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Journal of Studies on Alcohol

Diane E Sholomskas, Kathleen M Carroll
OBJECTIVE: The burgeoning number of empirically validated therapies has not been met with systematic evaluation of practical, inexpensive means of teaching large numbers of clinicians to use these treatments effectively. An interactive, computer-assisted training program that sought to impart skills associated with the Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity) Twelve-Step Facilitation (TSF) manual was developed to address this need. METHOD: Twenty-five community-based substance use-treatment clinicians were randomized to one of two training conditions: (1) access to the computer- assisted training program plus the TSF manual or (2) access to the manual only...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
William R Ponicki, Paul J Gruenewald
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of distilled spirits, wine, and beer taxes on cirrhosis mortality using a large-panel data set and statistical models that control for various other factors that may affect that mortality. METHOD: The analyses were performed on a panel of 30 U.S. license states during the period 1971-1998 (N = 840 state-by-year observations). Exogenous measures included current and lagged versions of beverage taxes and income, as well as controls for states' age distribution, religion, race, health care availability, urbanity, tourism, and local bans on alcohol sales...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Tibor P Palfai
OBJECTIVE: Despite the importance of action components in information processing models of substance-use motivation, there has been relatively little research that has specifically examined the effects of behavioral cues on motivation to use alcohol. The current study examined the effects of action priming on alcohol-use motivation. METHOD: One hundred and eighty-eight hazardous drinkers completed a cue-exposure procedure followed by a beer-tasting task. Participants were exposed to their preferred alcohol beverage while they either lifted the beverage (action prime) or leaned toward the beverage (control)...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Karen J Auerbach, Linda M Collins
OBJECTIVE: Longitudinal analyses identified unique multidimensional classes of alcohol use and examined individuals' movement among these classes during emerging adulthood. METHOD: Latent transition analysis was used to identify a developmental model of alcohol use incorporating four aspects of use: use in the past year, frequency of use, quantity of use, and heavy episodic drinking. Participants were drawn from the Reducing Risk in Young Adult Transitions study (N = 1,143)...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Christine M Lee, Jennifer L Maggs, Lela A Rankin
OBJECTIVE: Many high school and college students are believed to use spring break vacation to travel to destinations with the intent of engaging in extreme party behaviors, including excessive alcohol use. However, the extent to which spring break travelers' behaviors are more risky than their typical behaviors remains unclear. METHOD: To assess the impact of spring break as a situational risk factor, we analyzed data collected from 176 first-year college students across 10 weeks using weekly telephone interviews...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Michael D Slater, Marilee Long, Valerie L Ford
OBJECTIVE: The present study seeks to establish the extent to which media coverage acknowledges alcohol's contribution to violent crime as well as to motor vehicle injuries and other injury incidents. METHOD: The study content-analyzes a unique sample, closely approximating national representativeness, of local and national television news, local newspapers, and national magazines randomly sampled during a 2-year period. RESULTS: Alcohol's role in violent crime and, to a lesser extent, in motor vehicle and other injury incidents is underreported relative to available estimates regarding alcohol-attributable fractions...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Janet C'de Baca, Garnett P McMillan, Sandra C Lapham
OBJECTIVE: This study used data gathered from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version Three, Revised (DIS-III-R), which calculated diagnoses based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R), criteria and rescored the data to be compatible with the criteria of the Fourth Edition of the DSM (DSM-IV) for lifetime alcohol abuse and dependence. METHOD: A psychologist reassigned questions from the DIS-III-R according to DSM-IV criteria...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Cheryl J Cherpitel, Yu Ye, Jason Bond, Jürgen Rehm, Mariana Cremonte, Otilia Neves, Jacek Moskalewicz, Grazyna Swiatkiewicz, Norman Giesbrecht
OBJECTIVE: Although injured patients in the emergency department (ED) report more frequent use of the ED compared with the general population, and alcohol-related admissions and chronic alcohol misuse have been found to be predictive of future ED admissions, these data are based on only a few U.S. studies. The purpose of this article was to explore the association of alcohol use and ED services use among injured patients cross-nationally. METHOD: Binary and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the association of alcohol consumption with prior ED visits among 9,743 injured patients surveyed in 37 EDs in 14 countries and reported in 23 studies from the combined Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project (ERCAAP) and World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Alcohol and Injuries...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
H Wesley Perkins, David W Craig
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the impact of a social norms intervention to reduce alcohol misuse among student-athletes. The intervention was designed to reduce harmful misperceptions of peer norms and, in turn, reduce personal risk. METHOD: A comprehensive set of interventions communicating accurate local norms regarding alcohol use targeted student-athletes at an undergraduate college. An anonymous survey of all student-athletes was conducted annually for 3 years (2001: n = 414, 86% response; 2002: n = 373, 85% response; and 2003: n = 353, 79% response)...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
William DeJong, Shari Kessel Schneider, Laura Gomberg Towvim, Melissa J Murphy, Emily E Doerr, Neal R Simonsen, Karen E Mason, Richard A Scribner
OBJECTIVE: An 18-site randomized trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns in reducing college student drinking. The SNM campaigns are intended to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol consumption. METHOD: Institutions of higher education were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. At the treatment group institutions, SNM campaigns delivered school-specific, data-driven messages through a mix of campus media venues...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Thomas P Beresford, David B Arciniegas, Julie Alfers, Lori Clapp, Brandon Martin, Henry F Beresford, Yiping Du, Dengfeng Liu, Dinggang Shen, Christos Davatzikos, Mark L Laudenslager
