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Water Resources Research

M H Barendrecht, A Viglione, H Kreibich, B Merz, S Vorogushyn, G Blöschl
In this paper, empirical data are used to estimate the parameters of a sociohydrological flood risk model. The proposed model, which describes the interactions between floods, settlement density, awareness, preparedness, and flood loss, is based on the literature. Data for the case study of Dresden, Germany, over a period of 200 years, are used to estimate the model parameters through Bayesian inference. The credibility bounds of their estimates are small, even though the data are rather uncertain. A sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the value of the different data sources in estimating the model parameters...
February 2019: Water Resources Research
Ciaran Broderick, Conor Murphy, Robert L Wilby, Tom Matthews, Christel Prudhomme, Mark Adamson
This study develops a coherent framework to detect those catchment types associated with a high risk of maladaptation to future flood risk. Using the "scenario-neutral" approach to impact assessment the sensitivity of Irish catchments to fluvial flooding is examined in the context of national climate change allowances. A predefined sensitivity domain is used to quantify flood responses to +2 °C mean annual temperature with incremental changes in the seasonality and mean of the annual precipitation cycle...
February 2019: Water Resources Research
Rasmus Jakobsen, Jolanta Kazmierczak, Helle Ugilt Sø, Dieke Postma
Combined geological, hydrogeological, and geochemical controls on the arsenic concentration of contaminated aquifers in SE Asia were explored by two-dimensional (2-D) reactive transport modeling of data sets from Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Vietnam. For each site, the field data are summarized and used to create a conceptual 2-D reactive transport model that elucidates characteristic features influencing the groundwater arsenic concentration. Comparison of models for Bangladesh and Vietnam indicates that fine-grained layers overlying young sandy aquifers generate shallow high arsenic groundwater because low vertical groundwater velocities allow sufficient time for kinetic As release from the sediment...
December 2018: Water Resources Research
Kevin G Wheeler, Jim W Hall, Gamal M Abdo, Simon J Dadson, Joseph R Kasprzyk, Rebecca Smith, Edith A Zagona
A water resource modeling process is demonstrated to support multistakeholder negotiations over transboundary management of the Nile River. This process addresses the challenge of identifying management options of new hydraulic infrastructure that potentially affects downstream coriparian nations and how the management of existing infrastructure can be adapted. The method includes an exploration of potential management decisions using a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm, intertwined with an iterative process of formulating cooperative strategies to overcome technical and political barriers faced in a transboundary negotiation...
November 2018: Water Resources Research
R Choudhury, B Nath, M R Khan, C Mahanta, T Ellis, A van Geen
Well testing in the floodplain of the Brahmaputra River in Golaghat and Jorhat districts of Assam, India, shows that groundwater arsenic (As) concentrations increase with distance from the river. To establish the origin of this pattern, an additional 900 wells <60 m deep were tested for As and 9 sites were drilled along a 35-km transect perpendicular to the river. The field data show no relation between groundwater As concentrations ranging from <1 to 660 μg/L along the transect and (a) As concentrations of <1-5 mg/kg in cuttings of aquifer sand recovered while drilling or (b) the degree of reduction of iron oxides in these cuttings...
October 2018: Water Resources Research
S Rasconi, R Ptacnik, M J Kainz
Rapid increase in lake temperature can cause a shift toward the dominance of warm temperature tolerant species, including Cyanobacteria that are deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supporting consumer growth and reproduction. To increase our understanding of how changes in physicochemical lake parameters affect phytoplankton composition and the provision of dietary quality to consumers in subalpine oligotrophic lakes, we conducted a multiannual study (2013-2015) in the 34-m-deep Lake Lunz and investigated interannual changes in (a) water temperature, transparency, and lake inflow; (b) seston (<30-μm particle size class) biomass and taxonomy; and (c) seston nutritional quality, assessed by its PUFA composition...
October 2018: Water Resources Research
Grey Nearing, Soni Yatheendradas, Wade Crow, Xiwu Zhan, Jicheng Liu, Fan Chen
Data assimilation is the application of Bayes' theorem to condition the states of a dynamical systems model on observations. Any real-world application of Bayes' theorem is approximate, and therefore we cannot expect that data assimilation will preserve all of the information available from models and observations. We outline a framework for measuring information in models, observations, and evaluation data in a way that allows us to quantify information loss during (necessarily imperfect) data assimilation...
