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Journal of the National Medical Association

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878142/extended-risk-factors-for-stroke-prevention
#1
REVIEW
Shuai Zhang, Wei Zhang, Guangqian Zhou
Stroke causes disability and high mortality, while it can be prevented by increasing public awareness of risk factors. The common known risk factors are hypertension, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, smoking, alcohol consumption, low physical activity, overweight and hypercholesterolemia. However, the deep understanding of risk factors is limited. Moreover, more risk factor emerges in recent years. To further increase the awareness of risk factors for stroke prevention, this review indicates the reasonable application of antihypertensive agents according to the age-dependent changes of hypertension, and some new risk factors including chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, migraine with aura, working environment, genetic factors and air pollution...
March 13, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853113/driving-miss-evers-boys-to-the-historical-tuskegee-study-of-untreated-syphilis
#2
Robert M White
The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) intersects racial and research ethics discourse in medicine and public health. Miss Evers' Boys is a fictionalized play of the 40-year TSUS. In 2016, the Cultural Programs of the National Academy of Sciences and the Shakespeare Theatre Company in Washington, DC co-sponsored a reading of the play at the National Academy of Sciences Auditorium. Ethics instructors and students, who may use the play for research training and professional development, may lack awareness of a pattern of deviations from the TSUS historical record...
March 7, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30851980/j-marion-sims-md-why-he-and-his-accomplishments-need-to-continue-to-be-recognized-a-commentary-and-historical-review
#3
REVIEW
Leonard F Vernon
This review provides a fresh perspective on the work of J. Marion Sims, an Antebellum era physician who invented the vaginally speculum that bears his name. His accent to become the "Father of Modern Gynecology" was his groundbreaking development of the surgical techniques for the repair for vesicovaginal fistula. Recent scholarship, however, has pointed to the dark side of Sims in that his techniques were perfected through his use of Black slave women as his research subjects. In addition, he has been criticized for his failure to use anesthesia during his research operations...
March 6, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30808520/enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-eras-programs-for-cesarean-delivery-can-potentially-reduce-healthcare-and-racial-disparities
#4
LETTER
Robert S White, Kathy C Matthews, Virginia Tangel, Sharon Abramovitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30803718/colorism-demonstrates-dampened-effects-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-chicago
#5
Leigh Alon, Autumn Smith, Chuanhong Liao, John Schneider
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Colorism is a well documented phenomenon affecting the health, income, education, and psychological wellbeing of African Americans with differing skin tones. There is little research, however, around how colorism may operate among intersectional racial sexual minorities, who additionally face both racism and homophobia, despite evidence that different forms of oppression interact with each other and may have modulating effects in this population. This study aims to clarify the effect colorism has on a variety of life and health outcomes in young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM)...
February 22, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30803717/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-anemia-among-newly-diagnosed-intestinal-behcet-s-disease-patients
#6
Jing-Fen Ye, Yong Chen, Jian-Fei Cai, Yan Shen, Jun Zou, Jian-Long Guan
BACKGROUND: To investigate the incidence, characteristics, and potential risk factors of anemia in patients with newly-diagnosed intestinal Behcet's disease (BD). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 106 newly-diagnosed intestinal BD patients were identified, and a gender-, age- and organ involvement-matched control group of 241 non-intestinal BD patients was established. Hemoglobin (Hb) levels below 120 g/L in women and 130 g/L in men were diagnosed as anemia; these were further classified as mild (Hb ≥ 90 g/L), moderate (60  g/L ≤ Hb < 90  g/L), and severe (Hb < 60 g/L) anemia for both genders...
February 22, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30797545/a-stochastic-model-of-consensus-reaching-in-committee-decisions-for-faculty-advancement-promotion-and-tenure-does-diversity-matter
#7
Taniecea A Mallery, Ilana S Mittman, Laura Castillo-Page, Jennifer Eliason, J Renee Chapman Navarro
PURPOSE: There are considerable gender and racial disparities in academic promotions regardless of academic qualifications, suggesting bias. The investigators studied the academic promotions process by simulating the work of Advancement, Promotion and Tenure (APT) committees and applying a mathematical model to assess the impact of diversity on consensus reaching. METHOD: The study targeted academic faculty during an annual Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) meeting...
