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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955500/the-scope-of-viral-causation-of-human-cancers-interpreting-virus-density-from-an-evolutionary-perspective
#1
Paul W Ewald, Holly A Swain Ewald
Most known oncogenic viruses of humans use DNA as their genomic material. Research over the past quarter century has revealed that their oncogenicity results largely from direct interference with barriers to oncogenesis. In contrast to viruses that have been accepted causes of particular cancers, candidate viral causes tend to have fewer viral than cellular genomes in the tumours. These low viral loads have caused researchers to conclude that the associated viruses are not primary causes of the associated cancers...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955499/origin-and-evolution-of-papillomavirus-onco-genes-and-genomes
#2
Anouk Willemsen, Ignacio G Bravo
Papillomaviruses (PVs) are ancient viruses infecting vertebrates, from fishes to mammals. Although the genomes of PVs are small and show conserved synteny, PVs display large genotypic diversity and ample variation in the phenotypic presentation of the infection. Most PV genomes contain two small early genes E6 and E7. In a bunch of closely related human papillomaviruses (HPVs), the E6 and E7 proteins provide the viruses with oncogenic potential. The recent discoveries of PVs without E6 and E7 in different fish species place a new root on the PV tree, and suggest that ancestral PVs consisted of the minimal PV backbone E1-E2-L2-L1...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955498/modelling-the-evolution-of-viral-oncogenesis
#3
Carmen Lía Murall, Samuel Alizon
Most human oncogenic viruses share several characteristics, such as being DNA viruses, having long (co)evolutionary histories with their hosts and causing either latent or chronic infections. They can reach high prevalences while causing relatively low case mortality, which makes them quite fit according to virulence evolution theory. After analysing the life histories of DNA oncoviruses, we use a mathematical modelling approach to investigate how the virus life cycle may generate selective pressures favouring or acting against oncogenesis at the within-host or at the between-host level...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955497/intra-patient-viral-evolution-in-polyomavirus-related-diseases
#4
Dorian McIlroy, Franck Halary, Céline Bressollette-Bodin
Human polyomaviruses show relatively little genetic polymorphism between isolates, indicating that these viruses are genetically stable between hosts. However, it has become increasingly clear that intra-host molecular evolution is a feature of some polyomavirus (PyV) infections in humans. Mutations inducing premature stop codons in the early region of the integrated Merkel cell PyV genome lead to the expression of a truncated form of the large tumour (LT) antigen that is critical for the transformation of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) cells...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955496/towards-a-multi-level-and-a-multi-disciplinary-approach-to-dna-oncovirus-virulence
#5
Samuel Alizon, Ignacio G Bravo, Paul J Farrell, Sally Roberts
One out of 10 cancers is estimated to arise from infections by a handful of oncogenic viruses. These infectious cancers constitute an opportunity for primary prevention through immunization against the viral infection, for early screening through molecular detection of the infectious agent, and potentially for specific treatments, by targeting the virus as a marker of cancer cells. Accomplishing these objectives will require a detailed understanding of the natural history of infections, the mechanisms by which the viruses contribute to disease, the mutual adaptation of viruses and hosts, and the possible viral evolution in the absence and in the presence of the public health interventions conceived to target them...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955495/phosphodiesterase-induced-camp-degradation-restricts-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#6
Antonia Alexandra Evripioti, Ana Maria Ortega-Prieto, Jessica Katy Skelton, Quentin Bazot, Marcus Dorner
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) entry into hepatocytes is mediated via a high-affinity interaction between the preS1 glycoprotein and sodium/bile acid cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP). To date, in vitro model systems rely on high multiplicities of infection to achieve infection of cell lines overexpressing human NTCP. This study investigates a novel regulatory pathway for NTCP trafficking to the cell surface, induced by DMSO-mediated cellular differentiation. DMSO rapidly induces high cell surface expression of NTCP and results in increased susceptibility of cells to HBV infection...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955494/small-size-big-impact-how-studies-of-small-dna-tumour-viruses-revolutionized-biology
#7
Daniel DiMaio
