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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31021157/attending-object-features-interferes-with-visual-working-memory-regardless-of-eye-movements
#1
Zachary Hamblin-Frohman, Stefanie I Becker
There is currently a debate about the relationship between feature-based attention (FBA) and visual working memory (VWM). One theory proposes that the 2 constructs should be synthesized into a single concept (Kiyonaga & Egner, 2013). In this unified theory, VWM is defined as attention directed toward internal representations that competes with attention for a shared limited resource. Contrary to this account, it has been reported that only overt attention shifts (saccades), but not covert attention shifts, interfere with VWM (Tas, Luck, & Hollingworth, 2016)...
April 25, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31021156/can-we-prepare-to-attend-to-one-of-two-simultaneous-voices
#2
Stephen Monsell, Aureliu Lavric, Amy Strivens, Emilia Paul
We can selectively attend to one of two simultaneous voices sharing a source location. Can we endogenously select the voice before speech is heard? Participants heard two digit names, spoken simultaneously by a male voice and a female voice, following a visual cue indicating which voice's digit to classify as odd or even. There was a substantial cost in reaction time and errors when the target voice switched from one trial to the next. In Experiment 1, with a highly familiar pair of voices, the switch cost reduced by nearly half as the cue-stimulus interval increased from 50 to 800 ms, indicating (contrary to previous reports) effective endogenous preparation for a change of voice...
April 25, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31021155/when-is-object-based-attention-not-based-on-objects
#3
Zhe Chen, Kyle R Cave
Some studies using methods introduced by Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994) to measure object-based attention have shown surprising effects of object orientation. Rectangles oriented horizontally produce evidence for object-based attention, whereas vertical rectangles do not. We explore these differences using a two-letter comparison task. Across all the experiments, responses are faster when the targets are arranged horizontally rather than vertically. The horizontal advantage persists when the rectangles are removed, demonstrating its independence from object-based attention...
April 25, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31021154/phase-specific-shape-aftereffects-explained-by-the-tilt-aftereffect
#4
Vanessa K Bowden, J Edwin Dickinson, Robert J Green, David R Badcock
Aftereffects of adaptation are frequently used to infer mechanisms of human visual perception. Commonly, the properties of stimuli are repelled from properties of the adaptor. For example, in the tilt aftereffect a line is repelled in orientation from a previously experienced line. Perceived orientation is predicted by the centroid of the responses of a population of mechanisms individually tuned to limited ranges of orientation but collectively sensitive to the whole possible range. Aftereffects are also predictable if the mechanisms are allowed to adapt...
April 25, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31008630/manipulation-of-expended-effort-and-intent-does-not-affect-estimates-of-slant-or-distance
#5
Dennis M Shaffer, Kirsten M Greer, Jackson T Schaffer
It is well known that people overestimate the orientation of both geographical and man-made sloped surfaces by between 5°-20°. More recently, work has shown that when people are encumbered by wearing a heavy backpack they overestimate hills and distances even more than a group not wearing heavy backpacks; however, the backpack manipulation has since been shown to be a demand effect-that is, being encumbered does not affect perception-it only biases those people influenced by it to give estimates the experimenters are seeking...