February 20, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777382/exploring-skin-color-and-black-white-differences-in-trust-in-physicians-in-a-cross-sectional-study-of-u-s-adults
#8
Celeste Campos-Castillo
BACKGROUND: Research on skin color inequality is growing, but few studies examine the health care context. OBJECTIVE: This study explored associations between black and white respondents' skin color and their trust in physicians using the 2012 General Social Survey (n = 1026), which is a national survey of U.S. adults. METHODS: Bivariate and multivariable analyses examined how trust in physician is related to skin color and race. Five items measuring trust were aggregated using three different methods (summation, averaging, scaling) and disaggregated (estimated one item at a time) in analyses...
February 15, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777381/african-americans-with-end-stage-renal-disease-in-the-early-years-of-kidney-transplantation
#9
Jackie Y Wang, Susan E Lederer, Lainie Friedman Ross
INTRODUCTION: The first successful kidney transplant in humans was performed in 1954. In the following 25 years, the biomedical, ethical, and social implications of kidney transplantation were widely discussed by both healthcare professionals and the public. Issues relating to race, however, were not commonly addressed, representing a "blind spot" regarding racial disparities in access and health outcomes. METHODS: Through primary sources in the medical literature and lay press, this paper explores the racial dynamics of kidney transplantation in the 1950-1970s in the United States as the procedure grew from an experimental procedure to the standard of care for patients in end-stage renal disease (ESRD)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765101/diversity-improves-performance-and-outcomes
#10
L E Gomez, Patrick Bernet
BACKGROUND: Research on the effects of increasing workplace diversity has grown substantially. Unfortunately, little is focused on the healthcare industry, leaving organizations to make decisions based on conflicting findings regarding the association of diversity with quality and financial outcomes. To help improve the evidence-based research, this umbrella review summarizes diversity research specific to healthcare. We also look at studies focused on professional skills relevant to healthcare...
February 11, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739728/the-growing-use-of-virtual-reality-in-cognitive-rehabilitation-fact-fake-or-vision-a-scoping-review
#11
Maria Grazia Maggio, Giuseppa Maresca, Rosaria De Luca, Maria Chiara Stagnitti, Bruno Porcari, Maria Cristina Ferrera, Franco Galletti, Carmela Casella, Alfredo Manuli, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
OBJECTIVE: This review aims to evaluate the role of Virtual Reality (VR) in cognitive rehabilitation of different neurological diseases, and the accessibility to healthcare systems providing this type of treatment. METHOD OF RESEARCH: Studies performed between 2003 and 2017 and fulfilling the selected criteria were found on PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and Web of Sciences databases. The search combined the terms VR rehabilitation with different neurological disease...
February 7, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739727/review-of-the-captain-america-graphic-novel-truth-red-white-and-black-focusing-on-parallels-with-the-infamous-usphs-syphilis-study-at-tuskegee
#12
S Batbold, R Ellis, R V Katz, R C Warren
This review presents the first detailed presentation of the parallelism between the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and the Captain America graphic novel 'TRUTH: Red, White and Black', published as a graphic novel by Marvel Comics in 2004 as a paperback, and then in 2009 as a hardcover. First written, published and distributed monthly in 2003 as pre-sequel seven comic book series to tell the story of the origins of the WWII superhero Captain America. In 2003, Marvel Comics chose to tell a 'very dark story' to explain the origins of Captain America, a half century after the initial introduction of Captain America as a WWII action hero in 1940...
February 7, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712919/prevalence-of-parvovirus-b19-infection-by-serology-and-pcr-in-pregnant-women-referring-to-obstetrics-and-gynecology-clinic
#13
Afsaneh Karami, Seyedeh Leila Hoseini, Ali Ramazani, Parisa Emadi, Hamideh Gholami, Seyed Mahdi Hoseini
OBJECTIVE: Infection by Primate erythroparvovirus 1, generally known Parvovirus B19, is highly prevalent worldwide. Although infection by this virus will not be clinically problematic in most cases, new infections during pregnancy could result in serious repercussions in the fetus. Serologic and PCR-based methods are among the available approaches for diagnosis of Parvovirus B19 infection. In this regard, the present study is aimed to investigate the frequency of Parvovirus B19 infection by these two techniques in pregnant women of Zanjan...
