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American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Eric R Kinzler, Carmela Pantaleon, Matthew S Iverson, Stefan Aigner
BACKGROUND: Extended-release (ER) morphine formulations are commonly manipulated for non-oral routes of administration, particularly via injection. Morphine ARER, an abuse-deterrent formulation of ER morphine, has both physical and chemical properties that deter abuse. OBJECTIVES: To assess the syringeability of morphine ARER using in vitro laboratory studies. METHODS: Intact, cut, or crushed morphine ARER tablets were incubated in 1, 5, or 10 mL of room temperature or 90°C water for 1, 5, 10, or 30 min of agitation...
April 16, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Matthew Morrison, Elizabeth Udeh, Michelle Burak
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines have remained the standard of care for alcohol withdrawal syndrome; however, they have numerous unfavorable physiologic effects. Gabapentin has limited data to support a benefit in reducing benzodiazepine usage in alcohol withdrawal syndrome. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the association of an institutional guideline and order set for alcohol withdrawal that incorporates high dose gabapentin tapers in acutely withdrawing patients. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated patients experiencing acute alcohol withdrawal...
April 16, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Andrew L Koval, David C R Kerr, Harold Bae
BACKGROUND: Oregon students' rates of marijuana use have increased following recreational marijuana legalization (RML), but the relation between RML and students' perceived peer use of marijuana - or descriptive norms - is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether perceived peer use of marijuana changed more following RML for college students in Oregon than in states without RML. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional data were collected from the National College Health Assessment-II surveys from 2008 to 2016 to assess changes in descriptive norms ("Within the last 30 days, what percent of students at your school used marijuana?") among 18-26 year-old undergraduates from two Oregon institutions and 123 institutions in non-RML states (N = 280,006; 66...
April 16, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
James B Leonard, Wendy Klein-Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Venlafaxine use to achieve an amphetamine-like high has been described but data regarding the epidemiology and clinical effects are sparse. OBJECTIVES: Describe the prevalence and toxicity of venlafaxine abuse reported to US poison control centers. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of venlafaxine exposures reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) from 2000 to 2016. Inclusion criteria were: age 12 years and older, reason for exposure intentional-abuse, and either single-substance exposure or venlafaxine was the first substance...
April 11, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Andrew H Rogers, Brooke Y Kauffman, Jafar Bakhshaie, R Kathryn McHugh, Joseph W Ditre, Michael J Zvolensky
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is a significant public health crisis, and this problem is particularly prevalent among individuals with chronic pain. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for interventions to mitigate the risk for opioid misuse and opioid use disorder among people with pain. Given that mental health problems, specifically anxiety, are common among people who misuse opioids, it is important to examine factors that link mental health problems with opioid misuse to ultimately inform the development of novel interventions...
March 21, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Li Zeng, Jianghong Li, Forrest W Crawford
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic surveys of people who inject drugs (PWID) can be difficult to conduct because potential participants may fear exposure or legal repercussions. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a procedure in which subjects recruit their eligible social contacts. The statistical validity of RDS surveys of PWID and other risk groups depends on subjects recruiting at random from among their network contacts. OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and apply a rigorous definition and statistical tests for uniform network recruitment in an RDS survey...
March 21, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Megan Kirouac, Eric Kruger, Adam D Wilson, Kevin A Hallgren, Katie Witkiewitz
BACKGROUND: The Food and Drug Administration recently added a new clinical endpoint for evaluating the efficacy of alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment that is more inclusive of treatment goals besides abstinence: no heavy drinking days (NHDD). However, numerous critiques have been noted for such binary models of treatment outcome. Further, there is mounting evidence that participants inaccurately estimate the quantities of alcohol they consume during drinking episodes (i.e., drink size misestimation), which may be particularly problematic when using a binary criterion (NHDD) compared to a similar, continuous alternative outcome variable: percent heavy drinking days (PHDD)...
March 14, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Chelsea L Shover, Keith Humphreys
BACKGROUND: Cannabis (marijuana) has been legalized for recreational and/or medicinal use in many US states, despite remaining a Schedule-I drug at the federal level. As legalization regimes are established in multiple countries, public health professionals should leverage decades of knowledge from other policy areas (e.g., alcohol and tobacco regulation) to inform cannabis policy. OBJECTIVES: Identify policy lessons from other more established policy areas that can inform cannabis policy in the United States, Canada, and any other nations that legalize recreational cannabis...
March 14, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Deborah S Hasin, Dvora Shmulewitz, Aaron L Sarvet
BACKGROUND: Due to significant comorbidity and impairment associated with cannabis use and cannabis use disorder, understanding time trends in cannabis use and cannabis use disorder is an important public health priority. OBJECTIVES: To identify trends in cannabis use and cannabis use disorder overall, and by sociodemographic subgroup. METHODS: Narrative review of published findings on trends in cannabis use and cannabis use disorders in data from repeated cross-sectional US general population surveys...
