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Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

Keith E Spargo, Luis M Rubio-Martinez, Dale P Wheeler, Lizelle Fletcher, Ann Carstens
The incidence and types of catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries in Thoroughbreds that resulted in euthanasia on selected racetracks in South Africa between 1998 and 2012 were investigated by an observational retrospective investigation. Data from the National Horseracing Authority of Southern Africa for these racetracks were used to calculate incidence rates in Thoroughbreds (n = 114) that sustained catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries during racing that required immediate euthanasia, based on the diagnosis made by the on-site veterinarian as well as on fetlock radiographs and dissections of 53 cadaver limbs of horses that sustained a catastrophic musculoskeletal injury...
February 28, 2019: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Editorial Office
No abstract available.
December 5, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Luke A Poore, Neil Duncan, June Williams
A non-ossified unilateral subcutaneous fibroma was diagnosed in the distal femoral region of a 5-year-old Nooitgedacht mare. Histopathological examination of the excised mass revealed long interweaving bundles of semi-mature monotonous collagenous connective tissue with fusiform nuclei without mitotic figures. The mare made an uneventful recovery following surgical removal of the neoplasm. Subcutaneous fibromas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin swellings associated with the limbs of horses...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Tesh M Smalle, Gert L Coetzee, Stephanus H Naude
Physeal fractures of the distal femur are among the most commonly encountered fractures in skeletally immature dogs. These fractures respond poorly to conservative management and thus early surgical reduction and stabilisation are recommended. A 7-month-old intact male Border collie presented with a history of chronic lameness. Clinical examination revealed a predominantly non-weight-bearing lameness of the right hindlimb and concurrent muscle atrophy. A pronounced, but atypical, procurvatum deformity of the right distal femur was diagnosed on survey radiographs...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Tertius S Brand, Werné J Kritzinger, Daniel A Van der Merwe, Anieka Muller, Louw C Hoffman, Gert J Niemann
Information on feather and skin growth is important for the development of mathematical optimisation nutritional models for ostriches. Ostriches (n = 65) were subjected to a four-stage formulated growth diet programme (pre-starter, starter, grower and finisher), with declining protein and energy content. Nine birds were weighed, stunned, exsanguinated, defeathered, skinned and eviscerated at 1, 54, 84, 104, 115, 132 and 287 days of age. Feathers from four pre-selected locations on the body were harvested and weighed...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Carien Van den Bergh, Peter Coetzee, Estelle H Venter
Bluetongue is primarily a disease of sheep in South Africa, while cattle and goats are mostly subclinically infected. The viraemia of bluetongue virus in cattle lasts much longer than in sheep and the role of cattle in the epidemiology of bluetongue in South Africa is poorly understood. Bluetongue virus has a segmented double-stranded ribonucleic acid genome and reassortment of genomes is a common feature. The aim of the study was to investigate whether reassortment occurs between vaccine and field strains when simultaneously administered to cattle...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Willem J Botha, Johan P Schoeman, Stanley L Marks, Zandri Whitehead, Cornelius H Annandale
Salmonellosis is a disease of major zoonotic importance and canine parvovirus is a potentially fatal cause of canine enteritis with a world-wide distribution. Persistent isolation of Salmonella during routine environmental sampling surveys of a hospital ward, reserved for the treatment of dogs with canine parvovirus infection, prompted investigation into a possible source. We hypothesised that dogs affected by canine parvovirus would have a higher prevalence of faecal salmonellae compared to an apparently healthy cohort...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Gervais Ndazigaruye, Borden Mushonga, Erick Kandiwa, Alaster Samkange, Basiamisi E Segwagwe
A survey involving 120 small-scale dairy farmers was carried out to assess risk factors associated with brucellosis in cattle from selected sectors of Nyagatare District, Rwanda. A sample of cattle from nine selected sectors of Nyagatare was tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test. Of the respondents, 57.5% were unaware of brucellosis as a disease, 85.8% did not screen new additions to the herd for brucellosis and 82.5% did not remove brucellosis seropositive animals from the herd. The prevalence of brucellosis in herds with cows with no history of abortion was 38...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Awoke K Gelaw, Palesa Nthaba, Itumeleng Matle
Retrospective laboratory-based surveillance was conducted on Salmonella serotypes isolated from various animal species from 2007 to 2014 at the Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute, South Africa. During the surveillance period, 1229 salmonellae isolations were recorded. Around 108 different serotypes were recovered from nine different food and non-food animal host species. The three most common serotypes were Salmonella entericasubspecies enterica serotype Heidelberg (n = 200), Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (n = 170) and Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium (n = 146)...
November 7, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Frans G Van Heerden, Marthinus J Hartman, Vanessa McClure, Robert M Kirberger
A 12-year-old spayed Newfoundland bitch was presented with chronic non-productive vomiting, regurgitation and coughing of six weeks' duration. On clinical examination, the dog was depressed with no other significant findings. Haematology and biochemistry investigations detected no abnormalities. Thoracic and abdominal radiographs revealed a megaoesophagus and an abnormally positioned pylorus. A thoracic and abdominal computed tomography scan confirmed the abnormal position of the stomach, together with moderate aspiration pneumonia...
November 6, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Leith C R Meyer, Andrea Fuller, Markus Hofmeyr, Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Anna Haw
Opioid-induced immobilisation results in severe respiratory impairment in the white rhinoceros. It has therefore been attempted in the field to reverse this impairment with the use of opioid agonist-antagonists, such as nalorphine, nalbuphine, butorphanol and diprenorphine; however, the efficacy of some of these treatments has yet to be determined. The efficacy of butorphanol, either alone or in combination with diprenorphine both with and without oxygen insufflation, in alleviating opioid-induced respiratory impairment was evaluated...