Intense study of three families of small tumour viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes, carried out over 50 years, has had a profound impact on biology. The polyomaviruses and papillomaviruses have circular DNA genomes of approximately 5000 and approximately 8000 base-pairs, respectively, and thus encode only a handful of proteins. Adenoviruses have a 32 000-base-pair linear DNA genome, still far smaller than the three billion-base-pair human genome. Members of all three virus families can transform cultured cells to tumorigenicity and cause tumours in experimental animals...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955493/modelling-human-papillomavirus-biology-in-oropharyngeal-keratinocytes
#8
Sally Roberts, Dhananjay Evans, Hisham Mehanna, Joanna L Parish
Most human papillomavirus (HPV) positive head and neck cancers arise in the tonsil crypts; deep invaginations at the tonsil surface that are lined with reticulated epithelium infiltrated by immune cells. As in cervical HPV infections, HPV16 is the most prevalent high-risk type in the oropharyngeal cancers, and a genital-oral route of infection is most likely. However, the natural history of HPV-driven oropharyngeal pathogenesis is an enigma, although there is evidence that it is different to that of cervical disease...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955492/essential-role-of-inverted-repeat-in-epstein-barr-virus-ir-1-in-b-cell-transformation-geographical-variation-of-the-viral-genome
#9
Ray Bridges, Samantha Correia, Fanny Wegner, Cristina Venturini, Anne Palser, Robert E White, Paul Kellam, Judith Breuer, Paul J Farrell
Many regions of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome, repeated and unique sequences, contribute to the geographical variation observed between strains. Here we use a large alignment of curated EBV genome sequences to identify major sites of variation in the genome of type 1 EBV strains; the CAO deletion in latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is the most frequent major indel present in the unique regions of EBV strains from various parts of the world. Principal component analysis was used to identify patterns of sequence variation and nucleotide positions in the sequences that can distinguish EBV from some different geographical regions...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955491/an-epithelial-organoid-model-with-langerhans-cells-for-assessing-virus-host-interactions
#10
Robert Jackson, Statton Eade, Ingeborg Zehbe
Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) may lead to cancer in mucosal and skin tissue. Consequently, HPV must have developed strategies to escape host immune surveillance. Nevertheless, most HPV infections are cleared by the infected host. Our laboratory investigates Langerhans cells (LCs), acting at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. We hypothesize that this first line of defence is vital for potential HPV elimination. As an alternative to animal models, we use smaller-scale epithelial organoids grown from human primary keratinocytes derived from various anatomical sites...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955490/capturing-multiple-type-interactions-into-practical-predictors-of-type-replacement-following-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#11
Irene Man, Kari Auranen, Jacco Wallinga, Johannes A Bogaards
Current HPV vaccines target a subset of the oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types. If HPV types compete during infection, vaccination may trigger replacement by the non-targeted types. Existing approaches to assess the risk of type replacement have focused on detecting competitive interactions between pairs of vaccine and non-vaccine types. However, methods to translate any inferred pairwise interactions into predictors of replacement have been lacking. In this paper, we develop practical predictors of type replacement in a multi-type setting, readily estimable from pre-vaccination longitudinal or cross-sectional prevalence data...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955489/cross-talk-of-cutaneous-beta-human-papillomaviruses-and-the-immune-system-determinants-of-disease-penetrance
#12
Assunta Venuti, Stefan Lohse, Massimo Tommasino, Sigrun Smola
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect the epithelia of skin or mucosa, where they can induce hyperproliferative lesions. More than 220 different HPV types have been characterized and classified into five different genera. Mucosal high-risk HPVs are causative for cancers of the anogenital region and oropharynx. Clinical data from patients with the rare genetic disorder epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) indicate that genus beta-HPVs cooperate with ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955488/integrating-measures-of-viral-prevalence-and-seroprevalence-a-mechanistic-modelling-approach-to-explaining-cohort-patterns-of-human-papillomavirus-in-women-in-the-usa
#13
Andrew F Brouwer, Rafael Meza, Marisa C Eisenberg
Incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) related cancers is increasing, generating substantial interest in understanding how trends in population prevalence of HPV infection are changing. However, there are no direct, population-scale measurements of HPV prevalence prior to 2003. Previous work using models to reconstruct historical trends have focused only on genital infection or seroprevalence (prevalence of antibodies) separately, and the results of these single-measure studies have been hard to reconcile...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955487/infection-and-immune-control-of-human-oncogenic-%C3%AE-herpesviruses-in-humanized-mice
#14
