journal
Journals Journal of Experimental Psycho...

Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38330366/do-large-language-models-show-decision-heuristics-similar-to-humans-a-case-study-using-gpt-3-5
#21
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gaurav Suri, Lily R Slater, Ali Ziaee, Morgan Nguyen
A Large Language Model (LLM) is an artificial intelligence system trained on vast amounts of natural language data, enabling it to generate human-like responses to written or spoken language input. Generative Pre-Trained Transformer (GPT)-3.5 is an example of an LLM that supports a conversational agent called ChatGPT. In this work, we used a series of novel prompts to determine whether ChatGPT shows heuristics and other context-sensitive responses. We also tested the same prompts on human participants. Across four studies, we found that ChatGPT was influenced by random anchors in making estimates (anchoring, Study 1); it judged the likelihood of two events occurring together to be higher than the likelihood of either event occurring alone, and it was influenced by anecdotal information (representativeness and availability heuristic, Study 2); it found an item to be more efficacious when its features were presented positively rather than negatively-even though both presentations contained statistically equivalent information (framing effect, Study 3); and it valued an owned item more than a newly found item even though the two items were objectively identical (endowment effect, Study 4)...
February 8, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38330365/flexibility-in-continuous-judgments-of-gender-sex-and-race
#22
JOURNAL ARTICLE
S Atwood, Dominic J Gibson, Sofía Briones Ramírez, Kristina R Olson
Across six preregistered studies ( N = 1,292; recruited from university subject pools and Prolific Academic), we investigate how face perception along the dimensions of gender/sex and race can vary based on immediate contextual information as well as personal experience. In Studies 1a and 1b, we find that when placing stimuli along a continuum from male to female, cisgender participants sort prototypical gender/sex faces in a bimodal fashion and show less consensus and greater error when placing faces of intermediate gender/sex...
February 8, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38330364/race-effects-on-impression-formation-in-social-interaction-an-instrumental-learning-account
#23
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Iris J Traast, David T Schultner, Bertjan Doosje, David M Amodio
How does race influence the impressions we form through direct interaction? In two preregistered experiments ( N = 239/179), White American participants played a money-sharing game with Black and White players, based on a probabilistic reward reinforcement learning task, in which they chose to interact with players and received feedback on whether a player shared. We found that participants formed stronger reward preferences for White relative to Black players despite equivalent reward feedback between groups-a pattern that was stronger among participants with low internal motivation to respond without prejudice and high explicit prejudice...
February 8, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38300545/can-selecting-the-most-qualified-candidate-be-unfair-learning-about-socioeconomic-advantages-and-disadvantages-reduces-the-perceived-fairness-of-meritocracy-and-increases-support-for-socioeconomic-diversity-initiatives-in-organizations
#24
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Daniela Goya-Tocchetto, Aaron C Kay, B Keith Payne
While the majority of Americans today endorse meritocracy as fair, we suggest that these perceptions can be shaped by whether or not people learn about the presence of socioeconomic advantages and disadvantages in others' lives. Across five studies ( N = 3,318), we find that people are able to attach socioeconomic inequalities in applicants' backgrounds to their evaluation of the fairness of specific merit-based selection processes and outcomes. Learning that one applicant grew up advantaged-while the other grew up disadvantaged-leads both liberals and conservatives to believe that otherwise identical merit-based procedures and outcomes are significantly less fair...
February 1, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38300544/dynamic-saccade-context-triggers-more-stable-object-location-binding
#25
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Zitong Lu, Julie D Golomb
Our visual systems rapidly perceive and integrate information about object identities and locations. There is long-standing debate about if and how we achieve world-centered (spatiotopic) object representations across eye movements, with many studies reporting persistent retinotopic (eye-centered) effects even for higher level object-location binding. But these studies are generally conducted in fairly static experimental contexts. Might spatiotopic object-location binding only emerge in more dynamic saccade contexts? In the present study, we investigated this using the spatial congruency bias paradigm in healthy adults...
February 1, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38300543/deep-neural-network-decodes-aspects-of-stimulus-intrinsic-memorability-inaccessible-to-humans
#26
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Chong Zhao, Joie Kim, Tzu Hsuan Tang, Joseph M Saito, Keisuke Fukuda
Some stimuli are more memorable than others. Humans have demonstrated partial access to the properties that make a given stimulus more or less memorable. Recently, a deep neural network named ResMem was shown to successfully decode the memorability of visual stimuli as well. However, it remains unknown whether ResMem's predictions of memorability reflect the influence of stimulus-intrinsic properties or other stimulus-extrinsic factors that are known to induce interindividual consistency in memory performance (e...
February 1, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38300542/deep-distortions-in-everyday-memory-fact-memory-is-illogical-too
#27
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Charles J Brainerd, Daniel M Bialer, Minyu Chang, Xinya Liu
A distinction has recently been drawn between surface distortions and deep distortions in false memory, where the former are conventional errors of commission and the latter are illogical relations among multiple memories of items. The deep distortions that have been studied to date are violations of the logical rules that govern incompatibility relations, such as additivity and countable additivity. Because that work is confined to laboratory word-list tasks, it is subject to the ecological validity criticism that memory for everyday facts may not exhibit such phenomena...