October 18, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Roxanne K Buck, George F Stegmann, Luke A Poore, Tahiyya Shaik, Travis Gray, Gareth E Zeiler
A 4-month-old female blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) was presented for bilateral pelvic limb fracture repair. Clinical examination under anaesthesia revealed a water-hammer pulse and a haematocrit of 0.13. A xenotransfusion was performed using bovine (Bos taurus) erythrocytes because of inability to acquire a wildebeest donor. Clinical parameters improved following transfusion and the post-operative haematocrit value was 0.31. The wildebeest remained physiologically stable with a gradually declining haematocrit for the next three days...
October 17, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Davison Moyo, Monica Gomes, Kennedy H Erlwanger
The skin is a protective barrier, and an endocrine, sensory and thermoregulatory organ. We investigated whether the skin of local pigs had beneficial anatomical traits compared to exotic pigs to withstand the increased heat loads predicted under future climate change scenarios. Full-thickness skin specimens were obtained from the dorsal interscapular, lateral thoraco-abdominal and ventral abdominal regions of intact boars (age 6-8 months) of two local breeds of pigs (Windsnyer [n = 5] and Kolbroek [n = 4]) and an exotic pig breed (Large White [n = 7])...
September 25, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Başak Kurt, Halil H Çağatay, Özgür Aksoy
Tonometry is one of the basic diagnostic tests used for the diagnosis of glaucoma and uveitis in veterinary ophthalmology. The Icare® Rebound Tonometer which is a new tonometric device has been shown to be useful in a wide range of species. Eyes (n = 48) of 24 Simmental and Montafon calves with a mean age of 7.5 weeks (2-16 weeks), male and female, were subjected to intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement using the Icare® Rebound Tonometer with calves standing and in lateral recumbency. The mean IOP was measured as 9...
August 20, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Umberto Molini, Andrea Capobianco Dondona, Renate Hilbert, Federica Monaco
Several ruminant species have been shown to be susceptible to Schmallenberg virus (SBV), but adult animals usually recover after showing mild or no clinical signs. However, transplacental infection can occur and lead to abortion, malformations and stillborn lambs, calves and goat kids. During November and December 2014, malformations were observed in 11 stillborn calves from two farms in the north-eastern region of Namibia. Blood samples were collected from 9 of the 11 cows that delivered stillborn and malformed calves...
August 16, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Christo J Botha, Elizabeth C Du Plessis, Heleen Coetser, Magda Rosemann
Reports were received that Cape spurfowl (Pternistis capensis) fell during flight and scrambled uncoordinatedly for cover and some died. Three carcases were submitted for necropsy examination, which revealed mainly congestion of the carcases and haemorrhages. Common causes of acute mortalities in birds were first excluded, but there was a history of possible exposure to imidacloprid-treated barley seeds. Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, is used to protect various crops against invertebrate pests. The combined crop contents and pooled liver samples collected from the Cape spurfowl during necropsy were submitted for liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for imidacloprid analysis...
July 9, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Yigit Kacar, Hasan Batmaz, Ozge E Yilmaz, Zafer Mecitoglu
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of a single-dose of gamithromycin (GM) or marbofloxacin (MR) in kids with naturally occurring pneumonia. Thirty-six kids, aged 2-2.5 months, with body weight ranging from 12 kg to 18 kg were presented with clinical signs of pneumonia. The most prominent clinical findings were an increase in the respiratory rate, crackling lung sounds on auscultation, coughing, nasal discharge and an increased rectal temperature. Mannheimia haemolytica and Mycoplasma spp...
June 20, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Joanne Karzis, Inge-Marie Petzer, Edward F Donkin, Vinny Naidoo
Antibiotic resistance of strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine milk is of concern internationally. The objective of this study was to investigate trends of resistance of S. aureus to antibiotics administered to dairy cows in 19 South African and one Zambian dairy herds (participating in the South African proactive udder health management programme) and to identify possible contributing factors. The resistance of S. aureus strains to eight commonly used antibiotics in South Africa from 2001 to 2010 was evaluated...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Claude T Sabeta, Drienie Janse van Rensburg, Baby Phahladira, Debra Mohale, Robert F Harrison-White, Carlien Esterhuyzen, June H Williams
Both domestic and wild carnivore species are commonly diagnosed with rabies virus (RABV) infection in South Africa. Although the majority of confirmed rabies cases in wild carnivore species are reported from the yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata), the rest are from other wild carnivores including the highly endangered wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Lyssavirus infection was confirmed in two wild dogs and a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Madikwe Game Reserve, North West province in South Africa, in 2014 and 2015, using a direct fluorescent antibody test and immunohistochemistry...
April 26, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Christelle Le Roux, Ann Carstens
Axial sesamoiditis or osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs) in the horse is described as a rare condition. The cause remains unknown and speculative, with vascular, infectious, and traumatic aetiologies implicated. It is specifically associated with injury of the palmar or plantar ligament (PL), also known as the intersesamoidean ligament. Imaging findings are generally rewarding and radiological changes are typical, if not pathognomonic, for the condition. Lesions consist of bone lysis at the apical to mid-body axial margins of the PSBs, with variable degrees of joint effusion...
March 29, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
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