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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

Carolina Arana Stanis Schmaltz, Fernanda de Oliveira Demitto, Flavia Marinho Sant'Anna, Valeria Cavalcanti Rolla
BACKGROUND: Rifamycins are a group of antibiotics mainly used in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB), however they interact with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Rifabutin allows more regimens options for concomitant imunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment compared to rifampicin. OBJECTIVE: Compare the outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected patients who used rifampicin or rifabutin. METHODS: We analysed data from a prospective cohort study at National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil...
February 11, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Allan Henrique Depieri Cataneo, Diogo Kuczera, Ana Luiza Pamplona Mosimann, Emanuele Guimarães Silva, Álvaro Gil Araújo Ferreira, João Trindade Marques, Pryscilla Fanini Wowk, Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos Santos, Juliano Bordignon
BACKGROUND: The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemics that affected South America in 2016 raised several research questions and prompted an increase in studies in the field. The transient and low viraemia observed in the course of ZIKV infection is a challenge for viral isolation from patient serum, which leads to many laboratories around the world sharing viral strains for their studies. C6/36 cells derived from Aedes albopictus larvae are commonly used for arbovirus isolation from clinical samples and for the preparation of viral stocks...
February 7, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Larissa Rodrigues Gomes, Aline Lavigne, Patrícia Brasil, Cassio Leonel Peterka, Didier Ménard, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro, Maria de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Brazil is responsible for a large number of Plasmodium vivax cases in America. Given the emergence of P. vivax parasites resistant to chloroquine and the effectiveness of antifolates in vivax malaria treatment together with a correlation between mutations in P. vivax dhfr and dhps genes and SP treatment failure, the point mutations in these genes were investigated. METHODS: Blood samples from 54 patients experiencing vivax malaria symptomatic episodes in the Amazonian Region were investigated...
February 4, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Anna Raquel Ribeiro Dos Santos, Ângela Vieira Serufo, Maria Marta Figueiredo, Lara Carvalho Godoi, Jéssica Gardone Vitório, Andreza Pain Marcelino, Daniel Moreira de Avelar, Fernandes Tenório Gomes Rodrigues, George Luiz Lins Machado-Coelho, Fernanda Alvarenga Cardoso Medeiros, Selma Maria Bezerra Jerônimo, Edward José de Oliveira, Frederico Crepaldi Nascimento, Santuza Maria Ribeiro Teixeira, Ricardo Tostes Gazzinelli, Ronaldo Alves Pinto Nagem, Ana Paula Fernandes
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease that is a significant cause of death among infants aged under 1 year and the elderly in Brazil. Serodiagnosis is a mainstay of VL elimination programs; however, it has significant limitations due to low accuracy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate three recombinant Leishmania infantum proteins (rFc, rC9, and rA2) selected from previous proteomics and genomics analyses to develop enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for the serodiagnosis of human VL (HVL) and canine VL (CVL)...
February 4, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Ana Izabel Passarella Teixeira, Debora Marcolino Silva, Tamires Vital, Nadjar Nitz, Bruna Caroline de Carvalho, Mariana Hecht, Diana Oliveira, Edward Oliveira, Ana Rabello, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero
BACKGROUND: Studies aimed at validating canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic tests present heterogeneous results regarding test accuracy, partly due to divergences in reference standards used and different infection evolution periods in animals. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the rapid test-dual path platform (TR-DPP) (Biomanguinhos®), EIE-Leishmaniose-Visceral-Canina-Biomanguinhos (EIE-LVC) (Biomanguinhos®), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) rK39 (in-house), and the direct agglutination test (DAT-Canis) against a reference standard comprising parasitological and molecular techniques...
January 31, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Juliana Santos-Gandelman, Alice Machado-Silva
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is one of the most devastating fungal infections in humans. Despite the disease's clinical importance, current therapy is based on limited antifungals that are either toxic, inefficient, unavailable worldwide, or that quickly lead to resistance. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to provide insight into the future of cryptococcosis treatment by describing the patent scenario in this field. METHODS: We identified and analysed patent documents revealing compounds with anti-cryptococcal activity supported by experimental evidence...
January 31, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Natália Ketrin Almeida-de-Oliveira, Otacílio C Moreira, Aline Rosa de Lavigne, Leila Mendonça-Lima, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro, Maria de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz
BACKGROUND: The prompt diagnosis of plasmodial species for effective treatment prevents worsening of individual health and avoids transmission maintenance or even malaria reintroduction in areas where Plasmodium does not exist. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows for the detection of parasites below the threshold of microscopic examination. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to develop a real-time PCR test to reduce diagnostic errors and increase efficacy. METHODS: The lower limit of quantification and the linearity/analytical sensitivity to measure sensitivity or limit of detection (LoD) were determined...