March 14, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Yosef Sarne
This article reviews the neurocognitive advantages and drawbacks of cannabinoid substances, and discusses the possible physiological mechanisms that underlie their dual activity. The article further reviews the neurocognitive effects of ultra-low doses of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than the conventional doses) in mice, and proposes such low doses of THC as a possible remedy for various brain injuries and for the treatment of age-related cognitive decline.
March 13, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Emily L Zale, Lisa R LaRowe, Jeff Boissoneault, Stephen A Maisto, Joseph W Ditre
BACKGROUND: Over 100 million Americans live with chronic pain, and adults with chronic pain may be more likely to experience alcohol-related problems or Alcohol Use Disorder. An evolving conceptual model posits that bidirectional effects between pain and alcohol exacerbate both pain and drinking. Pain has been shown to motivate alcohol urge and consumption, and drinking for pain-coping predicts escalations in alcohol use over time. Pain-related anxiety is a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor that has been implicated in both pain and substance-related (i...
March 13, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Tatiana Wscieklica, Luciana Le Sueur-Maluf, Leandro Prearo, Rafael Conte, Milena de Barros Viana, Isabel Cristina Céspedes
BACKGROUND: The role of specific cerebral areas involved in alcohol use disorder, such as the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, has emerged as a subject of interest over recent years. Nevertheless, the role played by these regions is frequently confounded by different variables, among them are the patterns of alcohol consumption presented by the subjects. OBJECTIVES: The present study verified the effects of chronic voluntary ethanol intake (20 sessions) on DeltaFosB immunoreactivity (DeltaFosB-ir) in the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of rats showing high and low preference for ethanol...
March 8, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Paolo Mannelli, Li-Tzy Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Melissa R Schick, Nicole H Weiss, Ateka Contractor, Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Nichea S Spillane
BACKGROUND: The co-occurrence of depression and risky alcohol use is clinically relevant given their high rates of comorbidity and reciprocal negative impact on outcomes. Emotion dysregulation is one factor that has been shown to underlie this association. However, literature in this area has been limited in its exclusive focus on emotion dysregulation stemming from negative emotions. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the current study was to extend research by exploring the role of difficulties regulating positive emotions in depression symptom severity, risky alcohol use, and their association...
March 8, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Elias Dakwar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Alan K Davis, Sara So, Rafael Lancelotta, Joseph P Barsuglia, Roland R Griffiths
BACKGROUND: A recent epidemiological study suggested that 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) used for spiritual and recreational reasons is associated with subjective improvement in depression and anxiety. Further exploration of the potential psychotherapeutic effects of 5-MeO-DMT could inform future clinical trials. OBJECTIVES: We examined self-reported improvement in depression and anxiety among people who use 5-MeO-DMT in a group setting with structured procedures guiding dose and administration of 5-MeO-DMT...
March 1, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Rebekah Levine Coley, Summer Sherburne Hawkins, Marco Ghiani, Claudia Kruzik, Christopher F Baum
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use carries risks for adolescents' well-being, making it essential to evaluate effects of recent marijuana policies. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to delineate associations between state-level shifts in decriminalization and medical marijuana laws (MML) and adolescent marijuana use. METHODS: Using data on 861,082 adolescents (14 to 18+ years; 51% female) drawn from 1999 to 2015 state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS), difference-in-differences models assessed how decriminalization and MML policy enactment were associated with adolescent marijuana use, controlling for tobacco and alcohol policy shifts, adolescent characteristics, and state and year trends...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Arthur Robin Williams, Edward V Nunes, Adam Bisaga, Frances R Levin, Mark Olfson
Amid worsening opioid overdose death rates, the nation continues to face a persistent addiction treatment gap limiting access to quality care for opioid use disorder (OUD). Three FDA-approved medications (methadone, buprenorphine, and extended-release naltrexone) have high quality evidence demonstrating reductions in drug use and overdose events, but most individuals with OUD do not receive them. The development of a unified public health framework, such as a Cascade of Care, could improve system level practice and treatment outcomes...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Matthew Hanauer, Kathryn Sielbeck-Mathes, Lauren Berny
BACKGROUND: Behavioral health care providers aim to see their clients achieve lifelong recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs). To do so, they must accurately assess incoming resources and barriers to recovery to identify areas of need for their clients. A recovery capital scale (RCS) is one way to identify these resources and barriers. However, there is limited evidence that RCSs are invariant across different demographics. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a short 10-item RCS (SRCS-10) is invariant across gender (male versus female), ethnicity (white versus African American, Hispanic, and other racial identities) and sexual orientation (heterosexual versus non-heterosexual)...
January 22, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Marija Spanovic Kelber, Maria A Morgan, Erin H Beech, Don E Workman, Daniel P Evatt, Bradley E Belsher, Abigail L Garvey Wilson, Jean Otto, Marjorie S Campbell
BACKGROUND: This paper presents a new methodology for identifying and prioritizing research gaps, contributing to the nascent literature on systematic ways to identify research gaps. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to report on a gaps analysis of substance use disorder (SUD) research. Based on input from Military Health System stakeholders, we selected the following subtopics as priorities: alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid conditions, prescription opioids, and novel synthetic drugs (NSDs), including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, novel synthetic opioids, and e-cigarette use...
January 22, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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