September 2018: Water Resources Research
Yuan Xue, Barton A Forman, Rolf H Reichle
To estimate snow mass across North America, brightness temperature observations collected by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer from 2002 to 2011 were assimilated into the Catchment model using a support vector machine (SVM) as the observation operator and a one-dimensional ensemble Kalman filter. The performance of the assimilation system is evaluated through comparisons against ground-based measurements and reference snow products. In general, there are no statistically significant skill differences between the domain-averaged, model-only ("open loop", or OL) snow estimates and assimilation estimates...
September 2018: Water Resources Research
B Széles, M Broer, J Parajka, P Hogan, A Eder, P Strauss, G Blöschl
The objective of this study was to understand whether spatial differences in runoff generation mechanisms affect the magnitudes of diurnal streamflow fluctuations during low flow periods and which part of the catchment induces the diurnal streamflow signal. The spatiotemporal variability of the streamflow fluctuations observed at 12 locations in the 66-ha Hydrological Open Air Laboratory experimental catchment in Austria was explained by differences in the vegetation cover and runoff generation mechanisms. Almost a quarter of the volume associated with diurnal streamflow fluctuations at the catchment outlet was explained by transpiration from vegetation along the tributaries; more than three quarters was due to transpiration by the riparian forest along the main stream...
September 2018: Water Resources Research
Mukund Palat Rao, Edward R Cook, Benjamin I Cook, Jonathan G Palmer, Maria Uriart, Naresh Devineni, Upmanu Lall, Rosanne D D'Arrigo, Connie A Woodhouse, Moinuddin Ahmed, Muhammad Usama Zafar, Nasrullah Khan, Adam Khan, Muhammad Wahab
Our understanding of the full range of natural variability in streamflow, including how modern flow compares to the past, is poorly understood for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) because of short instrumental gauge records. To help address this challenge, we use Hierarchical Bayesian Regression (HBR) with partial pooling to develop six centuries long (1394-2008 C.E.) streamflow reconstructions at three UIB gauges (Doyian, Gilgit, and Kachora), concurrently demonstrating that HBR can be used to reconstruct short records with interspersed missing data...
August 2018: Water Resources Research
I G Pechlivanidis, H Gupta, T Bosshard
Uncertainties in hydro-climatic projections are (in part) related to various components of the production chain. An ensemble of numerous projections is usually considered to characterize the overall uncertainty; however in practice a small set of scenario combinations are constructed to provide users with a subset that is manageable for decision-making. Since projections are unavoidably uncertain, and multiple projections are typically informationally redundant to a considerable extent, it would be helpful to identify an informationally representative subset in a large model ensemble...
August 2018: Water Resources Research
Randal D Koster, Wade T Crow, Rolf H Reichle, Sarith P Mahanama
Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Level-2 soil moisture retrievals collected during 2015-2017 are used in isolation to estimate 10-day warm-season precipitation and streamflow totals within 145 medium-sized (2,000-10,000 km2 ) unregulated watersheds in the conterminous United States. The precipitation estimation algorithm, derived from a well documented approach, includes a locally-calibrated loss function component that significantly improves its performance. For the basin-scale water budget analysis, the precipitation and streamflow algorithms are calibrated with two years of SMAP retrievals in conjunction with observed precipitation and streamflow data and are then applied to SMAP retrievals alone during a third year...
July 2018: Water Resources Research
Chandrakanta Ojha, Manoochehr Shirzaei, Susanna Werth, Donald F Argus, Tom G Farr
The accelerated rate of decline in groundwater levels across California's Central Valley results from overdrafting and low rates of natural recharge and is exacerbated by droughts. The lack of observations with an adequate spatiotemporal resolution to constrain the evolution of groundwater resources poses severe challenges to water management efforts. Here we present SAR interferometric measurements of high-resolution vertical land motion across the valley, revealing multiscale patterns of aquifer hydrogeological properties and groundwater storage change...