January 31, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Lívia Caricio Martins, Eliana Vieira Pinto da Silva, Livia Medeiros Neves Casseb, Sandro Patroca da Silva, Ana Cecília Ribeiro Cruz, Jamilla Augusta de Sousa Pantoja, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida Medeiros, Arnaldo Jorge Martins Filho, Ermelinda do Rosário Moutinho da Cruz, Marialva Tereza Ferreira de Araújo, Jedson Ferreira Cardoso, Marcos Antônio Correia Rodrigues da Cunha, Gilton Luiz Almada, Alessandro Pecego Martins Romano, Maria Guadalupe Dias Pestana Santos, Gilsa Aparecida Pimenta Rodrigues, Jannifer Oliveira Chiang, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma, Valéria Lima Carvalho, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos
BACKGROUND: Serological evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection has been reported in different regions of Brazil from equine and human hosts but the virus had never been isolated in the country. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify the viral etiology of equine encephalitis in Espírito Santo state. METHODS: We performed viral culture in C6/36 cells, molecular detection of WNV genome, histopathology and immunohistochemistry from horse cerebral tissue...
January 17, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Gilmara Lima Nascimento, Helio Milani Pegado, Ana Lúcia Coutinho Domingues, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Alexander Itria, Luciane Nascimento Cruz, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis mansoni is a poverty-related parasitic infection that has a variety of clinical manifestations. We consider the disability and deaths caused by schistosomiasis unacceptable for a tool-ready disease. Its condition in Brazil warrants an analysis that will enable better understanding of the local health losses and contribute to the complex decision-making process. OBJECTIVE: This study estimates the cost of schistosomiasis in Brazil in 2015...
January 14, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Sergio Mascarenhas Morgado, Ana Carolina Paulo Vicente
BACKGROUND: Shared traits between prokaryotes and eukaryotes are helpful in the understanding of the tree of life evolution. In bacteria and eukaryotes, it has been shown a particular organisation of tRNA genes as clusters, but this trait has not been explored in the archaea domain. OBJECTIVE: Explore the occurrence of tRNA gene clusters in archaea. METHODS: In-silico analyses of complete and draft archaeal genomes based on tRNA gene isotype and synteny, tRNA gene cluster content and mobilome elements...
January 7, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Ayda Susana Ortiz-Baez, Marielton Dos Passos Cunha, Danila Vedovello, Tatiana Elias Colombo, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira, Christian Julián Villabona-Arenas, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) was first reported in Brazil in 1982 and since then no more cases were detected again in Brazil until 2010, when the virus was reintroduced. Over the following years, the virus spread to several Brazilian states and resulted in about 1,400,000 dengue cases, in 2013. The largest number of cases were documented in the Southeast macro-region. OBJECTIVES: To determine the phylogeography of DENV-4 Genotype IIB strains isolated during the epidemics in 2012-2013 in São Paulo, Brazil, we aimed to contextualise the contribution of viruses sampled in different localities across the overall movement of DENV-4 in Brazil...
January 7, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Fernanda Nahoum Carestiato, Sergio Menezes Amaro-Filho, Miguel Angelo Martins Moreira, Silvia Maria Baeta Cavalcanti
BACKGROUND Epigenetic modifications in host cells, like p16 ink4a methylation, have been considered as putative complementary mechanisms for cancer development. Because only a small proportion of infected women develop cervical cancer, other factors might be involved in carcinogenesis, either independently or in association with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections, including epigenetic factors. OBJECTIVES We hypothesised that p16 ink4a methylation might have a role in cancer development driven by HPV16, mainly in the presence of intact E1/E2 genes...
December 17, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Jorlan Fernandes, Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Thayssa Alves Coelho, Regina Maria Bringel Martins, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Marco Aurélio Pereira Horta, Silvana Levis, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos Carneiro, Sheila A Teles, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
Anthropogenic environmental changes arising from settlement and agriculture include deforestation and replacement of natural vegetation by crops providing opportunities for pathogen spillover from animals to humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of rodent-borne virus infections in seven rural settlements from Midwestern Brazil. Of the 466 individuals tested 12 (2.57%) were reactive for orthohantavirus and 3 (0.64%) for mammarenavirus. These rural settlers lived under unfavorable infrastructure, socioeconomic disadvantages, and unsanitary conditions, representing a risk for rodent-borne infections...
