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British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Page 2

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31240722/effects-of-non-dispensing-pharmacists-integrated-in-general-practice-on-medication-related-hospitalisations
#21
V M Sloeserwij, A C M Hazen, D L M Zwart, A J Leendertse, J M Poldervaart, A A de Bont, J J de Gier, M L Bouvy, N J de Wit
AIMS: To evaluate the effect of non-dispensing pharmacists (NDPs) integrated in general practice on medication-related hospitalisations, drug burden index and costs in patients at high risk of medication problems (being 65 years or older and using five or more chronic medications). METHODS: This was a multicentre, non-randomised, controlled intervention study with pre-post comparison (2013 versus June 2014 to May 2015) in 25 general practices in the Netherlands, comparing NDP-led care (intervention) with two current pharmaceutical care models (usual care and usual care plus)...
June 25, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31236989/analysis-of-retracted-articles-on-medicines-administered-to-humans
#22
LETTER
Rafael Dal-Ré
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 24, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31236973/optimal-route-for-administering-tranexamic-acid-in-primary-unilateral-total-hip-arthroplasty-results-from-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#23
Jinwei Xie, Shaoyun Zhang, Guo Chen, Hong Xu, Zongke Zhou, Fuxing Pei
AIM: This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of different tranexamic acid (TXA) routes following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: We collected data from National Health Database on patients registered from January 2013 to September 2017. The patients were divided based on TXA administration route into a control group (without TXA), intravenous group, topical group and combined group. The primary outcome was transfusion; secondary outcomes were total blood loss, hemoglobin level, decrease in hemoglobin on postoperative day 3, and incidence of complications...
June 24, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31228288/reply-to-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-with-oxaliplatin-still-not-standard-of-care-for-patients-with-colorectal-peritoneal-metastases-by-julianov-and-saroglu
#24
LETTER
Loek A W de Jong, Nielka P van Erp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31222884/chronotherapy-as-a-potential-approach-to-hypertensive-patients-with-elevated-heart-rate
#25
LETTER
Fedor Simko, Tomas Baka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31222854/a-systematic-review-of-cannabidiol-dosing-in-clinical-populations
#26
REVIEW
S A Millar, N L Stone, Z D Bellman, A S Yates, T J England, S E O'Sullivan
AIMS: Cannabidiol is a cannabis-derived medicinal product with potential application in a wide-variety of contexts, however its effective dose in different disease states remains unclear. This review aimed to investigate what doses have been applied in clinical populations, in order to understand the active range of cannabidiol in a variety of medical contexts. METHODS: Publications involving administration of cannabidiol alone were collected by searching PubMed, EMBASE and ClinicalTrials...
June 20, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31222796/simultaneous-phenotyping-of-cyp2e1-and-cyp3a-using-oral-chlorzoxazone-and-midazolam-microdoses
#27
Nicolas Hohmann, Antje Blank, Jürgen Burhenne, Yosuke Suzuki, Gerd Mikus, Walter E Haefeli
AIMS: Chlorzoxazone is the paradigm marker substrate for CYP2E1 phenotyping in vivo. Because at the commonly used milligram doses (250-750 mg) chlorzoxazone acts as an inhibitor of the CYP3A4/5 marker substrate midazolam, previous attempts failed to combine both drugs in a common phenotyping cocktail. Microdosing chlorzoxazone could circumvent this problem. METHOD: We enrolled 12 healthy volunteers in a trial investigating the dose-exposure relationship of single ascending chlorzoxazone oral doses over a 10,000-fold range (0...
June 20, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31222765/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-tadalafil-in-a-paediatric-population-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-multiple-ascending-dose-study
#28
David Small, Lisa Ferguson-Sells, Nagib Dahdah, Damien Bonnet, John Landry, Baohui Li
AIMS: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of once-daily (QD) tadalafil in paediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) to establish an appropriate dose range for further research. METHODS: This was an open-label, multicentre, international, multiple-ascending-dose study. Patients ≥2 years old were enrolled into one of three cohorts based on body weight: heavy-weight (HW; ≥40 kg), middle-weight (MW; 25 to <40 kg), and light-weight (LW; <25 kg)...
