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Environmental Entomology

Qian Qi, Pin Lv, Xiao-Ming Chen, Hang Chen, Ming-Shun Chen, Pu Yang
The scale insect, Ericerus pela Chavannes, shows a typical sexual dimorphism. Males and females are different not only in morphology, but also in their ability to secrete wax and ecological adaptability. Here we report the morphological and structural characteristics of wax glands on E. pela females and males. The differences in wax glands and wax secretion between females and males reflect their different needs for living habitats and different ecological strategies. Sciophilous male nymphs are with five types of wax glands, and the wax glands on the dorsum secrete a layer of wax filaments plausibly for protection against direct light irradiation...
February 13, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Kimberly A Stoner, Richard S Cowles, Andrea Nurse, Brian D Eitzer
Worldwide studies have used the technique of pollen trapping, collecting pollen loads from returning honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foragers, to evaluate the exposure of honey bees to pesticides through pollen and as a biomonitoring tool. Typically, these surveys have found frequent contamination of pollen with multiple pesticides, with most of the estimated risk of acute oral toxicity to honey bees coming from insecticides. In our survey of pesticides in trapped pollen from three commercial ornamental plant nurseries in Connecticut, we found most samples within the range of acute toxicity in a previous state pollen survey, but a few samples at one nursery with unusually high acute oral toxicity...
February 12, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Shunsuke Furihata, Ken Tabuchi, Shigeru Okudera, Akihiko Takahashi, Norihide Hinomoto, Masami Shimoda, Terumi Yamaguchi
Minute pirate bugs of genus Orius (Wolff) are known important generalist predators of microinvertebrate pests and are therefore useful in many agricultural contexts. Effective sampling methods are thus of great importance to monitor Orius spp. populations. Sticky traps are one such sampling method; however, trap color must be carefully selected for the target insect species. In this study, we examined the most suitable sticky trap color (i.e., white, blue, or yellow) to capture Orius spp. individuals in eggplant Solanum melongena (Linnaeus) (Solanales: Solanaceae), Italian ryegrass Lolium multiflorum (Lamarck) (Poales: Poaceae), soybean Glycine max (Linnaeus) (Fabales: Fabaceae), and white clover Trifolium repens (Linnaeus) (Fabales: Fabaceae) fields...
February 11, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Robert L Meagher, Kristal M Watrous, Shelby J Fleischer, Rodney N Nagoshi, James T Brown, Kristen Bowers, Neil Miller, Stephen D Hight, Jesusa C Legaspi, John K Westbrook
Sunn hemp, Crotalaria juncea L., is a warm-season legume that can be planted in rotation to cash crops to add nitrogen and organic matter to the soils, for weed growth prevention, and to suppress nematode populations. Sunn hemp flowers also provide nectar and pollen for pollinators and enhance biological control by furnishing habitat for natural enemies. Experiments were conducted in Northern and North Central Florida to evaluate bee populations that visited flowers within mixed plots of sunn hemp and sorghum-sudangrass and plots of two sunn hemp germplasm lines...
February 10, 2019: Environmental Entomology
David E Jennings, Xiao-Yi Wang, Jian J Duan
The outcomes of interspecific interactions between parasitoids depend on a variety of factors. Understanding the influence of these factors is important for classical biological control, where the success of parasitoid releases partly depends on interactions with native and other introduced species. However, results from laboratory experiments may not always reflect those in the field, as densities may be artificially inflated. To mitigate this problem, we examined the effects of multiple densities on interspecific competition between two larval parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire): Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang...
February 10, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Colin R Morrison, Clément Aubert, Donald M Windsor
Specialized interactions between insects and the plants that they consume are one of the most ubiquitous and consequential ecological associations on the plant. Decades of investigation suggest that a narrow diet favors an individual phytophagous insect's performance relative to a dietary generalist. However, this body of research has tended to approach questions of diet breadth and host usage from the perspective of temperate plant-insect associations. Relationships between diet breadth, host usage, and variation in tropical insect preference and performance remain largely uninvestigated...