April 22, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30998070/cognitive-workload-measurement-and-modeling-under-divided-attention
#6
Spencer C Castro, David L Strayer, Dora Matzke, Andrew Heathcote
Motorists often engage in secondary tasks unrelated to driving that increase cognitive workload, resulting in fatal crashes and injuries. An International Standards Organization method for measuring a driver's cognitive workload, the detection response task (DRT), correlates well with driving outcomes, but investigation of its putative theoretical basis in terms of finite attention capacity remains limited. We address this knowledge gap using evidence-accumulation modeling of simple and choice versions of the DRT in a driving scenario...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30998069/seeing-social-events-the-visual-specialization-for-dyadic-human-human-interactions
#7
Liuba Papeo, Etienne Abassi
Detection and recognition of social interactions unfolding in the surroundings is as vital as detection and recognition of faces, bodies, and animate entities in general. We have demonstrated that the visual system is particularly sensitive to a configuration with two bodies facing each other as if interacting. In four experiments using backward masking on healthy adults, we investigated the properties of this dyadic visual representation. We measured the inversion effect (IE), the cost on recognition, of seeing bodies upside-down as opposed to upright, as an index of visual sensitivity: the greater the visual sensitivity, the greater the IE...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30998068/do-emotional-faces-capture-attention-and-does-this-depend-on-awareness-evidence-from-the-visual-probe-paradigm
#8
Nicholas Hedger, Matthew Garner, Wendy J Adams
The visual probe (VP) paradigm provides evidence that emotional stimuli attract attention. Such effects have been reported even when stimuli are presented outside of awareness. These findings have shaped the idea that humans possess a processing pathway that detects evolutionarily significant signals independently of awareness. Here, we addressed 2 unresolved questions: First, if emotional stimuli attract attention, is this driven by their affective content, or by low-level image properties (e.g., luminance contrast)? Second, does attentional capture occur under conditions of genuine unawareness? We found that observers preferentially allocated attention to emotional faces under aware viewing conditions...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30998067/grab-that-face-hammer-or-line-no-effect-of-hands-position-on-visual-memory
#9
Tomer Sahar, Tal Makovski
Is visual memory enhanced near the hands? The embodied cognition framework postulates that body states and action greatly influence cognition. Accordingly, numerous studies have argued that hands position affects visual perception and attention. However, it is less clear whether this effect could be extended to visual memory. Thus, to examine the consequences of hands position on memory, more than 300 participants were tested in 7 experiments (including one direct replication) that investigated memory for information presented near and far from the hands...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30998066/evidence-for-a-reduction-of-the-rightward-extent-of-the-perceptual-span-when-reading-dynamic-horizontally-scrolling-text
#10
Hannah Harvey, Simon P Liversedge, Robin Walker
The dynamic horizontally scrolling text format produces a directional conflict in the allocation of attention for reading, with a necessity to track each word leftward (in the direction of movement) concurrently with normal rightward shifts made to progress through the text (in left-to-right orthographies such as English). The gaze-contingent window paradigm was used to compare the extent of the perceptual span in reading of scrolling and static sentences. Across two experiments, this investigation confirmed that the allocation of attentional resources to the right of fixation was compressed with scrolling text...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30985178/the-relationship-between-working-memory-and-the-dual-target-cost-in-visual-search-guidance
#11
Tamaryn Menneer, Kyle R Cave, Elina Kaplan, Michael J Stroud, Junha Chang, Nick Donnelly
Searching for two targets produces a dual-target cost compared with single-target search, with reduced attentional guidance toward targets (Stroud, Menneer, Cave, & Donnelly, 2012). We explore the effect of holding a color in working memory (WM) on guidance in single-target search. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants searched for a T of a specific color while holding one of the following in WM: a color patch, a letter, a dot pattern, or an oriented bar. Only when holding a color in WM was guidance in single-target search affected as strongly as it is in dual-target search...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30985177/judging-the-subjective-difficulty-of-different-kinds-of-tasks
#12
Iman Feghhi, David A Rosenbaum
People judge the relative difficulty of different kinds of tasks all the time, yet little is known about how they do so. We asked university students to choose between tasks that taxed perceptual-motor control and memorization to different degrees. Our participants decided whether to carry a box through a wide (81 cm) or narrow (36 cm) gap after memorizing six, seven, or eight digits. The model that maximized the likelihood of observing the choice data treated the extra physical demand of passing through the narrow gap as functionally equivalent to memorizing an extra ...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30985176/real-world-size-is-automatically-encoded-in-preschoolers-object-representations
#13
Bria Long, Mariko Moher, Susan Carey, Talia Konkle
When adults see a picture of an object, they automatically process how big the object typically is in the real world (Konkle & Oliva, 2012a). How much life experience is needed for this automatic size processing to emerge? Here, we ask whether preschoolers show this same signature of automatic size processing. We showed 3- and 4-year-olds displays with two pictures of objects and asked them to touch the picture that was smaller on the screen. Critically, the relative visual sizes of the objects could be either congruent with their relative real-world sizes (e...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30958021/precise-movements-in-awkward-postures-a-direct-test-of-the-precision-hypothesis-of-the-end-state-comfort-effect
#14
Oliver Herbort, Wilfried Kunde
When humans manipulate an object, they prefer to grasp the object in a way that allows to terminate the manipulation in a comfortable posture. The reasons for this end-state comfort effect have remained elusive so far. One explanation assumes that comfortable end-states are not preferred per se, but rather because they come with increased movement precision, which is typically required by the end of an object manipulation. Five experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis and yielded 3 main results. First, grasps that increase control over an object are preferred irrespective of the resulting arm postures...