June 20, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31219198/efficacy-and-toxicity-of-antihypertensive-pharmacotherapy-relative-to-effective-dose-50-ed50
#29
REVIEW
Simon B Dimmitt, Hans G Stampfer, Jennifer H Martin, Robin E Ferner
Antihypertensive drugs have usually been approved at doses near the top of their respective dose-response curves. Efficacy plateaus but adverse drug reactions (ADRs) like falls, cerebral or renal ischaemia increase as dose is increased, especially in older patients with comorbidities. ADRs reduce adherence and may be difficult to ascertain reliably. Higher doses have generally not been shown to reduce total mortality, which provides a summary of efficacy and safety. Weight loss and other lifestyle measures are essential and may be sufficient treatment in many young and low risk patients...
June 20, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31219197/the-impact-of-liver-transplant-recipient-and-donor-genetic-variability-on-tacrolimus-exposure-and-transplant-outcome
#30
Janet K Coller, Jeyamani Ramachandran, Libby John, Jonathan Tuke, Alan Wigg, Matthew Doogue
This study investigated the effect of recipient and donor genetic variability on dose-adjusted steady-state tacrolimus concentrations (Css ) and clinical outcomes 3 and 6 months after liver transplant. 29 recipients and matched donor blood samples were genotyped for 27 SNPs including CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), ABCB1 haplotype and immune genes. Associations between genetic variability and clinical parameters and Css and the occurrence of rejection and nephrotoxicity were analysed by multivariate and multinomial logistic regression modelling and Jonckheere-Terpstra tests examined the impact of combined donor/recipient CYP3A5 expression on Css ...
June 20, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31219196/why-maximum-tolerated-dose
#31
REVIEW
Hans G Stampfer, Genevieve M Gabb, Simon B Dimmitt
A long-established approach to the pharmacological treatment of disease has been to 'start low and go slow'. However, clinicians often prescribe up to maximum tolerated dose (MTD), especially when treating acute and more severe disease, without evidence to show that a MTD is more likely improve outcomes. Cardiovascular guidelines for some indications advocate MTD even in prevention, for example hypercholesterolaemia, without compelling evidence of better outcomes. This review explores the origins and potential problems of prescribing medications at MTD...
June 20, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31219195/medication-related-litigation-in-ireland-a-six-year-review
#32
Mark McCullagh, Dubhfeasa Slattery
AIMS: The primary aims of the study were to identify those medications most frequently associated with clinical litigation in Ireland and to quantify the cost of such litigation. Secondary aims were to identify where in the medication-use process claims were most likely to arise, the medication incident types involved and the primary injury alleged. METHODS: The National Incident Management System (NIMS) for incident and claims management was searched to identify all medication related claims finalised from 2011 to 2016 (inclusive)...
June 20, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31218738/appropriateness-of-prescription-of-oral-anticoagulant-therapy-in-acutely-hospitalized-older-people-with-atrial-fibrillation-secondary-analysis-of-the-sim-af-cluster-randomized-clinical-trial
#33
Stefania Antoniazzi, Ilaria Ardoino, Marco Proietti, Valter Monzani, Pier Mannuccio Mannucci, Alessandro Nobili, Carlotta Franchi
AIMS: To assess the appropriateness of OAC prescription and its associated factors in acutely hospitalized elderly patients. METHODS: Data were obtained from the prospective phase of SIM-AF (SIM ulation-based technologies to improve the appropriate use of oral anticoagulants in hospitalized elderly patients with Atrial Fibrillation) randomized controlled trial, aimed to test whether an educational intervention improved OAC prescription, compared to current clinical practice, in internal medicine wards...
June 19, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31218733/-prognostic-significance-of-alpha2-and-beta2-adrenoceptor-gene-expression-in-breast-cancer-patients
#34
Ezequiel M Rivero, Leandro Marcelo Martinez, Carlos David Bruque, Lucia Gargiulo, Ariana Bruzzone, Isabel Alicia Lüthy
AIMS: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed and leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. It was classified within molecular 'intrinsic' subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, basal-like. Epinephrine and norepinephrine, released during chronic stress, bind to adrenoceptors. α2 -adrenoceptors are encoded by the ADRA2A, ADRA2B and ADRA2C genes and β2 by ADRB2. METHODS: We compiled several publicly available Affymetrix gene expression datasets, obtaining a large cohort of 1924 patients with distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) data and evaluated the association between adrenoceptor expression, clinicopathological markers and outcome...
