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Journals Journal of Experimental Psycho...

Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38358708/similar-social-attention-physiological-arousal-and-familiarity-effect-in-autistic-and-neurotypical-children-a-real-life-recreational-eye-tracking-paradigm
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Elise Clin, Eleanor Miller, Mikhail Kissine
Social attention is reported to be crucial for the development of social skills, and, according to the social cognitive developmental theory, is fostered by social interactions. Autism is of central importance to the study of social attention, as autism is characterized by atypical social interactions and low social attention, both linked according to the social motivation theory to diminished social interest. Much evidence for positing low social interest in autism comes from eye-tracking studies, which, however, lack ecological validity...
February 15, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38358707/stress-reduction-experiments-in-daily-life-scaling-from-the-lab-to-the-world
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
David B Newman, Amie M Gordon, Julia O'Bryan, Wendy Berry Mendes
Paced breathing-longer exhalation than inhalation-can show short-term improvement of physiologic responses and affective well-being, though most studies have relied on narrow sample demographics, small samples, and control conditions that fail to address expectancy effects. We addressed these limitations through an app-based experiment where participants were randomly assigned to paced breathing or sham control (hand closure) conditions. We first validated the conditions in an online sample ( N = 201; Study 1) and in a lab environment ( N = 72; Study 2)...
February 15, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38330366/do-large-language-models-show-decision-heuristics-similar-to-humans-a-case-study-using-gpt-3-5
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gaurav Suri, Lily R Slater, Ali Ziaee, Morgan Nguyen
A Large Language Model (LLM) is an artificial intelligence system trained on vast amounts of natural language data, enabling it to generate human-like responses to written or spoken language input. Generative Pre-Trained Transformer (GPT)-3.5 is an example of an LLM that supports a conversational agent called ChatGPT. In this work, we used a series of novel prompts to determine whether ChatGPT shows heuristics and other context-sensitive responses. We also tested the same prompts on human participants. Across four studies, we found that ChatGPT was influenced by random anchors in making estimates (anchoring, Study 1); it judged the likelihood of two events occurring together to be higher than the likelihood of either event occurring alone, and it was influenced by anecdotal information (representativeness and availability heuristic, Study 2); it found an item to be more efficacious when its features were presented positively rather than negatively-even though both presentations contained statistically equivalent information (framing effect, Study 3); and it valued an owned item more than a newly found item even though the two items were objectively identical (endowment effect, Study 4)...
February 8, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38330365/flexibility-in-continuous-judgments-of-gender-sex-and-race
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
S Atwood, Dominic J Gibson, Sofía Briones Ramírez, Kristina R Olson
Across six preregistered studies ( N = 1,292; recruited from university subject pools and Prolific Academic), we investigate how face perception along the dimensions of gender/sex and race can vary based on immediate contextual information as well as personal experience. In Studies 1a and 1b, we find that when placing stimuli along a continuum from male to female, cisgender participants sort prototypical gender/sex faces in a bimodal fashion and show less consensus and greater error when placing faces of intermediate gender/sex...
February 8, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38330364/race-effects-on-impression-formation-in-social-interaction-an-instrumental-learning-account
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Iris J Traast, David T Schultner, Bertjan Doosje, David M Amodio
How does race influence the impressions we form through direct interaction? In two preregistered experiments ( N = 239/179), White American participants played a money-sharing game with Black and White players, based on a probabilistic reward reinforcement learning task, in which they chose to interact with players and received feedback on whether a player shared. We found that participants formed stronger reward preferences for White relative to Black players despite equivalent reward feedback between groups-a pattern that was stronger among participants with low internal motivation to respond without prejudice and high explicit prejudice...
February 8, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38300545/can-selecting-the-most-qualified-candidate-be-unfair-learning-about-socioeconomic-advantages-and-disadvantages-reduces-the-perceived-fairness-of-meritocracy-and-increases-support-for-socioeconomic-diversity-initiatives-in-organizations
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Daniela Goya-Tocchetto, Aaron C Kay, B Keith Payne
While the majority of Americans today endorse meritocracy as fair, we suggest that these perceptions can be shaped by whether or not people learn about the presence of socioeconomic advantages and disadvantages in others' lives. Across five studies ( N = 3,318), we find that people are able to attach socioeconomic inequalities in applicants' backgrounds to their evaluation of the fairness of specific merit-based selection processes and outcomes. Learning that one applicant grew up advantaged-while the other grew up disadvantaged-leads both liberals and conservatives to believe that otherwise identical merit-based procedures and outcomes are significantly less fair...
February 1, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38300544/dynamic-saccade-context-triggers-more-stable-object-location-binding
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Zitong Lu, Julie D Golomb
Our visual systems rapidly perceive and integrate information about object identities and locations. There is long-standing debate about if and how we achieve world-centered (spatiotopic) object representations across eye movements, with many studies reporting persistent retinotopic (eye-centered) effects even for higher level object-location binding. But these studies are generally conducted in fairly static experimental contexts. Might spatiotopic object-location binding only emerge in more dynamic saccade contexts? In the present study, we investigated this using the spatial congruency bias paradigm in healthy adults...