February 8, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Lili Qiu, Xiuqin Yin, Yunfeng Jiang
Soil meso- and microfauna (<2 mm in size) play an important role in the decomposition and nutrient release of litter. However, most research has focused on the influences of soil fauna on decomposition rates, while the impact of soil fauna on nutrient release has not been fully understood. We evaluated the influence of soil meso- and microfauna communities on nutrient release from decomposing Tilia amurensis Rupr. (Malvales:Tiliaceae) and Acer mono Maxim. (Sapindales:Aceraceae) leaves from the coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests of the Changbai Mountains...
February 1, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Phyllis G Weintraub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Elias Van de Vijver, Sofie Landschoot, Martijn Van Roie, Femke Temmerman, Jill Dillen, Kevin De Ceuleners, Guy Smagghe, Bernard De Baets, Geert Haesaert
Cereal leaf beetles (CLBs), a group of chrysomelid beetles of the genus Oulema (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are well-known pest insects of small-grain cereals in many countries of the Northern hemisphere. Due to the small differences in morphology of species within this genus, classification up to species level remains a challenging task. Since an accurate view of species composition is important for developing targeted control strategies, the goal of this study was to unravel the Oulema species composition in Flanders' wheat fields...
February 1, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Linda C Oforka, Monsuru A Adeleke, Joseph C Anikwe, Winifred A Makanjuola
Simulium damnosum (Theobald) sensu lato (s.l.) is a complex of many species of black flies that transmit Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) to varying capacities based on their ecological zones in Africa. The presence of three ecological zones in Osun, an onchocerciasis endemic state in Nigeria, is the basis of this study that is aimed at determining the population dynamics of S. damnosum s.l. in the state. Adult S. damnosum s.l. were collected fortnightly in the wet and dry seasons for 2 yr between October 2014 and September 2016 in the Guinea savanna (Iwo), derived savannah (Ede), and rainforest (Obokun) zones...
January 31, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Lewis R Braswell, Dominic D Reisig, Clyde E Sorenson, Guy D Collins
Bollworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) can cause economic losses in both non-Bt and Bt cotton. Larvae modify their behavior in the presence of Bt by moving away from terminals faster in Bt cotton compared to non-Bt cotton and avoiding Bt-treated diets. Our objectives were to understand differences in bollworm egg and larvae populations within, and dispersal away from, non-Bt and Bt pyramided-toxin cotton. We conducted small plot experiments in 2016 and 2017 to monitor on-plant egg and larval numbers, and off-plant dispersal of larvae, from non-Bt and different Bt toxin pyramided cotton...
January 31, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Andrew P Schoenherr, Eric Rizzo, Natasha Jackson, Patricia Manosalva, S Karen Gomez
Most plants form mutualistic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi that are ubiquitous in soils. Through this symbiosis, plants can withstand abiotic and biotic stresses. The underlying molecular mechanisms involved in mediating mycorrhiza-induced resistance against insects needs further research, and this is particularly true for potato (Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae)), which is the fourth most important crop worldwide. In this study, the tripartite interaction between potato, the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (Glomerales: Glomeraceae), and cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was examined to determine whether potato exhibits mycorrhiza-induced resistance against this insect...
January 31, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Alina Avanesyan, Kirsten A Snook, Peter A Follett, William O Lamp
Sophonia orientalis (Matsumura), also known as the two-spotted leafhopper, is a widespread exotic pest of many economically important crop plants and ornamental plants in Hawaii. Sophonia orientalis is highly polyphagous and is a major threat to some of the native endemic plants. Despite the successful establishment in Hawaii, interactions of S. orientalis with its host plants remain poorly understood. Previous studies primarily focused on distribution, parasitism, and oviposition of S. orientalis in Hawaii, whereas plant physiological responses to the leafhopper's injury, and, specifically, gas exchange rates in plants, have not yet been described...
January 25, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Marta Moreira, António M F Aguiar, Kostas Bourtzis, Amparo Latorre, Mahnaz Khadem
Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have provided a suitable model to study endosymbionts, their community, and dynamics since the discovery of the obligate endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola in these organisms. In previous studies, Wolbachia was found in some aphid species. In the present study, we report the prevalence of Wolbachia in aphids sampled from a geographically isolated region (Azores Islands), aiming at a better understanding and characterization of the two newly reported supergroups, M and N. The description of the supergroup M was based on 16S rRNA as well as some protein-coding genes...