June 19, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31218720/the-importance-of-both-cyp2c19-and-cyp2b6-germline-variations-in-cyclophosphamide-pharmacokinetics-and-clinical-outcomes
#35
REVIEW
N A Helsby, M Yong, M van Kan, J R de Zoysa, K E Burns
Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent used in the treatment of solid and haematological malignancies and as an immunosuppressive agent. As a prodrug it is dependent on bioactivation to the active phosphoramide mustard metabolite to elicit its therapeutic effect. This focused review will highlight the evidence for the role of germline pharmacogenetic variation in both plasma pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes. There is a substantial signal from 13 pharmacokinetic and 17 therapeutic outcome studies, in contexts as diverse as haematological malignancy, breast cancer, systemic lupus erythematosus and myeloablation, that pharmacogenetic variation in both CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 influence the bioactivation of cyclophosphamide...
June 19, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31218710/adverse-events-reported-for-levonorgestrel-releasing-iud-mirena%C3%A2-in-france-and-impact-of-media-coverage
#36
Claire Langlade, Amandine Gouverneur, Pauline Bosco-Lévy, Aurore Gouraud, Marie-Christine Pérault-Pochat, Johana Béné, Ghada Miremont-Salamé, Antoine Pariente
INTRODUCTION: In 2017, concerns regarding Adverse Events (AEs) associated with levonorgestrel Intra-Uterine Device Mirena® were largely echoed in medias in France. This resulted in a tremendous reporting of AEs to Pharmacovigilance Centres. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the reporting of AEs regarding Mirena® in France and to study the impact of media coverage on this reporting. METHODS: All cases reports involving Mirena® recorded in the French national pharmacovigilance database from marketing (21/07/1995) until 04/08/2017 were extracted...
June 19, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31215676/reduced-bioavailability-of-oral-amoxicillin-tablets-compared-to-suspensions-in-rygb-bariatric-subjects
#37
M C Montanha, T F D S Magon, C D S Alcantara, C F Simões, S R B Silva, C M Kuroda, S S Yamada, L E S de Oliveira, D Nasser, N N Junior, J Mazucheli, A Diniz, P J P A Paixão, E Kimura
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relative bioavailability of oral amoxicillin (AMX) tablets in comparison to AMX suspension in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) bariatric subjects. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study on the bioavailability of oral AMX tablets and suspension in RYGB subjects at least 3 months previously operated was performed. Doses of 875 mg of the AMX tablet or 800 mg of the AMX suspension were given to all the subjects, allowing a washout of 7 days between the periods...
June 19, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31215055/ceftriaxone-induced-aplastic-anaemia-a-deadfall-trap-for-bone-marrow
#38
LETTER
Bandhala Rajan M, Anil Budania, Gopal Krishna Bohra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31206748/pharmacoepidemiology-using-randomised-control-trials-and-observational-studies-in-clinical-decision-making
#39
REVIEW
Thomas M Caparrotta, James M Dear, Helen M Colhoun, David J Webb
Weighing up sources of evidence is a key skill for clinical decision-makers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies each have advantages and disadvantages, and in both cases perceived weaknesses can be improved through modifications of design and analysis. In the field of pharmacoepidemiology, RCTs are the best way to determine whether an intervention modifies an outcome being studied, largely because randomisation reduces bias and confounding. Observational studies are useful to investigate whether benefits/harms of a treatment are seen in day-to-day clinical practice in a wider group of patients...
June 17, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31206740/high-and-variable-population-prevalence-of-hla-b-56-02-in-indigenous-australians-and-relation-to-phenytoin-associated-dress
#40
Andrew A Somogyi, Daniel T Barratt, Elizabeth J Phillips, Kylies Moore, Fahmida Ilyas, Genevieve M Gabb
Phenytoin DRESS in 3 Aboriginal Australians positive for HLA-B*56:02 has been previously reported. We report the allele frequency of HLA-B*56:02 in two South Australian populations, one Aboriginal (4.8 CI 2.4 to 7.8%) and the other European (0%). We compared the frequency with publicly-available information on HLA-B*56:02 status in other Indigenous Australian (n=4) and European Australian cohorts (n=1). In the Indigenous Australian cohorts, HLA-B*56:02 allele frequency ranged from 1.3 to 19%. We also describe an additional case of phenytoin DRESS (RegiSCAR DRESS score 7) in an Aboriginal Australian that was associated with HLA-B*56:02 and with CYP2C9*1/*3 genotype...
June 17, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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