February 1, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38300543/deep-neural-network-decodes-aspects-of-stimulus-intrinsic-memorability-inaccessible-to-humans
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Chong Zhao, Joie Kim, Tzu Hsuan Tang, Joseph M Saito, Keisuke Fukuda
Some stimuli are more memorable than others. Humans have demonstrated partial access to the properties that make a given stimulus more or less memorable. Recently, a deep neural network named ResMem was shown to successfully decode the memorability of visual stimuli as well. However, it remains unknown whether ResMem's predictions of memorability reflect the influence of stimulus-intrinsic properties or other stimulus-extrinsic factors that are known to induce interindividual consistency in memory performance (e...
February 1, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38300542/deep-distortions-in-everyday-memory-fact-memory-is-illogical-too
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Charles J Brainerd, Daniel M Bialer, Minyu Chang, Xinya Liu
A distinction has recently been drawn between surface distortions and deep distortions in false memory, where the former are conventional errors of commission and the latter are illogical relations among multiple memories of items. The deep distortions that have been studied to date are violations of the logical rules that govern incompatibility relations, such as additivity and countable additivity. Because that work is confined to laboratory word-list tasks, it is subject to the ecological validity criticism that memory for everyday facts may not exhibit such phenomena...
February 1, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38300541/distance-in-depth-a-comparison-of-explicit-and-implicit-numerical-distances-in-the-horizontal-and-radial-dimensions
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Arianna Felisatti, Mariagrazia Ranzini, Samuel Shaki, Martin H Fischer
Numbers are a constant presence in our daily lives: A brain devoid of the ability to process numbers would not be functional in its external environment. Comparing numerical magnitudes is a fundamental ability that requires the processing of numerical distances. From magnitude comparison tasks, a comparison distance effect (DE) emerges: It describes better performance when comparing numerically distant rather than close numbers. Unlike other signatures of number processing, the comparison DE has been assessed only implicitly, with numerical distance as nonsalient task property...
February 1, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38271014/over-and-underweighting-of-extreme-values-in-decisions-from-sequential-samples
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Verena Clarmann von Clarenau, Stefan Appelhoff, Thorsten Pachur, Bernhard Spitzer
People routinely make decisions based on samples of numerical values. A common conclusion from the literature in psychophysics and behavioral economics is that observers subjectively compress magnitudes, such that extreme values have less sway over people's decisions than prescribed by a normative model (underweighting). However, recent studies have reported evidence for anti-compression, that is, the relative overweighting of extreme values. Here, we investigate potential reasons for this discrepancy in findings and propose that it might reflect adaptive responses to different task requirements...
January 25, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38271013/longitudinal-assessments-of-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-background-functional-connectivity-in-low-and-middle-income-infants-during-a-social-cognition-task
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sabrina M Di Lonardo Burr, Laura Pirazzoli, Aleksandra W Dopierała, Vikranth R Bejjanki, Charles A Nelson, Lauren L Emberson
Shortly after birth, human infants demonstrate behavioral selectivity to social stimuli. However, the neural underpinnings of this selectivity are largely unknown. Here, we examine patterns of functional connectivity to determine how regions of the brain interact while processing social stimuli and how these interactions change during the first 2 years of life. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we measured functional connectivity at 6 ( n = 147) and 24 ( n = 111) months of age in infants from Bangladesh who were exposed to varying levels of environmental adversity (i...
January 25, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38271012/social-class-perception-is-driven-by-stereotype-related-facial-features
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
R Thora Bjornsdottir, Laura B Hensel, Jiayu Zhan, Oliver G B Garrod, Philippe G Schyns, Rachael E Jack
Social class is a powerful hierarchy that determines many privileges and disadvantages. People form impressions of others' social class (like other important social attributes) from facial appearance, and these impressions correlate with stereotype judgments. However, what drives these related subjective judgments remains unknown. That is, what makes someone look like they are of higher or lower social class standing (e.g., rich or poor), and how does this relate to harmful or advantageous stereotypes? We addressed these questions using a perception-based data-driven method to model the specific three-dimensional facial features that drive social class judgments and compared them to those of stereotype-related judgments (competence, warmth, dominance, and trustworthiness), based on White Western culture participants and face stimuli...
January 25, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38271011/how-and-when-does-a-used-vs-unused-account-affect-consumption-behavior
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Siyuan Yin, Marissa A Sharif
How does spending from a used (vs. unused) account affect consumption behavior? An account is used when some resources of that account have been used (e.g., $90 has been used on a gift card that originally had $100). An account is unused when no resources of that account have been used (e.g., no money has been used on a gift card that has $10). Across seven studies ( N = 8,667), we find that people are more likely to spend resources from a used account than otherwise equivalent resources from an unused account...