February 1, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38300541/distance-in-depth-a-comparison-of-explicit-and-implicit-numerical-distances-in-the-horizontal-and-radial-dimensions
#28
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Arianna Felisatti, Mariagrazia Ranzini, Samuel Shaki, Martin H Fischer
Numbers are a constant presence in our daily lives: A brain devoid of the ability to process numbers would not be functional in its external environment. Comparing numerical magnitudes is a fundamental ability that requires the processing of numerical distances. From magnitude comparison tasks, a comparison distance effect (DE) emerges: It describes better performance when comparing numerically distant rather than close numbers. Unlike other signatures of number processing, the comparison DE has been assessed only implicitly, with numerical distance as nonsalient task property...
February 1, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38271014/over-and-underweighting-of-extreme-values-in-decisions-from-sequential-samples
#29
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Verena Clarmann von Clarenau, Stefan Appelhoff, Thorsten Pachur, Bernhard Spitzer
People routinely make decisions based on samples of numerical values. A common conclusion from the literature in psychophysics and behavioral economics is that observers subjectively compress magnitudes, such that extreme values have less sway over people's decisions than prescribed by a normative model (underweighting). However, recent studies have reported evidence for anti-compression, that is, the relative overweighting of extreme values. Here, we investigate potential reasons for this discrepancy in findings and propose that it might reflect adaptive responses to different task requirements...
January 25, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38271013/longitudinal-assessments-of-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-background-functional-connectivity-in-low-and-middle-income-infants-during-a-social-cognition-task
#30
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sabrina M Di Lonardo Burr, Laura Pirazzoli, Aleksandra W Dopierała, Vikranth R Bejjanki, Charles A Nelson, Lauren L Emberson
Shortly after birth, human infants demonstrate behavioral selectivity to social stimuli. However, the neural underpinnings of this selectivity are largely unknown. Here, we examine patterns of functional connectivity to determine how regions of the brain interact while processing social stimuli and how these interactions change during the first 2 years of life. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we measured functional connectivity at 6 ( n = 147) and 24 ( n = 111) months of age in infants from Bangladesh who were exposed to varying levels of environmental adversity (i...
January 25, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38271012/social-class-perception-is-driven-by-stereotype-related-facial-features
#31
JOURNAL ARTICLE
R Thora Bjornsdottir, Laura B Hensel, Jiayu Zhan, Oliver G B Garrod, Philippe G Schyns, Rachael E Jack
Social class is a powerful hierarchy that determines many privileges and disadvantages. People form impressions of others' social class (like other important social attributes) from facial appearance, and these impressions correlate with stereotype judgments. However, what drives these related subjective judgments remains unknown. That is, what makes someone look like they are of higher or lower social class standing (e.g., rich or poor), and how does this relate to harmful or advantageous stereotypes? We addressed these questions using a perception-based data-driven method to model the specific three-dimensional facial features that drive social class judgments and compared them to those of stereotype-related judgments (competence, warmth, dominance, and trustworthiness), based on White Western culture participants and face stimuli...
January 25, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38271011/how-and-when-does-a-used-vs-unused-account-affect-consumption-behavior
#32
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Siyuan Yin, Marissa A Sharif
How does spending from a used (vs. unused) account affect consumption behavior? An account is used when some resources of that account have been used (e.g., $90 has been used on a gift card that originally had $100). An account is unused when no resources of that account have been used (e.g., no money has been used on a gift card that has $10). Across seven studies ( N = 8,667), we find that people are more likely to spend resources from a used account than otherwise equivalent resources from an unused account...
January 25, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38587935/uncertainty-limits-the-use-of-power-analysis
#33
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jolynn Pek, Mark A Pitt, Duane T Wegener
The calculation of statistical power has been taken up as a simple yet informative tool to assist in designing an experiment, particularly in justifying sample size. A difficulty with using power for this purpose is that the classical power formula does not incorporate sources of uncertainty (e.g., sampling variability) that can impact the computed power value, leading to a false sense of precision and confidence in design choices. We use simulations to demonstrate the consequences of adding two common sources of uncertainty to the calculation of power...
April 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38587934/-don-t-look-where-you-are-going-evidence-for-a-travel-direction-signal-in-humans-that-is-independent-of-head-direction
#34
JOURNAL ARTICLE
You Cheng, Sam Ling, Chantal E Stern, Andrew Huang, Elizabeth R Chrastil
We often assume that travel direction is redundant with head direction, but from first principles, these two factors provide differing spatial information. Although head direction has been found to be a fundamental component of human navigation, it is unclear how self-motion signals for travel direction contribute to forming a travel trajectory. Employing a novel motion adaptation paradigm from visual neuroscience designed to preclude a contribution of head direction, we found high-level aftereffects of perceived travel direction, indicating that travel direction is a fundamental component of human navigation...