April 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30945910/automatic-imitation-remains-unaffected-under-cognitive-load
#15
Richard Ramsey, Kohinoor M Darda, Paul E Downing
Automaticity has been argued to be a core feature of the mental processes that guide social interactions, such as those underpinning imitative behaviors. To date, however, there is little known about the automaticity of imitative tendencies. In the current study, we used a finger movement stimulus-response compatibility task to index processes associated with controlling the urge to copy other people's actions. In addition, we manipulated the level of load placed on a secondary cognitive task to test if there is a capacity limit in the systems that filter distractor finger movement stimuli...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30945909/how-low-can-you-go-detecting-style-in-extremely-low-resolution-images
#16
Rachel A Searston, Matthew B Thompson, John R Vokey, Luke A French, Jason M Tangen
Humans can see through the complexity of scenes, faces, and objects by quickly extracting their redundant low-spatial and low-dimensional global properties, or their style. It remains unclear, however, whether semantic coding is necessary, or whether visual stylistic information is sufficient, for people to recognize and discriminate complex images and categories. In two experiments, we systematically reduce the resolution of hundreds of unique paintings, birds, and faces, and test people's ability to discriminate and recognize them...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30945908/complexity-drives-speech-sound-development-evidence-from-artificial-language-training
#17
Akshay R Maggu, René Kager, Shimeng Xu, Patrick C M Wong
Traditionally, learning is assumed to take place with exposure to simpler elements first followed by exposure to elements with increasing levels of difficulty. Recent reports suggest that exposure to complex elements leads to more widespread changes. However, whether learning via exposure to complex or to simple elements is more beneficial is a matter of ongoing debate. In the current study, using behavioral and electrophysiological measures, we aimed at understanding this by comparing subjects trained with complex speech sounds with those trained with simple speech sounds in a 5-day pseudoword-picture training paradigm...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30945907/boldness-moderates-the-effects-of-external-threat-on-performance-within-a-task-switching-paradigm
#18
James R Yancey, Colin B Bowyer, Jens Foell, Walter R Boot, Christopher J Patrick
Set shifting involves the capacity to effectively and efficiently direct mental resources in the service of dynamically changing goal representations. This capacity is important in everyday life and may be vital in situations where processing resources needed for adaptive action may be diverted by cues for external danger or threat (e.g., first responding, military combat, trauma surgery). Although considerable research has investigated performance in set-shifting tasks, little work exists on how the presence of external threats may affect the capacity to flexibly deploy cognitive resources...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30945906/atypical-emotion-recognition-from-bodies-is-associated-with-perceptual-difficulties-in-healthy-aging
#19
James Chard, Rosanna Edey, Daniel Yon, Jennifer Murphy, Geoffrey Bird, Clare Press
A range of processes are required for recognizing others' affective states. It is particularly important that we process the perceptual cues providing information about these states. These experiments tested the hypothesis that difficulties with affective state identification in older adults (OAs) arise, at least partly, from deficits in perceptual processing. To this end we presented "point light display" whole body stimuli to healthy OAs and comparison younger adults (YAs) in 3 signal detection experiments...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30945905/cross-modal-interference-control-is-reduced-in-childhood-but-maintained-in-aging-a-cohort-study-of-stimulus-and-response-interference-in-cross-modal-and-unimodal-stroop-tasks
#20
Rebecca J Hirst, Ella C Kicks, Harriet A Allen, Lucy Cragg
Interference-control is the ability to exclude distractions and focus on a specific task or stimulus. However, it is currently unclear whether the same interference-control mechanisms underlie the ability to ignore unimodal and cross-modal distractions. In 2 experiments we assessed whether unimodal and cross-modal interference follow similar trajectories in development and aging and occur at similar processing levels. In Experiment 1, 42 children (6-11 years), 31 younger adults (18-25 years) and 32 older adults (60-84 years) identified color rectangles with either written (unimodal) or spoken (cross-modal) distractor-words...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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