January 19, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Anne C Jones, Irmgard Seidl-Adams, Jurgen Engelberth, Charles T Hunter, Hans Alborn, James H Tumlinson
Green plants emit green leaf volatiles (GLVs) as a general damage response. These compounds act as signals for the emitter plant, neighboring plants, and even for insects in the ecosystem. However, when oral secretions from certain caterpillars are applied to wounded leaves, GLV emissions are significantly decreased or modified. We examined four caterpillar species representing two lepidopteran families for their capacity to decrease GLV emissions from Zea mays leaf tissue. We also investigated the source of the GLV modifying components in the alimentary tract of the various caterpillars...
January 19, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Dara Stockton, Anna Wallingford, Dalila Rendon, Philip Fanning, Clarence K Green, Lauren Diepenbrock, Elissa Ballman, Vaughn M Walton, Rufus Isaacs, Heather Leach, Ashfaq A Sial, Francis Drummond, Hannah Burrack, Gregory M Loeb
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is an invasive species affecting berry crops and cherries throughout North America, South America, and Europe. Previous research suggests that in temperate climates, the overwintering success of D. suzukii is likely dependent on access to food, shelter, and adequate cold hardening. We performed a multi-state study under field conditions for two winters to determine whether D. suzukii sex, phenotype (summer-morphotype, winter-morphotype), and life stage (adults, pupae) affected survival over time while recording naturally-occurring spatial and temporal variation in temperature...
January 19, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Eric J Sazama, Scot P Ouellette, Jeff S Wesner
Bacterial endosymbionts, particularly Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and Cardinium (Bacteroidales: Bacteroidaceae), are commonly found in several arthropod groups, including insects. Most estimates of the global infection rate of Wolbachia (52% [95% credible intervals: 44-60]) show that these bacteria infect more than half of all insect species. Other endosymbionts, such as Rickettsia (24% [confidence intervals [CIs] 20-42]) and Cardinium (13% [CIs 13-55]), infect a smaller but still substantial proportion of insect species...
January 10, 2019: Environmental Entomology
William P Brown, Jason J Dombroskie
Many beetle species emerge in twigs pruned from the host tree by larvae inside the twig or externally girdled by adult females. Benefits of developing in fallen twigs have been afforded little experimental attention. If predation or parasitism in the canopy drive pruning and girdling behaviors, emergence is expected to be greatest in twigs on the ground, where predation and parasitism are expected to be minimized. Here, 220 twigs pruned from oak trees by larval Anelaphus parallelus (Newman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) were randomly placed into one of four treatments in a forested hedge: 1) on the ground; 2) on the ground within a mesh bag; 3) tied into the hedge 2...
January 9, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Olga Yaneth Martínez-Barrera, Jorge Toledo, Pablo Liedo, Jaime Gómez, Javier Valle-Mora, Jorge Cancino, Pablo Montoya
The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin on the development of immature stages, and survival and fecundity of Coptera haywardi (Oglobin) adults was studied under laboratory conditions. The fungus was applied as dry conidia on parasitized pupae of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and on parasitoid adults of two different age groups (1- to 4-d-old, and 5- to 10-d-old). The fungus caused no negative effects on the development of the immature stages, since there were no differences on the emergence of adults compared with the untreated control...
January 8, 2019: Environmental Entomology
R Tognon, J R Aldrich, J Sant'Ana, F G Zalom
Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is a polyphagous fruit and vegetable pest from eastern Asia and now invasive in the United States and Europe. Earlier research revealed that the main volatile from hexane egg extracts of a western North American pentatomid, Euschistus conspersus Uhler, to which two native scelionid egg parasitoids, Telenomus podisi Ashmead and Trissolcus erugatus Johnson are highly attracted, was methyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the major component of the conspecific male-produced aggregation pheromone...
January 8, 2019: Environmental Entomology
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