutualists, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), influence plant VOC emissions. In a full factorial experiment, we subjected plants of two milkweed (Asclepias) species under three levels of AMF availability to damage by aphids (Aphis nerii)...
July 8, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Ian W Keesey, Nanji Jiang, Jerrit Weißflog, Robert Winz, Aleš Svatoš, Chen-Zhu Wang, Bill S Hansson, Markus Knaden
Since the first reports of damage by Drosophila suzukii, the spotted-wing Drosophila (SWD), over a decade ago in Europe, widespread efforts have been made to understand both the ecology and the evolution of this insect pest, especially due to its phylogenetic proximity to one of the original model organisms, D. melanogaster. In addition, researchers have sought to find economically viable solutions for the monitoring and management of this agricultural pest, which has now swept across much of Europe, North America and Asia...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Chiharu Suzuki, Tamako Miyazaki, Tetsuro Yamashita, Masao Miyazaki
Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are solitary and territorial, and mark their territories by spraying urine, which emits a strong odor produced by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Previous studies have focused on identifications of specific VOCs, such as 3-mercpto-3-methyl-1-butanol, a cat-specific VOCs. However, little is known about how whole volatile profiles of their sprayed urine change over time or how the profiles differ among individuals. This study investigated temporal changes and individual differences of volatile profiles produced by whole VOCs in cat urine, and the ability of cats to discriminate between these scent differences...
June 29, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Mikael A Molander, Inis B Winde, Joseph Burman, Franklin N Nyabuga, Tobias U T Lindblom, Lawrence M Hanks, Jocelyn G Millar, Mattias C Larsson
Longhorn beetles are ecologically important insects in forest ecosystems as decomposers of woody substrates, microhabitat engineers, and as components of forest food webs. These species can be greatly affected both positively and negatively by modern forestry management practices, and should be monitored accordingly. Through headspace sampling, coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and field bioassays, we identified two compounds, 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, that constitute aggregation-sex pheromone attractants of three cerambycid species which breed primarily in different types of fresh, recently dead oak wood in Northern Europe: Pyrrhidium sanguineum (L...
June 28, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Elisabeth A Hodgdon, Rebecca H Hallett, Kimberly F Wallin, Chase A Stratton, Yolanda H Chen
Swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer, is an invasive cecidomyiid pest that causes serious losses of Brassica oilseed and vegetable crops in the Northeastern U.S. and Canada. Currently, few alternatives to systemic insecticides exist for its management. Because a single feeding larva can render heading Brassica crops unmarketable, management strategies that prevent oviposition are needed urgently. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption is a promising management approach for swede midge because it prevents mating and subsequent crop damage...
June 22, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Christelle A M Robert, Loïc Pellissier, Xoaquín Moreira, Emmanuel Defossez, Marc Pfander, Anouk Guyer, Nicole M van Dam, Sergio Rasmann
Although the production of phytohormones has been commonly associated with production of plant defence and stress-related traits, few studies have simultaneously investigated this phenomenon across several plant species that grow along large-scale ecological gradients. To address these knowledge gaps, we performed a common garden experiment with six Cardamine species, which collectively encompass an elevational gradient of 2000 m. We quantified constitutive and Pieris brassicae caterpillars-induced phytohormones and chemical defences in leaves...
June 22, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Flor Edith Acevedo, Philip Smith, Michelle Peiffer, Anjel Helms, John Tooker, Gary W Felton
Insect herbivory induces plant defense responses that are often modulated by components in insect saliva, oral secretions or regurgitant, frass, or oviposition fluids. These secretions contain proteins and small molecules that act as elicitors or effectors of plant defenses. Several non-protein elicitors have been identified from insect oral secretions, whereas studies of insect saliva have focused mainly on protein identification. Yet, insect saliva may also contain non-protein molecules that could activate defense responses in plants...
June 20, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Hilaire Kpongbe, Johnnie Van Den Berg, Fathiya Khamis, Manuele Tamò, Baldwyn Torto
The brown spiny bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is a key pest of leguminous crops in many countries in Africa, causing significant yield losses especially in cowpea, pigeon pea and common beans. Although C. tomentosicollis uses olfaction to aggregate, little is known about the identity of the aggregation pheromone. This study aimed to identify the aggregation pheromone of C. tomentosicollis and to test its potential role in the behavior of its egg parasitoid, Gryon sp. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, only male volatiles strongly attracted both sexes of C...
June 17, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Mirka Macel, Isabella G S Visschers, Janny L Peters, Iris F Kappers, Ric C H de Vos, Nicole M van Dam
The development of pesticide resistance in insects and recent bans on pesticides call for the identification of natural sources of resistance in crops. Here, we used natural variation in pepper (Capsicum spp.) resistance combined with an untargeted metabolomics approach to detect secondary metabolites related to thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) resistance. Using leaf disc choice assays, we tested 11 Capsicum accessions of C. annuum and C. chinense in both vegetative and flowering stages for thrips resistance...
June 8, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Anat Levi-Zada, Sara Steiner, Daniela Fefer, Roy Kaspi
The spherical mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis is a pest of several major crops including soybeans, grapes and citrus varieties. Sessile virgin females of N. viridis release two volatiles, 2,2,3,4-tetramethyl-3-cyclopentene-1-methanol (γ-necrodol) and γ-necrodyl isobutyrate, on a circadian rhythm with peak at 17:00 (11 hr of photophase) as determined by automated, sequential solid phase micro extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The females increased the released amounts with age by about seven-fold from 5 to 6 d to 10-12 d of age...
May 29, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jeffrey D Weidenhamer, Tricia M Montgomery, Donald F Cipollini, Paul A Weston, Brian K Mohney
The development of techniques to non-destructively monitor allelochemical dynamics in soil using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microtubing (silicone tubing microextraction, or STME) provides a means to test important ecological hypotheses regarding the roles of these compounds in plant-plant interactions. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of intra- and interspecific competition on the exudation of thiophenes by marigolds (Tagetes patula L.). Marigolds were grown at a density of 1, 3 and 5 plants in pots (8...
May 27, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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