December 17, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Dandara Cassu-Corsi, Willames Mbs Martins, Adriana G Nicoletti, Luiz Gp Almeida, Ana Tr Vasconcelos, Ana C Gales
OBJECTIVES The emergence of 16S rRNA methyltranferases (16 RMTAses) has jeopardised the clinical use of aminoglycosides. RmtB is one of the most frequently reported in Gram-negatives worldwide. In this study, we aimed to estimate the frequency of 16S RMTAses encoding genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in a three-month period from a tertiary Brazilian hospital. METHODS All Gram-negatives classified as resistant to amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin by agar screening were selected for analysis. The presence of 16SRMTases encoding genes was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 10, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Rodrigo Mendes de Camargo, Weber Laurentino da Silva, Priscila Medeiros, Andrea de Faria Fernandes Belone, Ana Carla Pereira Latini
BACKGROUND Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, and compromises the skin and peripheral nerves. This disease has been classified as multibacillary (MB) or paucibacillary (PB) depending on the host immune response. Genetic epidemiology studies in leprosy have shown the influence of human genetic components on the disease outcomes. OBJECTIVES We conducted an association study for IL2RA and TGFB1 genes with clinical forms of leprosy based on two case-control samples. These genes encode important molecules for the immunosuppressive activity of Treg cells and present differential expressions according to the clinical forms of leprosy...
December 10, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Michele de Souza Bastos, Valquiria do Carmo Alves Martins, Natália Lessa da Silva, Samya Jezine, Sérgio Pinto, Valderjane Aprigio, Rossicleia Lins Monte, Silvio Fragoso, Marzia Puccioni-Sohler
BACKGROUND Amazon, the largest tropical forest of the world, has suffered from dengue outbreaks since 1998. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients, from Amazonas state, suspected of central nervous system (CNS) viral infection was studied using molecular and immunological methods. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the importance of CSF investigation in patients with acute dengue virus (DENV) infection of CNS. METHODS CSF samples of 700 patients were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of dengue virus (DENV) RNA and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect presence of DENV specific IgM...
December 10, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Sandra González-de la Fuente, Esther Camacho, Ramón Peiró-Pastor, Alberto Rastrojo, Fernando Carrasco-Ramiro, Begoña Aguado, Jose M Requena
Leishmania braziliensis is the etiological agent of American mucosal leishmaniasis, one of the most severe clinical forms of leishmaniasis. Here, we report the assembly of the L. braziliensis (M2904) genome into 35 continuous chromosomes. Also, the annotation of 8395 genes is provided. The public availability of this information will contribute to a better knowledge of this pathogen and help in the search for vaccines and novel drug targets aimed to control the disease caused by this Leishmania species.
December 10, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Annhymariet Torrellas, Elizabeth Ferrer, Israel Cruz, Héctor de Lima, Olinda Delgado, José Carrero Rangel, José Arturo Bravo, Carmen Chicharro, Ivonne Pamela Llanes-Acevedo, Michael A Miles, María Dora Feliciangeli
BACKGROUND The transmission routes for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) are in flux, so studies examining its transmission in humans, mammalian hosts, and sand fly vectors are urgently needed. OBJECTIVES The aim of this work was understand the epidemiological cycles of Leishmania spp., which causes ACL in the Andean Region of Venezuela, by identifying the Leishmania and the sand fly species involved in human and dog infections. METHODS Thirty-one biopsies from patients in Mérida and Táchira states with suspected ACL were studied by both parasitological tests (cultures and hamster inoculation) and a molecular test [Internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)]...
December 6, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Julia Penna-Coutinho, Anna Cc Aguiar, Antoniana Ursine Krettli/
BACKGROUND The main strategy to control human malaria still relies on specific drug treatment, limited now by Plasmodium falciparum-resistant parasites, including that against artemisinin derivatives. Despite the large number of active compounds described in the literature, few of them reached full development against human malaria. Drug repositioning is a fast and less expensive strategy for antimalarial drug discovery, because these compounds are already approved for human use. OBJECTIVES To identify new antimalarial drugs from compounds commercially available and used for other indications...
December 6, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Catharine Prussing, Sara A Bickersmith, Marta Moreno, Marlon P Saavedra, Freddy Alava, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum, Dionicia Gamboa, Joseph M Vinetz, Jan E Conn
BACKGROUND Nyssorhynchus dunhami, a member of the Nuneztovari Complex, has been collected in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru and described as zoophilic. Although to date Ny. dunhami has not been documented to be naturally infected by Plasmodium, it is frequently misidentified as other Oswaldoi subgroup species that are local or regional malaria vectors. OBJECTIVES The current study seeks to verify the morphological identification of Nuneztovari Complex species collected in the peri-Iquitos region of Amazonian Peru, to determine their Plasmodium infection status, and to describe ecological characteristics of their larval habitats...
December 3, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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