April 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38386386/psychological-freedom-rationality-and-the-naive-theory-of-reasoning
#35
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Corey Cusimano, Natalia Zorrilla, David Danks, Tania Lombrozo
To make sense of the social world, people reason about others' mental states, including whether and in what ways others can form new mental states. We propose that people's judgments concerning the dynamics of mental state change invoke a "naive theory of reasoning." On this theory, people conceptualize reasoning as a rational, semi-autonomous process that individuals can leverage, but not override, to form new rational mental states. Across six experiments, we show that this account of people's naive theory of reasoning predicts judgments about others' ability to form rational and irrational beliefs, desires, and intentions, as well as others' ability to act rationally and irrationally...
March 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38386385/the-universal-law-of-generalization-holds-for-naturalistic-stimuli
#36
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Raja Marjieh, Nori Jacoby, Joshua C Peterson, Thomas L Griffiths
Shepard's universal law of generalization is a remarkable hypothesis about how intelligent organisms should perceive similarity. In its broadest form, the universal law states that the level of perceived similarity between a pair of stimuli should decay as a concave function of their distance when embedded in an appropriate psychological space. While extensively studied, evidence in support of the universal law has relied on low-dimensional stimuli and small stimulus sets that are very different from their real-world counterparts...
March 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37917442/visual-cues-and-food-intake-a-preregistered-replication-of-wansink-et-al-2005
#37
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Alejandra Lopez, Alyssa K Choi, Nadia C Dellawar, Brooke C Cullen, Sonia Avila Contreras, Daniel L Rosenfeld, A Janet Tomiyama
Imagine a bowl of soup that never emptied, no matter how many spoonfuls you ate-when and how would you know to stop eating? Satiation can play a role in regulating eating behavior, but research suggests visual cues may be just as important. In a seminal study by Wansink et al. (2005), researchers used self-refilling bowls to assess how visual cues of portion size would influence intake. The study found that participants who unknowingly ate from self-refilling bowls ate more soup than did participants eating from normal (not self-refilling) bowls...
February 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38252088/pancultural-nostalgia-in-action-prevalence-triggers-and-psychological-functions-of-nostalgia-across-cultures
#38
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Erica G Hepper, Constantine Sedikides, Tim Wildschut, Wing Yee Cheung, Georgios Abakoumkin, Gizem Arikan, Mark Aveyard, Einar B Baldursson, Olga Bialobrzeska, Sana Bouamama, Imed Bouzaouech, Marco Brambilla, Axel M Burger, Sylvia Xiaohua Chen, Sylwia Cisek, Didier Demassosso, Lucía Estevan-Reina, Roberto González Gutiérrez, Li Gu, Rita Guerra, Nina Hansen, Shanmukh Kamble, Takashi Kusumi, Camille Mangelinckx, Veronika V Nourkova, Élena Pinna, Aino Rantasila, Timothy D Ritchie, Albina B Salikhova, Elena Stephan, Mihaela Sterian, Yuk-Yue Tong, Suzanne Van Even, Normando José Queiroz Viana, Ad Vingerhoets, Courtney von Hippel, Artem S Zatsepin, Bettina Zengel
Nostalgia is a social, self-relevant, and bittersweet (although mostly positive) emotion that arises when reflecting on fond past memories and serves key psychological functions. The majority of evidence concerning the prevalence, triggers, and functions of nostalgia has been amassed in samples from a handful of largely Western cultures. If nostalgia is a fundamental psychological resource, it should perform similar functions across cultures, although its operational dynamics may be shaped by culture. This study ( N = 2,606) examined dispositional nostalgia, self-reported triggers of nostalgia, and functions of experimentally induced nostalgia in young adults across 28 countries and a special administrative region of China (i...
January 22, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38252087/dual-routes-of-chunking-social-interaction-insights-from-grouping-two-agent-actions-in-working-memory
#39
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jinglan Wu, Yang Guo, Zhiyun Chen, Mowei Shen, Zaifeng Gao
Humans have evolved the sophisticated ability to extract social relations embedded in interactive entities. One typical demonstration is a social chunking phenomenon wherein the cognitive system chunks individual actions into a unified episode basing on perceived interactive actions. However, the mechanisms underlying social chunking remain to be elucidated. Most studies have adopted static images and manipulated interactions through agents' facingness (face-to-face vs. back-to-back). Connecting agents via directed contingent actions is crucial in forming real-life social interaction...
January 22, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38236250/evidence-from-the-future
#40
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Tianwei Gong, Neil R Bramley
The outcome of any scientific experiment or intervention will naturally unfold over time. How then should individuals make causal inferences from measurements over time? Across three experiments, we had participants observe experimental and control groups over several days posttreatment in a fictional biological research setting. We identify competing perspectives in the literature: contingency-driven accounts predict no effect of the outcome timing while the contiguity principle suggests people will view a treatment as more harmful to the extent that bad treatment outcomes occur earlier rather than later...
January 18, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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