January 31, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711288/urban-minority-community-safety-and-its-impact-on-physical-activity-the-center-for-promoting-health-and-health-equity-racial-and-ethnic-approaches-to-community-health-cphhe-reach-initiative
#14
Omofolasade Kosoko-Lasaki, Olúgbémiga T Ekúndayò, Jeffrey Smith, Olivia Ochuba, Gavin Hayashi, Raheem Sanders, Richard Brown, John R Stone
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Daily physical activity is known to improve personal health and well-being and can often be influenced by one's living environment. A qualitative secondary data analysis of a focus group study, performed by the Creighton University Center for Promoting Health and Health Equity (CPHHE) - Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH), assesses behavioral changes in individuals who participated in newly established physical activities in faith-based organizations, local residential towers, and the local community health center...
January 30, 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770079/president-s-message
#15
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770078/the-same-result
#16
EDITORIAL
William B Lawson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30591233/aortic-stenosis-in-african-americans-focus-on-disparities-in-treatment-and-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Viswanatha R Chinta, Srikanth R Maddika, Peter Abader, Rafik Elbeblawy, Pooja S Jagdish, Uzair Ashraf, Srikanth Vallurupalli, Uzoma N Ibebuogu, Rami N Khouzam
Aortic stenosis (AS) is the third most common type of cardiovascular disease after hypertension and coronary artery disease, and it carries a high mortality rate when left untreated. Risk factors include male sex, hypertension, tobacco use, advanced age, elevated LDL cholesterol, and coronary atherosclerosis. Definitive treatment for AS includes valve repair, either percutaneously or surgically; however, in aging populations corrective surgery carries increased risk. While research suggests that patients of some non-White ethnic groups, including African-Americans, are less likely than their Caucasian counterparts to have AS, these minority patients may experience may experience differences in the way they receive and accept care...
December 24, 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30583951/osteogenic-potential-of-porous-titanium-an-experimental-study-in-sheep
#18
Sergey Vladimirovitsch Sirak, Bernd Giesenhagen, Ivan Vladimirovich Kozhel, Ingmar Schau, Evgeny Vjacheslavovitsch Shchetinin, Alexander Aleksandrovitsch Sletov, Marco Alexander Vukovic, Wolf-Dieter Grimm
The search for osteoinductive as well as osteoconductive materials has led to the novel idea of using titanium in bone augmentations of the alveolar crest. Due to its excellent biocompatibility and favorable osteogenic properties, highly porous TiO2 granules has been proposed as a promising material for non-resorbable synthetic bone grafts in the restoration of large bone defects, and for bone augmentation in dental applications. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the osteoconductive properties and biological performance of porous titanium granules used in osseous defects adjacent to the maxillary sinus in sheep...
December 21, 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30527966/association-between-executive-dysfunction-and-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-racial-and-ethnic-differences-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-in-the-southeastern-us
#19
Stephanie L Garrett, Richard E Kennedy, Patricia Sawyer, Courtney P Williams, Cynthia J Brown, Richard M Allman
OBJECTIVE: Examining cultural differences in assessment of cognitive/functional disability among older Americans is needed. This analysis examined associations between day-to-day function, measured by activities of daily living (ADL), and cognition, measured by CLOX scores, among older African American (AA) and non-Hispanic White (nHW) community-dwelling women and men. METHODS: Design- Cross-sectional. SETTING: Homes of community-dwelling older adults...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30514572/african-american-sexual-minority-adolescents-and-sexual-health-disparities-an-exploratory-cross-sectional-study
#20
Alyssa L Norris, Larry K Brown, Ralph J DiClemente, Robert F Valois, Daniel Romer, Peter A Vanable, Michael P Carey
PURPOSE: To better understand sexual health disparities among African-American sexual minority adolescents. METHODS: African-American adolescents (N = 1120; mean age = 15.24 years) were recruited from 4 cities (Columbia, SC; Macon, GA; Providence, RI; Syracuse, NY) to a larger trial. The current analyses used data from the 18-month follow-up when adolescents reported on their sexual partnerships, condom use knowledge, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies for condom use, sexual risk behavior, and STI testing history...
December 1, 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
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