January 25, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38252088/pancultural-nostalgia-in-action-prevalence-triggers-and-psychological-functions-of-nostalgia-across-cultures
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Erica G Hepper, Constantine Sedikides, Tim Wildschut, Wing Yee Cheung, Georgios Abakoumkin, Gizem Arikan, Mark Aveyard, Einar B Baldursson, Olga Bialobrzeska, Sana Bouamama, Imed Bouzaouech, Marco Brambilla, Axel M Burger, Sylvia Xiaohua Chen, Sylwia Cisek, Didier Demassosso, Lucía Estevan-Reina, Roberto González Gutiérrez, Li Gu, Rita Guerra, Nina Hansen, Shanmukh Kamble, Takashi Kusumi, Camille Mangelinckx, Veronika V Nourkova, Élena Pinna, Aino Rantasila, Timothy D Ritchie, Albina B Salikhova, Elena Stephan, Mihaela Sterian, Yuk-Yue Tong, Suzanne Van Even, Normando José Queiroz Viana, Ad Vingerhoets, Courtney von Hippel, Artem S Zatsepin, Bettina Zengel
Nostalgia is a social, self-relevant, and bittersweet (although mostly positive) emotion that arises when reflecting on fond past memories and serves key psychological functions. The majority of evidence concerning the prevalence, triggers, and functions of nostalgia has been amassed in samples from a handful of largely Western cultures. If nostalgia is a fundamental psychological resource, it should perform similar functions across cultures, although its operational dynamics may be shaped by culture. This study ( N = 2,606) examined dispositional nostalgia, self-reported triggers of nostalgia, and functions of experimentally induced nostalgia in young adults across 28 countries and a special administrative region of China (i...
January 22, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38252087/dual-routes-of-chunking-social-interaction-insights-from-grouping-two-agent-actions-in-working-memory
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jinglan Wu, Yang Guo, Zhiyun Chen, Mowei Shen, Zaifeng Gao
Humans have evolved the sophisticated ability to extract social relations embedded in interactive entities. One typical demonstration is a social chunking phenomenon wherein the cognitive system chunks individual actions into a unified episode basing on perceived interactive actions. However, the mechanisms underlying social chunking remain to be elucidated. Most studies have adopted static images and manipulated interactions through agents' facingness (face-to-face vs. back-to-back). Connecting agents via directed contingent actions is crucial in forming real-life social interaction...
January 22, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38236250/evidence-from-the-future
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Tianwei Gong, Neil R Bramley
The outcome of any scientific experiment or intervention will naturally unfold over time. How then should individuals make causal inferences from measurements over time? Across three experiments, we had participants observe experimental and control groups over several days posttreatment in a fictional biological research setting. We identify competing perspectives in the literature: contingency-driven accounts predict no effect of the outcome timing while the contiguity principle suggests people will view a treatment as more harmful to the extent that bad treatment outcomes occur earlier rather than later...
January 18, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38227457/surprisingly-good-talk-misunderstanding-others-creates-a-barrier-to-constructive-confrontation
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
James A Dungan, Nicholas Epley
Open communication is important for maintaining relationships when conflicts inevitably arise. Nevertheless, people may avoid constructive confrontation to the extent that they expect others to respond negatively. In experiments involving recalled (Experiment 1), imagined (Experiment 2), simulated (Experiment 3), and actual confrontations (Experiments 4a and 4b), we find that people's expectations are systematically miscalibrated such that they overestimate how negatively others respond to confrontation. These overly negative expectations stem, at least in part, from biased attention to potentially negative outcomes of a constructive confrontation (Experiment 5), and from failing to recognize the power of relationship-maintenance processes that are activated in direct conversations (Experiment 6)...
January 15, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38227456/probing-the-impact-of-exposure-to-diversity-on-infants-social-categorization
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Bailey A Immel, Zoe Liberman
Humans learn about the world through inductive reasoning, generalizing information about an individual to others in the category. Indeed, by infancy, monolingual children expect people who speak the same language (but not people who speak different languages) to be similar in their food preferences (Liberman et al., 2016). Here, we ask whether infants who are exposed to linguistic diversity are more willing to generalize information even across language-group lines. To test this, we ran an inductive inference task and collected data on exposure to linguistic diversity at the interpersonal and neighborhood levels...
January 15, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38227455/interdependent-behavior-only-benefits-employees-from-working-class-backgrounds-when-it-is-both-enacted-and-valued
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Andrea G Dittmann, Nicole M Stephens, Sarah S M Townsend
Social class disparities are pervasive in American society. In higher education, one critical driver of these disparities is the cultural mismatch between the interdependent norms of people from working-class backgrounds and the independent norms that pervade higher education. However, after graduating from college and entering white-collar workplaces, people from working-class backgrounds have frequent opportunities to collaborate in teams-that is, to enact interdependent behavior. Do these opportunities reduce cultural mismatch for people from working-class backgrounds? Across two survey studies and two experiments with college-educated U...
January 15, 2024: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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