Donal McHugh, Nicole Caduff, Anita Murer, Christine Engelmann, Yun Deng, Hana Zdimerova, Kyra Zens, Obinna Chijioke, Christian Münz
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) comprise the oncogenic human γ-herpesvirus family and are responsible for 2-3% of all tumours in man. With their prominent growth-transforming abilities and high prevalence in the human population, these pathogens have probably shaped the human immune system throughout evolution for near perfect immune control of the respective chronic infections in the vast majority of healthy pathogen carriers. The exclusive tropism of EBV and KSHV for humans has, however, made it difficult in the past to study their infection, tumourigenesis and immune control in vivo...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955486/post-treatment-human-papillomavirus-antibody-kinetics-in-cervical-cancer-patients
#15
Till Piontek, Christoph Harmel, Michael Pawlita, Katrin Carow, Juliane Schröter, Ingo B Runnebaum, Matthias Dürst, Frederik Graw, Tim Waterboer
Antibodies to the E6 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types are strongly associated with HPV-driven cancer, while antibodies against the capsid protein L1 are considered cumulative exposure markers. To test the hypothesis that L1 antibody levels are stable over time, whereas E6 and E7 levels undergo decay after cervical cancer (CxCa) treatment, we performed multiplex serology for HPV16 and 18 antigens E6, E7 and L1 in a post-treatment study of 184 patients with invasive CxCa that were characterized with a median follow-up time of 725 days, and 2-12 sera per patient...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955485/the-rabbit-papillomavirus-model-a-valuable-tool-to-study-viral-host-interactions
#16
Nancy M Cladel, Xuwen Peng, Neil Christensen, Jiafen Hu
Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) was the first DNA virus shown to be tumorigenic. The virus has since been renamed and is officially known as Sylvilagus floridanus papillomavirus 1 (SfPV1). Since its inception as a surrogate preclinical model for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, the SfPV1/rabbit model has been widely used to study viral-host interactions and has played a pivotal role in the successful development of three prophylactic virus-like particle vaccines. In this review, we will focus on the use of the model to gain a better understanding of viral pathogenesis, gene function and host immune responses to viral infections...
May 27, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30905297/the-ethics-of-genome-editing-in-non-human-animals-a-systematic-review-of-reasons-reported-in-the-academic-literature
#17
Nienke de Graeff, Karin R Jongsma, Josephine Johnston, Sarah Hartley, Annelien L Bredenoord
In recent years, new genome editing technologies have emerged that can edit the genome of non-human animals with progressively increasing efficiency. Despite ongoing academic debate about the ethical implications of these technologies, no comprehensive overview of this debate exists. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a systematic review of the reasons reported in the academic literature for and against the development and use of genome editing technologies in animals. Most included articles were written by academics from the biomedical or animal sciences...
May 13, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30905296/mice-against-ticks-an-experimental-community-guided-effort-to-prevent-tick-borne-disease-by-altering-the-shared-environment
#18
Joanna Buchthal, Sam Weiss Evans, Jeantine Lunshof, Sam R Telford, Kevin M Esvelt
Mice Against Ticks is a community-guided ecological engineering project that aims to prevent tick-borne disease by using CRISPR-based genome editing to heritably immunize the white-footed mice ( Peromyscus leucopus) responsible for infecting many ticks in eastern North America. Introducing antibody-encoding resistance alleles into the local mouse population is anticipated to disrupt the disease transmission cycle for decades. Technology development is shaped by engagement with community members and visitors to the islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, including decisions at project inception about which types of disease resistance to pursue...
May 13, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30905295/editing-the-microbiome-the-crispr-way
#19
Gayetri Ramachandran, David Bikard
Our bodies are colonized by a complex ecosystem of bacteria, unicellular eukaryotes and their viruses that together play a major role in our health. Over the past few years tools derived from the prokaryotic immune system known as CRISPR-Cas have empowered researchers to modify and study organisms with unprecedented ease and efficiency. Here we discuss how various types of CRISPR-Cas systems can be used to modify the genome of gut microorganisms and bacteriophages. CRISPR-Cas systems can also be delivered to bacterial population and programmed to specifically eliminate members of the microbiome...
May 13, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30905294/the-ecology-and-evolution-of-microbial-crispr-cas-adaptive-immune-systems
#20
Edze R Westra, Stineke van Houte, Sylvain Gandon, Rachel Whitaker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2019: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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