OBJECTIVE: The effects of hypercortisolism on hippocampal volume have not been studied in heavy drinkers. Prior work suggested increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in relation to lowered total hippocampus volume (THV) in heavy-drinking alcohol-dependent (AD) subjects. The present study hypothesized the following: (1) that chronic heavy-drinking subjects would demonstrate significantly higher salivary cortisol concentrations than light-drinking control subjects and (2) that data from the whole sample group would present an inverse relationship between cortisol concentration and THV...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Matthew C Bell, Edward P Riley
OBJECTIVE: It is important to understand the relationship between perseverative responding resulting from perinatal exposure to alcohol and potential underlying causes, including attention, memory, or response-inhibition problems. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between perseveration and memory. METHOD: Rats exposed neonatally to 6 g/kg/day alcohol from postnatal day (PD) 4 through PD 9 using an artificial rearing technique (n = 8) were compared with an artificially reared gastrostomy control group (n = 8) and a suckle control group (n = 8)...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Marc A Schuckit, Tom L Smith, Andrea Waylen, Jeremy Horwood, George P Danko, Joseph R Hibbeln, John M Davis, Juliann Pierson
OBJECTIVE: A low level of response (LR) to alcohol was originally established through evidence of less alcohol-related change in several parameters at a given blood alcohol level. This is a genetically influenced phenotype associated with an increased risk for alcoholism. When measured by a retrospective questionnaire (the Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol [SRE] scale), a lower LR (here indicated by a report that more drinks were historically needed for various effects) correlates with a family history of alcoholism and numerous alcohol use-related variables...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Katie O'Donnell, Jane Wardle, Cécile Dantzer, Andrew Steptoe
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether the nonlinear association between alcohol and depressive symptoms observed in middle-aged and older men and women is present in young adults and is independent of culture, socioeconomic position, and health status. METHOD: Data were from the International Health and Behaviour Survey, involving 6,932 male and 8,816 female university students ages 17-30 years from 20 countries. Alcohol consumption was assessed in terms of number of drinks per week and number of drinks per episode, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Dace S Svikis, Donna R Miles, Nancy A Haug, Bridget Perry, Rudolf Hoehn-Saric, Daniel McLeod
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among family history of alcoholism (FH), premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms, and alcohol consumption in women with a PMS diagnosis. METHOD: Participants (N = 46) were predominantly white (73%) women, of whom 17 (37%) reported multigenerational alcoholism on the paternal side (FH positive [FH+]) using the Family Alcohol and Drug Survey. Subjects recorded alcohol consumption and PMS symptoms using a daily record form for 3 consecutive months...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Stephen A Maisto, Patrick R Clifford, Robert L Stout, Christine M Davis
OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests that abstinence from alcohol during the first year posttreatment for alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) is an important, independent predictor of longer-term alcohol consumption and related functioning. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abstinence during the first year posttreatment initiation predicts alcohol use at Months 37-39. A second aim of this study was to explore the relationship between "moderate" drinking in the first year and drinking at Months 37-39...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Helene Raskin White, Barbara J McMorris, Richard F Catalano, Charles B Fleming, Kevin P Haggerty, Robert D Abbott
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of leaving home and going to college on changes in the frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and marijuana use shortly after leaving high school. We also examined how protective factors in late adolescence predict post-high school substance use and moderate the effects of leaving home and going to college. METHOD: Data came from subjects (N = 319; 53% male) interviewed at the end of 12th grade and again approximately 6 months later, as part of the Raising Healthy Children project...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Thomas C Harford, Hsiao-Ye Yi, Michael E Hilton
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study examines the association of educational status in 1984 and the risk for past-year Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) in 1994, 10 years later. METHOD: A sample of 8,661 respondents was drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience in Youth. Measures included baseline heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-dependence symptoms, early problem behaviors (antisocial behaviors, illicit substance use, family history of alcoholism, and age at onset of alcohol use), demographic characteristics (gender, race/ethnicity, age, marital status), and 1994 assessment for past-year DSM-IV AUDs...
November 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Thomas R Kirchner, Michael A Sayette, Jeffrey F Cohn, Richard L Moreland, John M Levine
OBJECTIVE: Social factors affect alcohol use and misuse, yet researchers rarely study the acute effects of alcohol in groups. This study used systematic observation techniques to measure the effects of alcohol on behavioral responses during an initial group interaction. METHOD: Fifty-four male social drinkers were assembled into three-person groups of strangers, and all members of each group were administered either a 0.82 g/kg dose of alcohol or a placebo to be consumed during a 30-minute period...
September 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
J Paul Seale, John M Boltri, Sylvia Shellenberger, Mary M Velasquez, Monica Cornelius, Monique Guyinn, Ike Okosun, Heather Sumner
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a primary care validation study of a single screening question for alcohol misuse ("When was the last time you had more than X drinks in 1 day?," where X was four for women and X was five for men), which was previously validated in a study conducted in emergency departments. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was accomplished by interviewing 625 male and female adult drinkers who presented to five southeastern primary care practices...
September 2006: Journal of Studies on Alcohol
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