July 2018: Water Resources Research
Thomas Sweijen, S Majid Hassanizadeh, Bruno Chareyre, Luwen Zhuang
Dynamics of drainage is analyzed for packings of spheres, using numerical experiments. For this purpose, a dynamic pore-scale model was developed to simulate water flow during drainage. The pore space inside a packing of spheres was extracted using regular triangulation, resulting in an assembly of grain-based tetrahedra. Then, pore units were constructed by identifying and merging tetrahedra that belong to the same pore, resulting in an assembly of pore units. Each pore unit was approximated by a volume-equivalent regular shape (e...
June 2018: Water Resources Research
J R Brooks, D M Mushet, M K Vanderhoof, S G Leibowitz, J R Christensen, B P Neff, D O Rosenberry, W D Rugh, L C Alexander
Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding the reliance of stream flow on inputs from wetlands. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water and remote sensing to examine wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity within the Pipestem Creek watershed, North Dakota, a watershed dominated by prairie-pothole wetlands. Pipestem Creek exhibited an evaporated-water signal that had approximately half the isotopic-enrichment signal found in most evaporatively enriched prairie-pothole wetlands...
March 9, 2018: Water Resources Research
M Carrel, V L Morales, M Dentz, N Derlon, E Morgenroth, M Holzner
Biofilms are ubiquitous bacterial communities that grow in various porous media including soils, trickling, and sand filters. In these environments, they play a central role in services ranging from degradation of pollutants to water purification. Biofilms dynamically change the pore structure of the medium through selective clogging of pores, a process known as bioclogging. This affects how solutes are transported and spread through the porous matrix, but the temporal changes to transport behavior during bioclogging are not well understood...
March 2018: Water Resources Research
Ajay Gajanan Bhave, Declan Conway, Suraje Dessai, David A Stainforth
Decision-Making Under Uncertainty (DMUU) approaches have been less utilized in developing countries than developed countries for water resources contexts. High climate vulnerability and rapid socioeconomic change often characterize developing country contexts, making DMUU approaches relevant. We develop an iterative multi-method DMUU approach, including scenario generation, coproduction with stakeholders and water resources modeling. We apply this approach to explore the robustness of adaptation options and pathways against future climate and socioeconomic uncertainties in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka, India...
February 2018: Water Resources Research
Ying Gao, Qingyang Lin, Branko Bijeljic, Martin J Blunt
We imaged the steady state flow of brine and decane in Bentheimer sandstone. We devised an experimental method based on differential imaging to examine how flow rate impacts impact the pore-scale distribution of fluids during coinjection. This allows us to elucidate flow regimes (connected, or breakup of the nonwetting phase pathways) for a range of fractional flows at two capillary numbers, Ca , namely 3.0 × 10-7 and 7.5 × 10-6 . At the lower Ca , for a fixed fractional flow, the two phases appear to flow in connected unchanging subnetworks of the pore space, consistent with conventional theory...
December 2017: Water Resources Research
L A Schifman, D L Herrmann, W D Shuster, A Ossola, A Garmestani, M E Hopton
Management of urban hydrologic processes using green infrastructure (GI) has largely focused on stormwater management. Thus, design and implementation of GI usually rely on physical site characteristics and local rainfall patterns, and do not typically account for human or social dimensions. This traditional approach leads to highly centralized stormwater management in a disconnected urban landscape, and can deemphasize additional benefits that GI offers, such as increased property value, greenspace aesthetics, heat island amelioration, carbon sequestration, and habitat for biodiversity...
December 1, 2017: Water Resources Research
Ying Lyu, Mark L Brusseau, Asma El Ouni, Juliana B Araujo, Xiaosi Su
The gas-absorption/chemical-reaction (GACR) method used in Chemical Engineering to quantify gas-liquid interfacial area in reactor systems is adapted for the first time to measure the effective air-water interfacial area of natural porous media. Experiments were conducted with the GACR method, and two standard methods (x-ray microtomographic imaging and interfacial partitioning tracer tests) for comparison, using model glass beads and a natural sand. The results of a series of experiments conducted under identical conditions demonstrated that the GACR method exhibited excellent repeatability for maintaining constant water saturation and for measurement of interfacial area (Aia )...
November 2017: Water Resources Research
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